Anna Freud

Anna Freud (3 December 1895 – 9 October 1982) was an Austrian-British psychoanalyst.[1] She was born in Vienna, the sixth and youngest child of Sigmund Freud and Martha Bernays. She followed the path of her father and contributed to the field of psychoanalysis. Alongside Melanie Klein, she may be considered the founder of psychoanalytic child psychology.[2]

Compared to her father, her work emphasized the importance of the ego and its normal "developmental lines" as well as incorporating a distinctive emphasis on collaborative work across a range of analytical and observational contexts.[3]

After the Freud family were forced to leave Vienna in 1938, with the advent of the Nazi regime in Austria, she resumed her psychoanalytic practice and her pioneering work in child psychology in London, establishing the Hampstead Child Therapy Course and Clinic in 1952 (now renamed the Anna Freud National Centre for Children and Families) as a centre for therapy, training and research work.

Anna Freud
Anna Freud 1957
Freud in 1957
Born3 December 1895
Died9 October 1982 (aged 86)
London, England
Resting placeGolders Green Crematorium
NationalityAustrian (1895–1946)
British (1946–1982)
OccupationPsychoanalyst
Known forChild analysis, Ego psychology
Partner(s)Dorothy Burlingham
Parent(s)Sigmund Freud
Martha Bernays
RelativesFreud family

Life and career

Vienna years

Anna Freud was born in Vienna, Austria-Hungary on 3 December 1895. She was the youngest daughter of Sigmund Freud and Martha Bernays.[4] She grew up in "comfortable bourgeois circumstances."[5] Anna Freud appears to have had a comparatively unhappy childhood, in which she "never made a close or pleasurable relationship with her mother, and was instead nurtured by their Catholic nurse Josephine."[6] She had difficulties getting along with her siblings, specifically with her sister Sophie Freud. Sophie, who was the more attractive child, represented a threat in the struggle for the affection of their father: "the two young Freuds developed their version of a common sisterly division of territories: 'beauty' and 'brains',[7] and their father once spoke of her 'age-old jealousy of Sophie.'[8]

As well as this rivalry between the two sisters, Anna had other difficulties growing up – 'a somewhat troubled youngster who complained to her father in candid letters how all sorts of unreasonable thoughts and feelings plagued her'.[9] It seems that 'in general, she was relentlessly competitive with her siblings...and was repeatedly sent to health farms for thorough rest, salutary walks, and some extra pounds to fill out her all too slender shape':[10] she may have suffered from depression which caused eating disorders.[11]

The close relationship between Anna and her father was different from the rest of her family. She was a lively child with a reputation for mischief. Freud wrote to his friend Wilhelm Fliess in 1899: "Anna has become downright beautiful through naughtiness."[12] Freud is said to refer to her in his diaries more than others in the family.

Later on Anna Freud would say that she didn't learn much in school; instead she learned from her father and his guests at home. This was how she picked up Hebrew, German, English, French and Italian. At the age of 15, she started reading her father's work and discovered a dream she had 'at the age of nineteen months ... appeared in The Interpretation of Dreams.[13] Commentators have noted how 'in the dream of little Anna ... little Anna only hallucinates forbidden objects'.[14] Anna finished her education at the Cottage Lyceum in Vienna in 1912. Suffering from a depression and anorexia,[15] she was very insecure about what to do in the future.

A visit to Britain in the autumn of 1914, which her father's colleague, Ernest Jones, chaperoned, became of concern to Freud when he learned of the latter's romantic intentions. His advice to Jones, in a letter of 22 July 1914, was that his daughter "... does not claim to be treated as a woman, being still far away from sexual longings and rather refusing man. There is an outspoken understanding between me and her that she should not consider marriage or the preliminaries before she gets two or three years older".[16]

In 1914 she passed the test to work as a teaching apprentice at her old school, the Cottage Lyceum. From 1915 to 1917, she worked as a teaching apprentice for third, fourth, and fifth graders. For the school year 1917-18, she began 'her first venture as Klassenlehrerin (head teacher) for the second grade'.[17] For her performance during the school years 1915-18 she was highly praised by her superior, Salka Goldman who 'wrote ... she showed "great zeal "for all her responsibilities, but she was particularly appreciated for her "conscientious preparations" and for her "gift for teaching" ... being such a success that she was invited to stay on with a regular four-year contract starting in the fall of 1918'.[17]

Early psychoanalytic work

Sigmund en Anna
Sigmund Freud with his daughter Anna in 1913

After experiencing multiple episodes of illness Anna Freud resigned her teaching post in 1920. This enabled her to pursue further her growing interest in her father's work and writings.[18] From 1918 to 1921 and from 1924 to 1929 she was in analysis with her father.[19]

