Anna of Lorraine

Anna of Lorraine (25 July 1522 – 15 May 1568) was a princess of the House of Lorraine. She was Princess of Orange by her first marriage to René of Châlon, and Duchess of Aarschot by her second marriage to Philippe II of Croÿ.

Anna was the daughter of Antoine the Good, Duke of Lorraine and Renée of Bourbon-Montpensier. Her maternal grandparents were Gilbert of Bourbon, Count of Montpensier, and Clara Gonzaga. Her brothers were Francis I, Duke of Lorraine and Nicolas, Duke of Mercœur.

She married René of Châlon, Prince of Orange on 22 August 1540 at Bar-le-Duc.[1] They had a single daughter, Maria, born in 1544, who only lived three weeks and was buried in the Grote Kerk at Breda.

René died in 1544, and all of his lands were inherited by William the Silent, his cousin. Anna remarried to Philip II, Duke of Aarschot, on 9 July 1548. They had one son, Charles Philippe de Croÿ, born on 1 September 1549 in Brussels. He was the Prince of Croÿ and in 1580 married Diane de Dommartin (1550 – after 1635), Countess of Fontenoy-le-Château. He died on 25 November 1613 in Burgundy.

She died in Diest.

Anna of Lorraine (1522-1568), by Jan van Scorel
Anna of Lorraine (Jan van Scorel, 1542)

See also


  1. ^ Bietenholz & Deutscher 1995, p. 291.


  • Bietenholz, Peter G.; Deutscher, Thomas Brian, eds. (1995). "Rene of Chalon". Contemporaries of Erasmus: A Biographical Register of the Renaissance and Reformation. 3. University of Toronto Press.

Year 1522 (MDXXII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.


Year 1568 (MDLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Anna of Pomerania

Anna of Pomerania (also known as Anne de Croy et Aerschot, Anna von Croy und Aerschot, Anna von Pommern) (3 October 1590, Barth - 7 July 1660, Stolp) was Duchess-Consort of Croy and Havré, and allodial heiress of the extinct ducal house of Pomerania.

She was youngest daughter of Bogislaw XIII, Duke of Pomerania and Klara of Brunswick-Lüneburg. She was the last surviving member of the Griffins (Greifen).

In 1619 she married Ernst von Croÿ (1588–1620), prince and duke of Croÿ (1583–1620), an imperial general, he would however die the following year. Ernst was the son of Charles Philippe de Croÿ (1549–1613), who was the only son of Philippe II of Croÿ by his second wife, Anna of Lorraine.

Their son, Ernst Bogislaw von Croy (1620–1684), became the last Lutheran bishop of Kammin (now Kamień Pomorski).

Barbara Radziwiłł

Barbara Radziwiłł (Polish: Barbara Radziwiłłówna, Lithuanian: Barbora Radvilaitė; 6 December 1520/23 – 8 May 1551) was Queen of Poland and Grand Duchess of Lithuania as consort of Sigismund II Augustus, the last male monarch of the Jagiellon dynasty. Barbara, a great beauty and already widowed, became a royal mistress most likely in 1543 and they married in secret in July or August 1547. The marriage caused a scandal; it was vehemently opposed by Polish nobles, including Queen mother Bona Sforza. Sigismund Augustus, assisted by Barbara's cousin Mikołaj "the Black" Radziwiłł and brother Mikołaj "the Red" Radziwiłł, worked tirelessly to gain recognition of their marriage and to crown Barbara as Queen of Poland. They succeeded and Barbara's coronation was held on 7 December 1550 at Wawel Cathedral. However, her health was already failing and she died just five months later. Even though it was brief, her reign propelled the Radziwiłł family to new heights of political power and influence.Her contemporaries generally viewed Barbara in a negative light, accusing her of promiscuity and witchcraft. Her life became surrounded by many rumors and myths. She was a heroine of many legends in a wide range of literary works. From the 18th century, the life of Barbara became romanticized as the great tragic love affair. It has been used as an example of "love conquers all" with Bona Sforza often acting as the chief villain. It caught public imagination and has inspired many artists to create poems, plays, films, and other works. That made Barbara Radziwiłł one of the best known and most recognized women in the history of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Kingdom of Poland.

Cadaver Tomb of René of Chalon

The Cadaver Tomb of René of Chalon (French: Transi de René de Chalon, also known as the Memorial to the Heart of René de Chalon or The Skeleton) is a late Gothic period funerary monument, known as a transi, in the church of Saint-Étienne at Bar-le-Duc, in northeastern France. It consists of an altarpiece and a limestone statue of a putrefied and skinless corpse which stands upright and extends his left hand outwards. Completed sometime between 1544 and 1557, the majority of its construction is attributed to the French sculptor Ligier Richier. Other elements, including the coat of arms and funeral drapery, were added in the 16th and 18th centuries respectively.

