Ann Katharine Swynford Lambton, OBE, FBA (8 February 1912 – 19 July 2008), usually known as A.K.S. Lambton or "Nancy" Lambton, was a British historian and expert on medieval and early modern Persian history, Persian language, Islamic political theory, and Persian social organisation. She was an acknowledged authority on land tenure and reform in Iran (including Seljuq, Mongol, Safavid and Qajar administration and institutions, and local and tribal histories).
From 1939–45, she was Press attaché of the British Legation to Tehran and then Professor of Persian at SOAS from 1953–79 succeeding Arthur Arberry as holder of that chair. In 1942, she was awarded the OBE and, later, honorary DLitt degrees from the University of Durham and the University of Cambridge. She was also an honorary fellow of New Hall, Cambridge, SOAS and the University of London. She wrote several books on subjects ranging from Persian grammar and vocabulary to Qajar land reform. Ann Lambton played a role in overthrowing the democratically elected government of Mohammed Mossadegh. After the decision to nationalize Iran's oil interests in 1951, she advised the British government to undermine the authority of Mossadegh's regime. She proposed that Oxford University professor R. C. Zaehner should go to Iran and begin covert operations. In 1953, with the help of the CIA, the regime of Mossadegh was overthrown and the Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi was restored to the throne.
As Professor Emeritus of the Diocese of Newcastle and Chairman of the Iran Diocesan Association, Lambton served on the Middle East Committee and advised Archbishops on inter-faith matters. She delivered Lent lectures biannually to clergy and laity for many years. She was later awarded the Cross of St Augustine in 2004 by the Archbishop of Canterbury in acknowledgement of her work and commitment to Christianity and the Church of England. She was an honorary Life Member of the Middle East Studies Association of North America. At the University of Durham, the Centre of Iranian Studies has instituted an annual Prof. A. K. S. Lambton honorary lectureship. Prof. Lambton delivered the inaugural lecture in this series in 2001.
Lambton died at her home in Kirknewton on 19 July 2008 at the age of 96 after a long illness.
Events from the year 1912 in the United Kingdom.2008 in the United Kingdom
Events from the year 2008 in the United Kingdom.A Different Loyalty
A Different Loyalty is a 2004 drama film inspired by the story of British traitor Kim Philby's love affair and marriage to Eleanor Brewer in Beirut and his eventual defection to the Soviet Union. The story takes place in the 1960s and stars Sharon Stone and Rupert Everett. In the film, the characters have fictitious names. The film was entered into the 26th Moscow International Film Festival.Though not credited, the story is based on Eleanor Brewer Philby's 1967 book Kim Philby: The Spy I Loved, published in 1967. The screenplay was written by Jim Piddock. It was a Canada/UK/United States co-production. A Different Loyalty was not released theatrically in the United States.Abbas Amanat
Abbas Amanat (Persian: عباس امانت) (born November 14, 1947) is William Graham Sumner Professor of History at Yale University.Cross of St Augustine
The Cross of St Augustine is an award of merit in the gift of the Archbishop of Canterbury. It is awarded to members of the Anglican Communion who have made significant contributions to the life of the worldwide Communion, or to a particular autonomous church within Anglicanism. It is also awarded to members of other traditions who have made a conspicuous contribution to ecumenism. It is the second highest international award for service within Anglicanism.Deaths in July 2008
The following is a list of notable deaths in July 2008.
Entries for each day are listed alphabetically by surname. A typical entry lists information in the following sequence:
Name, age, country of citizenship at birth, subsequent country of citizenship (if applicable), reason for notability, cause of death (if known), and reference.Ehsan Yarshater
Ehsan Yarshater (Persian: احسان يارشاطر, April 3, 1920 – September 1, 2018) was an Iranian historian and linguist who specialized in iranology. He was the founder and director of The Center for Iranian Studies, and Hagop Kevorkian Professor Emeritus of Iranian Studies at Columbia University.
He was the first Persian full-time professor at a U.S. university since World War II.He was one of the 40 editors of the Encyclopædia Iranica, with articles by 300 authors from various academic institutions. He also edited the third volume of the Cambridge History of Iran, comprising the history of the Seleucid, the Parthians, and the Sassanians, and a volume entitled Persian Literature. He was also an editor of a sixteen-volume series named History of Persian Literature. He had won several International awards for scholarship, including a UNESCO award in 1959, and the Giorgio Levi Della Vida Medal for Achievement in Islamic Studies from UCLA in 1991. Lecture series in his name have been instituted at the University of London, and the University of California, Los Angeles, and at the Centre National de Recherche Scientifique in Paris.Frances Horner
Frances Jane Horner (née Graham; 28 March 1854 – 1 March 1940) was a British hostess, member of the Souls social group, and a patron of the arts. She was depicted several times by Edward Burne-Jones, and commissioned works by Edwin Lutyens, Eric Gill, and William Nicholson.Iranian studies
Iranian studies (Persian: ايرانشناسی Īrānšenāsī), also referred to as Iranology and Iranistics, is an interdisciplinary field dealing with the study of the history, literature, art and culture of Iranian peoples. It is a part of the wider field of Oriental studies.