In 1922 she presented her paper "Beating Fantasies and Daydreams" to the Vienna Psychoanalytical Society and became a member of the society. In 1923, she began her own psychoanalytical practice with children and by 1925 she was teaching at the Vienna Psychoanalytic Training Institute on the technique of child analysis. From 1925 until 1934, she was the Secretary of the International Psychoanalytical Association while she continued child analysis and contributed to seminars and conferences on the subject. In 1935, she became director of the Vienna Psychoanalytical Training Institute and the following year she published her influential study of the "ways and means by which the ego wards off depression, displeasure and anxiety", The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defence. It became a founding work of ego psychology and established Freud's reputation as a pioneering theoretician.[20]

Among the first children Anna Freud took into analysis were those of Dorothy Burlingham. In 1925 Burlingham, heiress to the Tiffany luxury jewellery retailer, had arrived in Vienna from New York with her four children and entered analysis firstly with Theodore Reik and then, with a view to training in child analysis, with Freud himself.[21] Anna and Dorothy soon developed "intimate relations that closely resembled those of lesbians", though Anna "categorically denied the existence of a sexual relationship".[22] After the Burlinghams moved into the same apartment block as the Freuds in 1929 she became, in effect, the children's stepparent.[23]

London years

In 1938, following the Anschluss in which Nazi Germany occupied Austria, Anna was taken to Gestapo headquarters in Vienna for questioning on the activities of the International Psychoanalytical Association. Unknown to her father, she and her brother Martin had obtained Veronal from Max Schur, the family doctor, in sufficient quantities to commit suicide if faced with torture or internment. However, she survived her interrogation ordeal and returned to the family home. After her father had reluctantly accepted the urgent need to leave Vienna, she set about organising the complex immigration process for the family in liaison with Ernest Jones, the then President of the International Psychoanalytical Association, who secured the immigration permits that eventually led to the family establishing their new home in London at 20 Maresfield Gardens, Hampstead.[24]

Freud Museum London 2
Anna Freud's London home, now dedicated to the life and work of her father as the Freud Museum.

In 1941 Freud and Burlingham collaborated in establishing the Hampstead War Nursery for children whose lives had been disrupted by the war. Premises were acquired in Hampstead, North London and in Essex to provide education and residential care with mothers encouraged to visit as often as practicable. Many for the staff were recruited from the exiled Austro-German diaspora. Lectures and seminars on psychoanalytic theory and practice were regular features of staff training. Freud and Burlingham went on to publish a series of observational studies on child development based on the work of the Nursery with a focus on the impact of stress on children and their capacity to find substitute affections among peers in the absence of their parents.[25] The Bulldog Banks Home, run on similar lines to the Nursery, was established after the war for a group of children who had survived the concentration camps. Building on and developing their war-time work with children, Freud and Burlingham established the Hampstead Child Therapy Course and Clinic (now the Anna Freud National Centre for Children and Families) in 1952 as a centre for therapy, training and research work.

During the war years the hostility between Anna Freud and Melanie Klein and their respective followers in the British Psychoanalytic Society (BPS) grew more intense. Their disagreements, which dated back to the 1920s, centered around the theory of the genesis of the super-ego and the consequent clinical approach to the pre-Oedipal child; Klein argued for play as an equivalent to free association in adult analyses. Anna Freud opposed any such equivalence, proposing an educative intervention with the child until an appropriate level of ego development was reached at the Oedipal stage. Klein held this to be a collusive inhibition of analytical work with the child. To avoid a terminal split in the BPS Ernest Jones, its President, chaired a number of "extraordinary business meetings" with the aim of defusing the conflict, and these continued during the war years. The meetings, which became known as the Controversial Discussions, were established on a more regular basis from 1942. In 1944 there finally emerged a compromise agreement which allowed the Freudians, Klienians and a group of "Independents" to access their own training and accreditation programmes.[26]

From the 1950s until the end of her life Freud travelled regularly to the United States to lecture, to teach and to visit friends. During the 1970s she was concerned with the problems of emotionally deprived and socially disadvantaged children, and she studied deviations and delays in development. At Yale Law School, she taught seminars on crime and the family: this led to a transatlantic collaboration with Joseph Goldstein and Albert J. Solnit on children's needs and the law, published in three volumes as Beyond the Best Interests of the Child (1973), Before the Best Interests of the Child (1979), and In the Best Interests of the Child (1986).

Freud naturalised as a British subject on 22 July 1946.[27] She was elected as a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1959[28] and in 1973 she was made an Honorary President of the International Psychoanalytic Association.

Freud died in London on 9 October 1982. She was cremated at Golders Green Crematorium and her ashes placed in a marble shelf next to her parents' ancient Greek funeral urn.[29] Her life-partner Dorothy Burlingham and several other members of the Freud family also rest there. In 1986 her London home of forty years was transformed, according to her wishes, into the Freud Museum, dedicated to the memory of her father.