The tomb dates from a period of societal anxiety over death, as plague, war and religious conflicts ravaged Europe. It was commissioned as the resting place of René of Chalon, Prince of Orange, son-in-law of Duke Antoine of Lorraine. René was killed aged 25 at the siege of St. Dizier on 15 July 1544, from a wound sustained the previous day. Richier presents him as an écorché, with his skin and muscles decayed, leaving him reduced to a skeleton. This apparently fulfilled his deathbed wish that his tomb depict his body as it would be three years after his death. His left arm is raised as if gesturing towards heaven. Supposedly, at one time his heart was held in a reliquary placed in the hand of the figure's raised arm. Unusually for contemporaneous objects of this type, his skeleton is standing, making it a "living corpse", an innovation that was to become highly influential. The tomb effigy is positioned above the carved marble and limestone altarpiece.

Designated a Monument historique on 18 June 1898, the tomb was moved for safekeeping to the Panthéon in Paris during the First World War, before being returned to Bar-le-Duc in 1920. Both the statue and altarpiece underwent extensive restoration between 1998 and 2003. Replicas of the statue are in the Musée Barrois in Bar-le-Duc and the Palais de Chaillot, Paris.

Charles Philippe de Croÿ, Marquis d’Havré

Charles Philippe of Croÿ (1 September 1549 – 23 November 1613 in Burgundy), Marquis of Havré, was a military and politician from the Southern Netherlands.

Charles Philippe de Rodoan

Charles Philippe de Rodoan, or in Dutch Karel Filips de Rodoan (1552–1616), was the third bishop of Middelburg and the fourth bishop of Bruges.

Charles Theodore, Prince of Salm

Charles Theodore Otto, Prince of Salm (German: Karl Theodor; 1645-1710), was Count of Salm-Salm since 1663 and Obersthofmeister at the Austrian Court.


Diest (Dutch pronunciation: [dist]) is a city and municipality located in the Belgian province of Flemish Brabant. Situated in the northeast of the Hageland region, Diest neighbours the provinces of Antwerp to its North, and Limburg to the East and is situated around 60 km from Brussels. The municipality comprises the city of Diest proper and the towns of Deurne, Kaggevinne, Molenstede, Schaffen and Webbekom. As of January 1, 2006, Diest had a total population of 22,845. The total area is 58.20 km² which gives a population density of 393 inhabitants per km².

Ernst Bogislaw von Croÿ

Ernst Bogislaw von Croÿ (26 August 1620, Finstingen (Fénétrange) – 6 February 1684, Königsberg) was a Lutheran Administrator of the Prince-Bishopric of Cammin and official in the service of Brandenburg-Prussia.

Hans Holbein the Younger

Hans Holbein the Younger (German: Hans Holbein der Jüngere; c. 1497 – between 7 October and 29 November 1543) was a German painter and printmaker who worked in a Northern Renaissance style, and is considered one of the greatest portraitists of the 16th century. He also produced religious art, satire, and Reformation propaganda, and he made a significant contribution to the history of book design. He is called "the Younger" to distinguish him from his father Hans Holbein the Elder, an accomplished painter of the Late Gothic school.

Holbein was born in Augsburg, but he worked mainly in Basel as a young artist. At first, he painted murals and religious works, designed stained glass windows, and printed books. He also painted an occasional portrait, making his international mark with portraits of humanist Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam. When the Reformation reached Basel, Holbein worked for reformist clients while continuing to serve traditional religious patrons. His Late Gothic style was enriched by artistic trends in Italy, France, and the Netherlands, as well as by Renaissance humanism. The result was a combined aesthetic uniquely his own.

Holbein travelled to England in 1526 in search of work, with a recommendation from Erasmus. He was welcomed into the humanist circle of Thomas More, where he quickly built a high reputation. He returned to Basel for four years, then resumed his career in England in 1532 under the patronage of Anne Boleyn and Thomas Cromwell. By 1535, he was King's Painter to Henry VIII of England. In this role, he produced portraits and festive decorations, as well as designs for jewellery, plate, and other precious objects. His portraits of the royal family and nobles are a record of the court in the years when Henry was asserting his supremacy over the Church of England.

Holbein's art was prized from early in his career. French poet and reformer Nicholas Bourbon (the elder) dubbed him "the Apelles of our time," a typical accolade at the time. Holbein has also been described as a great "one-off" of art history, since he founded no school. Some of his work was lost after his death, but much was collected, and he was recognised among the great portrait masters by the 19th century. Recent exhibitions have also highlighted his versatility. He created designs ranging from intricate jewellery to monumental frescoes.