Iranian studies is broader than and distinct from Persian studies, which is the study of the modern Persian language (known as Farsi or Parsi to Iranians) and literature specifically. The discipline of Iranian Studies focuses on broad trends in culture, history, language and other aspects of not only Persians, but also a variety of other contemporary and historical Iranian peoples, such as Azeris, Kurds, Lurs, Gilakis, Talysh, Tajiks, Pashtuns, Ossetians, Baluchis, Scythians, Sarmatians, Alans, Parthians, Sogdians, Bactrians, Mazandaranis, etc.Ismah
‘Iṣmah or ‘Isma (Arabic: عِصْمَة; literally, "protection") is the concept of incorruptible innocence, immunity from sin, or moral infallibility in Islamic theology, and which is especially prominent in Shia Islam. In Shia theology, ismah is characteristic of prophets, imams, and angels. When attributed to human beings, ismah means "the ability of avoiding acts of disobedience, in spite of having the power to commit them". Along with a pure constitution, excellent qualities, firmness against opponents, and tranquility (as-Sakinah), ismah is a divine grace bestowed by God.An infallible (Arabic: معصوم ma`sūm) is someone who is free from error in leading people to belief, in perceiving divine knowledge, and in practical matters. Prophets must be immune from all errors and sins in order to perform their mission of upholding and promoting the divine religion, interpreting the Qur'an, and establishing a wholesome social system.
According to Twelver Shia, The Fourteen Infallibles (Arabic: معصومون Ma‘ṣūmūn) "divinely bestowed free from error and sin" include Muhammad, his daughter Fatimah, and the Twelve Imams. Ismaili also attribute ismah to Ismaili imāms and Fatimah, daughter of Muhammad, while Zaidis do not attribute the quality to the Zaidi imams.The doctrine of ismah has been rejected by some Muslims, such as the Kharijites who cited chapter 48: 2 of the Qur'an as evidence for the rejection.Sunnis interpret ismah to mean that prophets are immune from telling lies (intentionally or unintentionally), of being Kafir (infidel) before or after their assignment, and of being unable to commit other sins intentionally. In other aspects, opinions diverge. Most Sunnis believe that it is possible for the prophets to unintentionally commit sin, while the minority believe that it is not.The purity of Ahl al-Bayt, the family of Muhammad, is manifested by the verse of purification in the Qur'an. The development of Shi'ite theology in the period between the death of Muhammad and the disappearance of the Twelfth Imam extends this concept of purity and originates the concept of ismah. The concept of the immunity from sin (ma'sum) of the imams, the Imamiyyah, perhaps began in the first half of the second century AH. Shia scholars of the fourth and the fifth centuries AH extended the infallibility of Muḥammad and the Twelve Imams until the doctrine came to mean that they could not have committed any sin or inadvertent error either before or after they assumed office.Jizya
Jizya or jizyah (Arabic: جزية jizya IPA: [d͡ʒɪzjæ]) is a per capita yearly tax historically levied on non-Muslim subjects, called the dhimma, permanently residing in Muslim lands governed by Islamic law. Muslim jurists required adult, free, sane males among the dhimma community to pay the jizya, while exempting women, children, elders, handicapped, the ill, the insane, monks, hermits, slaves, and musta'mins—non-Muslim foreigners who only temporarily reside in Muslim lands. Dhimmis who chose to join military service were also exempted from payment, as were those who could not afford to pay.The Quran and hadiths mention jizya without specifying its rate or amount. However, scholars largely agree that early Muslim rulers adapted existing systems of taxation and tribute that were established under previous rulers of the conquered lands, such as those of the Byzantine and Sasanian empires.The application of jizya varied in the course of Islamic history. Together with kharāj, a term that was sometimes used interchangeably with jizya, taxes levied on non-Muslim subjects were among the main sources of revenues collected by some Islamic polities, such as the Ottoman Empire. Jizya rate was usually a fixed annual amount depending on the financial capability of the payer. Sources comparing taxes levied on Muslims and jizya differ as to their relative burden depending on time, place, specific taxes under consideration, and other factors.Historically, the jizya tax has been understood in Islam as a fee for protection provided by the Muslim ruler to non-Muslims, for the exemption from military service for non-Muslims, for the permission to practice a non-Muslim faith with some communal autonomy in a Muslim state, and as material proof of the non-Muslims' submission to the Muslim state and its laws. Jizya has also been understood by some as a ritual humiliation of the non-Muslims in a Muslim state for not converting to Islam, while others argue that if it were meant to be a punishment for the dhimmis' unbelief then monks and the clergy wouldn't have been exempted.The term appears in the Quran referring to a tax or tribute from People of the Book specifically Jews and Christians.