Contributions to psychoanalysis

Anna Freud 1956
Freud in 1956

Anna Freud was a prolific writer, contributing articles on psychoanalysis to many different publications throughout her lifetime. Her first publication was titled, An Introduction to Psychoanalysis: Lectures for Child Analysts and Teachers 1922-1935[30], and was the result of four different lectures she was delivering at the time, to teachers and caretakers of young children in Vienna.[31]

Anna Freud's first article Beating fantasies and daydreams (1922),[30] 'drew in part on her own inner life, but th[at] ... made her contribution no less scientific'.[32] In it she explained how, 'Daydreaming, which consciously may be designed to suppress masturbation, is mainly unconsciously an elaboration of the original masturbatory fantasies'.[33] Her father, Sigmund Freud, had earlier covered very similar ground in '"A Child is Being Beaten"' – 'they both used material from her analysis as clinical illustration in their sometimes complementary papers'[34] – in which he highlighted a female case where 'an elaborate superstructure of day-dreams, which was of great significance for the life of the person concerned, had grown up over the masochistic beating-phantasy ... [one] which almost rose to the level of a work of art'.[35]

'Her views on child development, which she expounded in 1927 in her first book, An Introduction to the Technique of Child Analysis, clashed with those of Melanie Klein ... [who] was departing from the developmental schedule that Freud, and his analyst daughter, found most plausible'.[36] In particular, Anna Freud's belief that 'In children's analysis, the transference plays a different role ... and the analyst not only "represents mother" but is still an original second mother in the life of the child'[37] became something of an orthodoxy over much of the psychoanalytic world.

For her next major work in 1936, her 'classic monograph on ego psychology and defense mechanisms, Anna Freud drew on her own clinical experience, but relied on her father's writings as the principal and authoritative source of her theoretical insights'.[38] Here her 'cataloguing of regression, repression, reaction formation, isolation, undoing, projection, introjection, turning against the self, reversal and sublimation'[39] helped establish the importance of the ego functions and the concept of defence mechanisms, continuing the greater emphasis on the ego of her father – 'We should like to learn more about the ego'[40] – during his final decades.

Special attention was paid in it to later childhood and adolescent developments – 'I have always been more attracted to the latency period than the pre-Oedipal phases'[41] – emphasising how the 'increased intellectual, scientific, and philosophical interests of this period represent attempts at mastering the drives'.[42] The problem posed by physiological maturation has been stated forcefully by Anna Freud. "Aggressive impulses are intensified to the point of complete unruliness, hunger becomes voracity... The reaction-formations, which seemed to be firmly established in the structure of the ego, threaten to fall to pieces".[43]

Selma Fraiberg's tribute of 1959 that 'The writings of Anna Freud on ego psychology and her studies in early child development have illuminated the world of childhood for workers in the most varied professions and have been for me my introduction and most valuable guide[44] spoke at that time for most of psychoanalysis outside the Kleinian heartland.

Arguably, however, it was in Anna Freud's London years 'that she wrote her most distinguished psychoanalytic papers – including "About Losing and Being Lost", which everyone should read regardless of their interest in psychoanalysis'.[45] Her description therein of 'simultaneous urges to remain loyal to the dead and to turn towards new ties with the living'[46] may perhaps reflect her own mourning process after her father's recent death.

Focusing thereafter on research, observation and treatment of children, Anna Freud established a group of prominent child developmental analysts (which included Erik Erikson, Edith Jacobson and Margaret Mahler) who noticed that children's symptoms were ultimately analogue to personality disorders among adults and thus often related to developmental stages. Her book Normality and Pathology in Childhood (1965) summarised 'the use of developmental lines charting theoretical normal growth "from dependency to emotional self-reliance"'.[47] Through these then revolutionary ideas Anna provided us with a comprehensive developmental theory and the concept of developmental lines, which combined her father's important drive model with more recent object relations theories emphasizing the importance of parents in child development processes.

Nevertheless, her basic loyalty to her father's work remained unimpaired, and it might indeed be said that 'she devoted her life to protecting her father's legacy ... In her theoretical work there would be little criticism of him, and she would make what is still the finest contribution to the psychoanalytic understanding of passivity',[48] or what she termed 'altruistic surrender ... excessive concern and anxiety for the lives of his love objects'.[49]

Sigmund Freud biographer Louis Breger observed that Anna Freud's publications 'contain few original ideas and are, for the most part, a slavish application of her father's theories.'[50]

Jacques Lacan called 'Anna Freud the plumb line of psychoanalysis. 'Well, the plumb line doesn't make a building ... [but] it allows us to gauge the vertical of certain problems.'[51]