Holbein's art has sometimes been called realist, since he drew and painted with a rare precision. His portraits were renowned in their time for their likeness, and it is through his eyes that many famous figures of his day are pictured today, such as Erasmus and More. He was never content with outward appearance, however; he embedded layers of symbolism, allusion, and paradox in his art, to the lasting fascination of scholars. In the view of art historian Ellis Waterhouse, his portraiture "remains unsurpassed for sureness and economy of statement, penetration into character, and a combined richness and purity of style".

Havré Castle

Havré Castle (French: Château d'Havré) is a ruined castle in the village of Havré in the town of Mons, province of Hainaut, Belgium.

House of Croÿ

The House of Croÿ (French pronunciation: ​[kʁu.i]) is a family of European mediatized nobility, which held a seat in the Imperial Diet from 1486, and was elevated to the rank of Princes of the Holy Roman Empire in 1594. In 1913, the family had branches in Belgium, France, Austria and Prussia.This dynastic house, which originally adopted its name from the Château de Crouy-Saint-Pierre in French Picardy, claimed descent from the Hungarian Prince Marc, who allegedly settled in France in 1147, where he married an heiress to the barony of Croÿ. The Croÿ family rose to prominence under the Dukes of Burgundy. Later, they became actively involved in the complex politics of France, Spain, Austria, and the Low Countries.

Among the more illustrious members of the House of Croÿ were two bishop-dukes of Cambrai, two cardinals (one being also the Archbishop of Toledo and another being the Archbishop of Rouen), five bishops (those of Therouanne, Tournai, Cammin, Arras, and Ypres), one prime minister of Philip the Good, one finance minister, archchancellor, chief admiral, godfather and tutor of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V (himself godfather to another Croÿ), one Grand-Bouteiller, one Grand-Maitre and one Marshal of France; one Grand Equerry of the King of Spain, several imperial field marshals and twenty generals, four finance ministers of the Netherlands, two governors of the Netherlands and Belgium, one Russian field marshal; numerous ministers, ambassadors and senators in France, Austria, Belgium, and a record of thirty-two knights of the Order of the Golden Fleece.

The head of the house bears the title of duke, with all the other members titled as princes or princesses. All of them bear the predicate of Serene Highness.

Philip Hoby

Sir Philip Hoby (also Hobby or Hobbye) (1505 – 31 May 1558) was a 16th-century English Ambassador to the Holy Roman Empire and Flanders.

He was born probably at Leominster, England, the son of William Hoby of Leominster by his first wife, Catherine Forster. He was the half-brother of Sir Thomas Hoby. Philip Hoby became a diplomat, largely thanks to the support he gave to the Protestant Reformation during the reign of King Henry VIII. By 1540 he had married Elizabeth Stonor, daughter of Walter Stonor of Hawton, Nottinghamshire and Fenny Compton, widow of Sir William Compton and of Walter Walshe. They had no children.He travelled to Spain and Portugal in the royal service. On 10 March 1538 he arrived at Brussels with the painter Hans Holbein the younger. Thomas Cromwell had sent them to make a portrait of Christina, Duchess of Milan for Henry VIII. The English resident in Brussels, John Hutton, had already obtained a portrait, but realising this portrait was not as perfect as one made by Master Haunce, "a man very excellent in makyng of phisanymies," he recalled his messenger. Hoby was introduced to a courtier of the Regent of the Netherlands, Lord Benedict Court, and they spoke together in Italian. Benedict, who was Grand Master of the Duchess' house, then made the arrangements for Holbein to have a sitting of three hours with the Duchess, where he "proved himself the master of his science." Hoby and Holbein departed the same night taking leave of the Duchess, (making a formal farewell), but not to the Lady Regent. Henry received the portrait of Christina on 18 March 1538 and was delighted.

On a second trip to France, Hoby and Holbein painted the Princess Margaret of France, and perhaps Mary of Bourbon, then they arrived at Joinville in France at the end of August 1538. They wanted a portrait of Louise de Guise, daughter of Antoinette, Duchess of Guise. Hoby mentioned that they had been to Nancy. Antoinette guessed they had obtained the portrait of Anna of Lorraine there, and joked with her daughter, the Queen of Scotland, that soon either her sister or her cousin would become her neighbour by marrying Henry VIII.By 1542, he was a gentlemen usher of the King's Privy Chamber, and was involved in the persecution of Jews. In 1543, however, Hoby was briefly held in the Fleet Prison on suspicion of heretical beliefs. Following the siege of Boulogne, Hoby was knighted and received gifts of property, including some of the profits from the Dissolution of the Monasteries. In 1545, he became Master of the Ordnance in the North, and in 1547, Master-General of the Ordnance, a post he held until 1554. In 1547 he replaced John Cock as MP for Cardiff Boroughs when Cock resigned to sit for Calne. In 1548, he succeeded Bishop Thomas Thirlby as ambassador to the court of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. During this period, he helped plot the downfall of the Lord Protector, Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset.