With psychoanalysis continuing to move away from classical Freudianism to other concerns, it may still be salutary to heed Anna Freud's warning about the potential loss of her father's 'emphasis on conflict within the individual person, the aims, ideas and ideals battling with the drives to keep the individual within a civilized community. It has become modern to water this down to every individual's longing for perfect unity with his mother ... There is an enormous amount that gets lost this way'.[52]

Opinions on psychoanalysis

Dear John ...,

You asked me what I consider essential personal qualities in a future psychoanalyst. The answer is comparatively simple. If you want to be a real psychoanalyst you have to have a great love of the truth, scientific truth as well as personal truth, and you have to place this appreciation of truth higher than any discomfort at meeting unpleasant facts, whether they belong to the world outside or to your own inner person.

Further, I think that a psychoanalyst should have... interests... beyond the limits of the medical field... in facts that belong to sociology, religion, literature, [and] history,... [otherwise] his outlook on... his patient will remain too narrow. This point contains... the necessary preparations beyond the requirements made on candidates of psychoanalysis in the institutes. You ought to be a great reader and become acquainted with the literature of many countries and cultures. In the great literary figures you will find people who know at least as much of human nature as the psychiatrists and psychologists try to do.

Does that answer your question?[53]

In perhaps not dissimilar vein, she wrote in 1954 that 'With due respect for the necessary strictest handling and interpretation of the transference, I feel still that we should leave room somewhere for the realization that analyst and patient are also two real people, of equal adult status, in a real personal relationship to each other'.[54]

Selected works

  • Freud, Anna (1966–1980). The Writings of Anna Freud: 8 Volumes. New York: Indiana University of Pennsylvania (These volumes include most of Freud's papers.)
    • Vol. 1. Introduction to Psychoanalysis: Lectures for Child Analysts and Teachers (1922–1935)
    • Vol. 2. Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense (1936); (Revised edition: 1966 (US), 1968 (UK))
    • Vol. 3. Infants Without Families Reports on the Hampstead Nurseries
    • Vol. 4. Indications for Child Analysis and Other Papers (1945–1956)
    • Vol. 5. Research at the Hampstead Child-Therapy Clinic and Other Papers (1956–1965)
    • Vol. 6. Normality and Pathology in Childhood: Assessments of Development (1965)
    • Vol. 7. Problems of Psychoanalytic Training, Diagnosis, and the Technique of Therapy (1966–1970)
    • Vol. 8. Psychoanalytic Psychology of Normal Development
  • Freud in collaboration with Sophie Dann: "An Experiment in Group Upbringing", in: The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, VI, 1951.[55]

In popular culture

Anna Freud (4625084946)
Blue plaque for Freud at 20 Maresfield Gardens

In 2002, Freud was honoured with a blue plaque, by English Heritage, at 20 Maresfield Gardens, Hampstead in London, her home between 1938 and 1982.

On 3 December 2014, Freud was the subject of a Google Doodle.[56][57]

The final track on the 2001 eponymous debut album of indie-rock band The National is titled "Anna Freud".[58]

The novel Hysterical: Anna Freud's Story, by Rebecca Coffey was published by She Writes Press in 2014.[59][60]

References

  1. ^ "Anna Freud | Austrian-British psychoanalyst". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2016-04-26.
  2. ^ Shapiro, Michael (2000). The Jewish 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Jews of All Time. p. 276.
  3. ^ Young-Bruehl 2008, pp. 460–61
  4. ^ Young-Bruehl, Elisabeth (2008). Anna Freud: A Biography. London: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-14023-1. pp. 23-29
  5. ^ "Anna Freud, Psychoanalyst, Dies in London at 86" www.nytimes.com. Retrieved 2016-04-26.
  6. ^ Phillips, p. 92
  7. ^ Young-Bruehl, quoted in Phillips, p. 93
  8. ^ Gay, p. 432
  9. ^ Gay, Peter (1990) Reading Freud. London. Yale University Press. ISBN 0300046812. p. 171
  10. ^ Gay, p. 430
  11. ^ Young-Bruehl, p. 59
  12. ^ Anna Freud: Her Life and Work. Freud Museum Publications (1993) p. 1
  13. ^ Gay, pp. 108–9
  14. ^ Lacan, Jacques (1994) The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis. London. ISBN 0-393-00079-6. p. 155
  15. ^ chapitre X, second part named "L'antigone vierge et martyre" de Michel Onfray, in "Le crépuscule d'une idole. L'affabulation freudienne." Grasset, Paris, 2010.
  16. ^ Paskauskas, R. Andrew (Editor). The Complete Correspondence of Sigmund Freud and Ernest Jones, 1908-1939. Cambridge, Massachusetts/London: Belknap Press 1993.
  17. ^ a b Young-Bruehl, Elisabeth (2008). Anna Freud: A Biography. Yale University Press. pp. 76–78. ISBN 978-0300140231.
  18. ^ Young-Bruehl, Elisabeth (2008). Anna Freud: A Biography. Yale University Press. pp. 76–78
  19. ^ Roudinesco (2016) Freud: In His Time and Ours. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, p. 556
  20. ^ Anna Freud 1895 – 1938 Archived 19 May 2004 at the Wayback Machine
  21. ^ Young-Bruehl 2008, pp. 132–36
  22. ^ Roudinesco (2016) Freud: In His Time and Ours. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, p. 249
  23. ^ Young-Bruehl, Elisabeth (2008). Anna Freud: A Biography. London: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-14023-1. p. 138
  24. ^ Young-Bruehl, p. 227-28
  25. ^ Young-Bruehl (2008) pp. 247-8
  26. ^ Young-Bruehl (2008) pp. 266-271
  27. ^ "No. 37734". The London Gazette. 20 September 1946. p. 4754.
  28. ^ "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter F" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
  29. ^ Eric T. Pengelley, Daphne M. Pengelley. A Traveler's Guide to the History of Biology and Medicine. Davis, Calif.: Trevor Hill Press, 1986, p. 86.
  30. ^ a b "THE WRITINGS OF ANNA FREUD" (PDF). International Universities Press Inc.
  31. ^ Aldridge, Jerry (2 July 2014). "Beyond Psychoanalysis: The Contributions of Anna Freud to Applied Developmental Psychology" (PDF). SOP TRANSACTIONS ON PSYCHOLOGY. 1: 25. ISSN 2373-8634. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 June 2014.
  32. ^ Gay, p. 436
  33. ^ Fenichel, p. 232
  34. ^ Phillips, p. 97
  35. ^ Sigmund Freud, On Psychopathology (Middlesex 1987) p. 176-7
  36. ^ Gay, pp. 540–1 and 468
  37. ^ Fenichel, p. 576
  38. ^ Gay, p. 441
  39. ^ Paul Brinich/Christopher Shelley, The Self and Personality (Buckingham 2002) p. 27
  40. ^ Sigmund Freud, On Metapsychology (Penguin 1987) p. 357
  41. ^ Anna Freud, quoted in Young-Bruehl, p. 455
  42. ^ Fenichel, p. 112
  43. ^ Erikson, Erik H. (1973) Childhood and Society. Middlesex. p. 298
  44. ^ Fraiberg, Selma (1987) The Magic Years. New York. p. xii
  45. ^ Phillips, p. 98
  46. ^ Quoted in Appignanesi, Lisa and Forrester, John (2005) Freud's Women. ISBN 0753819163. p. 302
  47. ^ Anna Freud: Her Life and Work. Freud Museum Publications (1993) p. 5
  48. ^ Phillips, pp. 88 and 96
  49. ^ Quoted in Appignanesi, Lisa and Forrester, John (2005) Freud's Women. ISBN 0753819163. p. 294
  50. ^ Breger, Louis (2000) Freud: Darkness in the Midst of Vision. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0471078581. p. 431
  51. ^ Miller, Jacques-Alain (1988) The Seminar of Jacques Lacan: Book I. Cambridge. ISBN 0393306976. p. 63
  52. ^ Anna Freud, in Young-Bruehl, p. 457
  53. ^ From a letter written by Anna Freud in. Kohut, Heinz (1968). "Heinz Kohut: The evaluation of applicants for psychoanalytic training". The International Journal of Psycho-Analysis And Bulletin of the International Psycho-Analytical Association. 49: 548–554 (552–553).
  54. ^ Quoted in Malcolm, Janet (1988) Psychoanalysis: The Impossible Profession. Karnac Books. ISBN 0946439419 p. 40
  55. ^ The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child Series, Yale University Press.
  56. ^ "Anna Freud: This is why child psychoanalyst and daughter of Sigmund Freud has been given Google doodle". The Independent. Retrieved 3 December 2014.
  57. ^ Anna Freud's 119th Birthday. 3 December 2014. google.com
  58. ^ "The National - The National - Songs, Reviews, Credits - AllMusic". AllMusic. Retrieved 8 October 2018.
  59. ^ "'Hysterical: Anna Freud's Story' by Rebecca Coffey". 13 April 2014. Retrieved 8 October 2018.
  60. ^ "Hysterical: Anna Freud's Story". Retrieved 8 October 2018.
  • Edmundson, M. (2007). "Freud and Anna". The Chronicle of Higher Education, 54(4).
  • The Freud Museum. (n.d.). Retrieved February 17, 2015.
  • Fisher, C., & Lerner, R. (2005). Encyclopedia of Applied Developmental Science (Vol. 2, p. 1360). Thousands Oaks, California: Sage Publications.