In 1551, Hoby was involved in attempts to negotiate a marriage between King Edward VI and Elizabeth, the daughter of King Henry II of France. He was also trusted to negotiate loans with from merchants in Antwerp, and was involved in a diplomatic mission to Flanders. He was admitted to the Privy Council in March 1552. The manor of Bisham Abbey in Berkshire was given to him, at the expense of the former queen, Anne of Cleves.

In 1553, Hoby was again at the court of Charles V, trying to negotiate a peace between him and Henry II of France. Shortly afterwards, he became ambassador to Flanders. During the brief reign of Lady Jane Grey, Hoby appears to have supported her. He was recalled by Queen Mary on her accession, but he managed to retain her favour. In June 1554, he was sent to Brussels on a diplomatic mission, but was allowed to travel to Liege and Pau for his health. In June 1555, he was staying with Sir John Cheke at Padua, and went on from there to visit Sir John Masone, the English ambassador at Antwerp. He returned home in 1556. Sir Philip died at his house in Blackfriars, London and was buried in Bisham Church where there is a fine effigial monument to him and his brother.

Hoby was the uncle of the brothers Edward and Thomas Posthumous Hoby.

Philippe II de Croÿ

Philip II de Croÿ (1496–1549) was Seigneur de Croÿ, Count of Porcéan and first Duke of Aarschot.

Philip belonged to the powerful House of Croÿ. He was the eldest son of Henry de Croy, and Charlotte de Châteaubriand. His grandfather was Philip I of Croy, his uncle William II de Croÿ, chief tutor and First Chamberlain to Charles V, and his younger brother was William III de Croy, Archbishop of Toledo.

Philippe II de Croÿ succeeded to the County of Porcéan upon his father's death in 1514. In 1521 he inherited the titles of his uncle William : amongst others, Duke of Soria and Archi, and Count of Beaumont.

Like his predecessors, he was Governor of Hainault and Senior Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece, but it is as Charles V's general that he is best remembered. He fought against the French in the Italian War of 1521–1526, and played an important role in the conquest of Tournai (1521).On April 1, 1533 Charles V created Philippe ("our cousin", as he styled him) Duke of Aarschot and Grandee of Spain First Class. Earlier, he had become Marquess of Renty and exchanged the lordship of Longwy in Lorraine for that of Havré, which his descendants would develop as a family nest.

Prince of Orange

Prince of Orange (or Princess of Orange if the holder is female) is a title originally associated with the sovereign Principality of Orange, in what is now southern France. Under the Treaty of Utrecht of 1713, Frederick William I of Prussia ceded the Principality of Orange to King Louis XIV of France (while retaining the title as part of his dynastic titulature). After William III of England died without children, a dispute arose between Johan Willem Friso and Frederick I of Prussia, which was settled in the Treaty of Partition (1732); consequently, Friso's son, William IV had to share use of the title "Prince of Orange" (which had accumulated prestige in the Netherlands and throughout the Protestant world) with Frederick William I of Prussia. The title is traditionally borne by the heir apparent of the Dutch monarch. The title descends via absolute primogeniture since 1983, meaning that its holder can be either Prince or Princess of Orange.

The Dutch royal dynasty, the House of Orange-Nassau, is not the only family to claim the dynastical title. Rival claims to the title have been made by German emperors and kings of the House of Hohenzollern and by the head of the French noble family of Mailly. The current users of the title are Princess Catharina-Amalia of the Netherlands (Orange-Nassau), Georg Friedrich, Prince of Prussia (Hohenzollern), and Guy, Marquis de Mailly-Nesle (Mailly).

Princess of Orange (by marriage)

This is a list of women who held the title Princess of Orange by marriage.

Princess of Orange is the title used by the female heirs apparent and, prior to 2002, spouses of male heirs apparent. The present Princess of Orange, Catharina-Amalia, is the first suo jure holder since Marie (1393–1417), who co-reigned with her husband John (1393–1418). From 1171 to 1815 the title was also used by women married to the Sovereign Princes of Orange during their reigns, and then by wives of heirs apparent to the Dutch throne. On 30 April 2013, after the accession of her father, Willem-Alexander, to the Dutch throne, Catharina-Amalia became Princess of Orange and heir apparent to the throne.

René of Chalon

René of Chalon (5 February 1519 – 15 July 1544), also known as Renatus of Chalon, was a Prince of Orange and stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht and Gelre.

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