Bibliography

  • Fenichel, Otto (1946). The Psychoanalytic Theory of Neurosis. London. ISBN 0203981588.
  • Gay, Peter (1988). Freud: A Life for Our Time. London: J. M. Dent & Sons. ISBN 0-333-48638-2.
  • Phillips, Adam (1994). On Flirtation. London: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0674634403.
  • Young-Bruehl, Elisabeth (2008). Anna Freud: A Biography. London: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-14023-1.

Further reading

  • Coles, Robert (1992). Anna Freud: The Dream of Psychoanalysis. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-57707-0.
  • Peters, Uwe Henrik (1985). Anna Freud: A Life Dedicated to Children. New York: Schocken Books. ISBN 0-8052-3910-3.
  • Coffey, Rebecca (2014). Hysterical: Anna Freud's Story. New York: She Writes Press. ISBN 9781938314421.
  • Burlingham, Michael John (1989). Last Tiffany: A Biography of Dorothy Tiffany Burlingham. New York: Atheneum. ISBN 978-0689118708.
  • Edgcumbe, Rose (2000). Anna Freud: a view of development, disturbance and therapeutic techniques. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0415101998.
  • Tyrkus, Michael (1997). Gay & lesbian biography. Detroit: St. James Press. pp. 175–177. ISBN 9781558622371.

External links

Anna Freud Centre

The Anna Freud Centre (now renamed the Anna Freud National Centre for Children and Families) is a child mental health research, training and treatment centre located in London, United Kingdom. It is one of only a small number of places in the UK where children can receive full psychoanalysis. It is closely associated with University College London (UCL) and Yale University.

British Psychoanalytical Society

The British Psychoanalytical Society was founded by the British psychiatrist Ernest Jones as the London Psychoanalytical Society on 30 October 1913.

Controversial discussions

The controversial discussions were a protracted series of meetings of the British Psychoanalytical Society which took place between October 1942 and February 1944 between the Viennese school and the supporters of Melanie Klein. They led to a tripartite division of training in the society after the war with the three groups of Kleinians, Anna Freudians, and the Middle (or later Independent) Group.

In these sessions the differences between classical Freudian analysis and newer Kleinian theory were argued with considerable vehemence. The Freudian side was principally represented by Anna Freud, who was resistant to the revisions of theory and method proposed by Klein as a result of her work as an analyst of young children. The Klein Group included Susan Isaacs, Joan Riviere, Paula Heimann, and Roger Money-Kyrle. The Anna Freud Group included Kate Friedlander, and Willie Hoffer. The "Middle Group", who tried to apply a moderating force included Ella Freeman Sharpe, James Strachey, Sylvia Payne, Donald Winnicott, William Gillespie, Marjorie Brierley, and later, Michael Balint.

The resolution finally achieved was political rather than theoretical, with an agreement being reached according to which both sides undertook never to attempt a take-over of the society. The agreement stands to this day, with Freudian and Kleinian approaches co-existing side-by-side within the institution and upheld in separate training divisions. The discussions were thus foundational in defining the nature of psychoanalytic thought and practice in the UK.

Dorothy Burlingham

Dorothy Trimble Tiffany Burlingham (11 October 1891 – 19 November 1979) was an American child psychoanalyst and educator. A lifelong friend and partner of child psychoanalyst Anna Freud, Burlingham is known for her joint work with Freud on the analysis of children. During the 1960s and 70s, Burlingham directed the Research Group on the Study of Blind Children at the Hampstead Clinic in London. Her 1979 article on blind infants, "To Be Blind in a Sighted World," published in The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, is considered to be a landmark of empathic scientific observation.Burlingham was the daughter of Louise Wakeman Knox and artist Louis Comfort Tiffany, and the granddaughter of Charles Lewis Tiffany, founder of Tiffany & Co.

Ego psychology

Ego psychology is a school of psychoanalysis rooted in Sigmund Freud's structural id-ego-superego model of the mind.

An individual interacts with the external world as well as responds to internal forces. Many psychoanalysts use a theoretical construct called the ego to explain how that is done through various ego functions. Adherents of ego psychology focus on the ego's normal and pathological development, its management of libidinal and aggressive impulses, and its adaptation to reality.

Erik Erikson

Erik Homburger Erikson (born Erik Salomonsen; 15 June 1902 – 12 May 1994) was a German-American developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst known for his theory on psychological development of human beings. He may be most famous for coining the phrase identity crisis. His son, Kai T. Erikson, is a noted American sociologist.

Despite lacking a bachelor's degree, Erikson served as a professor at prominent institutions, including Harvard, University of California (UC Berkeley), and Yale. A Review of General Psychology survey, published in 2002, ranked Erikson as the 12th most cited psychologist of the 20th century.

Ernest Jones

Alfred Ernest Jones (1 January 1879 – 11 February 1958) was a Welsh neurologist and psychoanalyst. A lifelong friend and colleague of Sigmund Freud from their first meeting in 1908, he became his official biographer. Jones was the first English-speaking practitioner of psychoanalysis and became its leading exponent in the English-speaking world. As President of both the International Psychoanalytical Association and the British Psycho-Analytical Society in the 1920s and 1930s, Jones exercised a formative influence in the establishment of their organisations, institutions and publications.

Ernst Kris

Ernst Kris (April 26, 1900 – February 27, 1957) was an Austrian psychoanalyst and art historian.

Eva Rosenfeld

Eva Marie Rosenfeld (5 January 1892 – 17 August 1977) was a Jewish-German-British psychoanalyst, an analysand of Sigmund Freud and Melanie Klein.

Although born in New York City, Eva Rosenfeld spent her youth in Berlin where her father Theodor Rosenfeld was a theater producer, one of the members of the Freie Bühne theatre. When Eva was 15 years old, her father died and she left school to begin her career as a social worker. In 1911 she married her cousin, the lawyer Valentin Rosenfeld (1886–1970). Valentin studied in Vienna and attented the lectures held by Freud. Through her husband, Eva first became aware of psychoanalysis. When they married, they settled in Vienna.

Eva and Valentin Rosenfeld had four children, but three of them died in young age. The loss of children — especially the 15-year-old daughter Rosemarie in 1927 — shadowed the later life of Eva Rosenfeld.

After World War I Rosenfeld opened a school for girls. Eva Rosenfeld and Anna Freud became close friends sometime in 1924 through Siegfried Bernfeld. In 1927 Rosenfeld and Anna Freud founded (together with Dorothy Burlingham) a school in Vienna where most of the students underwent psychoanalysis, usually with Anna Freud.

Eva Rosenfeld was a patient of Sigmund Freud from 1929 until 1931. After her divorce she returned to Berlin in 1931 and assisted Ernst Simmel at a psychoanalytical sanatorium. Her formal education as a psychoanalyst was completed in Berlin. In 1936 she moved to England, where she worked the rest of her life as a psychotherapist and supervising analyst; her analysands include Benjamin B. Rubinstein, Nina Coltart and Maria W. Piers. She was further analyzed by Melanie Klein in 1938–1941 and this damaged her relations with the Freud family.

Freud Museum

The Freud Museum in London is a museum dedicated to Sigmund Freud, located in the house where Freud lived with his family during the last year of his life. In 1938, after escaping Nazi annexation of Austria he came to London via Paris and stayed for a short while at 39 Elsworthy Road before moving to 20 Maresfield Gardens, where the museum is situated. Although he died a year later in the same house, his daughter Anna Freud continued to stay there until her death in 1982. It was her wish that after her death it be converted into a museum. It was opened to the public in July 1986.

Freud continued to work in London and it was here that he completed his book Moses and Monotheism. He also maintained his practice in this home and saw a number of his patients for analysis. The centrepiece of the museum is the couch brought from Berggasse 19, Vienna on which his patients were asked to say whatever came to their mind without consciously selecting information, named the free association technique by him.

There are two other Freud Museums, one in Vienna, and another in Příbor, the Czech Republic, in the house where Sigmund Freud was born. The latter was opened by president Václav Klaus and four of Freud's great-grandsons.

Freud family

The family of Sigmund Freud, the pioneer of psychoanalysis, lived in Austria and Germany until the 1930s before emigrating to England, Canada and the United States. Several of Freud's descendants have become well known in different fields.

Identification (psychology)

Identification is a psychological process whereby the individual assimilates an aspect, property, or attribute of the other and is transformed wholly or partially by the model that other provides. It is by means of a series of identifications that the personality is constituted and specified. The roots of the concept can be found in Freud's writings. The three most prominent concepts of identification as described by Freud are: primary identification, narcissistic (secondary) identification and partial (secondary) identification.While "in the psychoanalytic literature there is agreement that the core meaning of identification is simple – to be like or to become like another", it has also been adjudged '"the most perplexing clinical/theoretical area" in psychoanalysis'.

Masud Khan

Mohammed Masud Raza Khan (21 July 1924 – June 1989) was a Pakistani British psychoanalyst. His training analyst was Donald Winnicott. Masud Raza Khan was a protege of Sigmund Freud's daughter Anna Freud, and a long-time collaborator with Donald Winnicott. Indeed, Anna Freud insisted that Khan understood her father's work better than anyone else and spoke in defence of her star student whenever he aroused the Society's ire.

Peter Fonagy

Peter Fonagy, (born August 14 1952) is a Hungarian-born British psychoanalyst and clinical psychologist. He studied clinical psychology at University College London. He is Professor of Contemporary Psychoanalysis and Developmental Science and Head of the Division of Psychology and Language Sciences at University College London, Chief Executive of the Anna Freud Centre, a training and supervising analyst in the British Psycho-Analytical Society in child and adult analysis, a Fellow of the British Academy, the Faculty of Medical Sciences, the Academy of Social Sciences and a registrant of the BPC.

His clinical interests centre on issues of borderline psychopathology, violence and early attachment relationships. His work attempts to integrate empirical research with psychoanalytic theory. He has published over 500 papers, 270 chapters and has authored 19 and edited 17 books.Fonagy was appointed Officer of the Order of the British Empire (OBE) in the 2013 Birthday Honours for services to psychoanalysis and clinical psychology. and received the Wiley Prize of the British Academy for Lifetime Achievements

Robert Waelder

Robert Waelder (1900–1967) was a noted Austrian psychoanalyst and member of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society. Waelder studied under Anna Freud and Hermann Nunberg. He was known for his work bringing together psychoanalysis and politics and wrote extensively on the subject.

Statue of Sigmund Freud, Hampstead

A seated bronze statue of Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, is situated on a limestone plinth at the junction of Fitzjohn's Avenue and Belsize Lane in Hampstead, North London. Freud lived at nearby 20 Maresfield Gardens, for the last months of his life. His house is now the Freud Museum.

The sculptor Oscar Nemon was born and educated in Osijek before moving to work in Vienna in the 1920s. He had read Freud in his teens, initially approached Freud as a young sculptor and was rejected by him. After Nemon had gained his reputation in Brussels, he was approached by Freud's assistant Paul Federn in 1931 to sculpt Freud for his 75th birthday. Nemon finished busts of Freud in wood, bronze and plaster, and Freud chose to keep the wooden portrait for himself. The wooden bust is on display at the Freud Museum in Hampstead. Nemon visited Freud for a final time in London in 1938. His last sittings with Freud would create a "...harsher more abstracted portrait" which would become the head for the seated bronze in Hampstead.Freud wrote in his diary in July 1931 of Nemon's portrait that "The head, which the gaunt, goatee-bearded artist has fashioned from the dirt like the good Lord is very good and an astonishingly life-like impression of me." On seeing the head of Freud, his housekeeper Paula Fichtl said that Nemon had made Freud look "too angry", to which Freud responded that "...But I am angry. I am angry with humanity."The bronze, slightly larger than life size, was commissioned in the 1960s, with funds raised by a committee chaired by Donald Winnicott. The sculpture depicts Freud with his head turn to one side as if in thought, with his hands in his waistcoat pockets. Freud's daughter, Anna Freud, attended the unveiling of the statue in October 1970, accompanied by children from her Hampstead Clinic (now the Anna Freud Centre). The statue was originally located in "an alcove behind Swiss Cottage Library, where it was virtually hidden away from the public." The Freud Museum arranged for the statue to be moved to its present location in 1998.It became a Grade II listed building in January 2016.

The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child

The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child is an annual journal, published by Taylor & Francis, which contains scholarly articles on topics related to child psychiatry and psychoanalysis. The journal was founded in 1945 by Anna Freud, Heinz Hartmann, and Ernst Kris, and was previously published by Yale University Press.

The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud

The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud is a complete edition of the works of Sigmund Freud. It was translated from the German under the general editorship of James Strachey, in collaboration with Anna Freud, assisted by Alix Strachey and Alan Tyson. The Standard Edition (usually abbreviated as SE) consists of 24 volumes, and it was originally published by the Hogarth Press in London in 1953–1974. Unlike the German Gesammelte Werke, the SE contains critical footnotes by the editors. This editorial material has later been included in the German-language Studienausgabe edition of Freud.

Walter Charles Langer

Walter Charles Langer (February 5, 1899 – July 4, 1981) was an American psychoanalyst who was best known for preparing a psychological analysis of Adolf Hitler in 1943. Langer studied the field of psychoanalysis at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts where he also worked as a professor upon completion of his education. The field of psychoanalytics later led Langer to be employed by the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) where in the year of 1943 he prepared a psychological analysis of Adolf Hitler. Within this analysis, Langer successfully predicted Hitler's suicide as the "most plausible outcome", as well as the possibility of a military coup against Hitler well before the assassination attempt of 1944. Following his psychological analysis and Hitler's death, Langer wrote a report surrounding the events of Adolf Hitler's life titled The Mind of Adolf Hitler: A Secret Wartime Report. This publication is Langer's most notable work; however, he has also produced writings such as Psychology and Human Living, A Psychological analysis of Adolf Hitler: His Life and Legend, and Dissecting the Hitler Mind.

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