Followers of other religions like Zoroastrians and Hindus too were later integrated into the category of dhimmis and required to pay jizya. In the Indian Subcontinent the practice was eradicated by the 18th century. It almost vanished during the 20th century with disappearance of Islamic states and spread of religious tolerance. The tax is no longer imposed by nation states in the Islamic world, although there are reported cases of organizations such as the Pakistani Taliban and ISIS attempting to revive the practice.Some modern Islamic scholars have argued that jizya should be paid by non-Muslim subjects of an Islamic state, offering different rationales. For example, Sayyid Qutb saw it as punishment for "polytheism", while Abdul Rahman Doi viewed it as a counterpart of the zakat tax paid by Muslims. According to Khaled Abou El Fadl, moderate Muslims reject the dhimma system, which encompasses jizya, as inappropriate for the age of nation-states and democracies.John Hunwick
John Owen Hunwick (born 1936, Chard, Somerset, England, died April 1, 2015 in Skokie IL), was a noted professor, author, Africanist. He has published several books, articles and journals in the African Studies field. He was formerly Professor Emeritus at Northwestern University, having retired in 2004 after 23 years of service.Kirknewton, Northumberland
Kirknewton is a Northumbrian village to the north of the county of Northumberland, about 6 miles (10 km) from the town of Wooler and roughly the same distance to the Scottish Borders. The village lies in the valley of Glendale, which takes its name from the River Glen, whose source at the confluence of the Bowmont Water and the College Burn lies at the west end of the village. The population as taken at the 2011 Census was less than 100. Details are maintained in the parish of Akeld.List of School of Oriental and African Studies people
This is a list of School of Oriental and African Studies people, including alumni, former and current members of staff. The School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) at the University of London has many notable alumni in positions of authority around the world.List of women linguists
This is a list of women linguists by their country of origin. A linguist in this context is a specialist in linguistics, an academic discipline concerned with the study of natural languages. The word is sometimes also used ambiguously to refer to polyglots (people fluent in several languages), grammarians (experts on prescriptive grammar), or language professionals such as translators or interpreters. These are considered distinct professions and are not included in this list.Robert Charles Zaehner
Robert Charles Zaehner (1913–1974) was a British academic whose field of study was Eastern religions. He could read in the original language many sacred texts, e.g., Hindu, Buddhist, Islamic. Earlier, starting in World War II, he had served as an intelligence officer in Iran. At Oxford University his first writings had been on the Zoroastrian religion and its texts. Appointed Spalding Professor, his books addressed such subjects as mystical experience (articulating a comparative typology), Hinduism, comparative religion, Christianity and other religions, and ethics. He translated the Bhagavad-Gita, providing an extensive commentary based on Hindu tradition and sources. His last books addressed similar issues in popular culture, which led to his talks on the BBC. He published under the name R. C. Zaehner.Roger Savory
Roger Savory is a British-born Professor Emeritus at the University of Toronto who is an Iranologist and specialist on the Safavids. His numerous writings on Safavid political, military history, administration, bureaucracy, and diplomacy-translated into several language have had a great impact in understanding this period.Twelver
Twelver (Arabic: اثنا عشرية, translit. Athnā‘ashariyyah or Ithnā‘ashariyyah; Persian: شیعه دوازدهامامی, pronounced [ʃiːʔe-je dævɑzdæh emɑmiː]) or Imamiyyah (Arabic: إمامية) is the largest branch of Shia Islam. The term Twelver refers to its adherents' belief in twelve divinely ordained leaders, known as the Twelve Imams, and their belief that the last Imam, Muhammad al-Mahdi, lives in occultation and will reappear as the promised Mahdi. According to Shia tradition, the Mahdi's tenure will coincide with the Second Coming of Jesus Christ (Isa), who is to assist the Mahdi against the Masih ad-Dajjal (literally, the "false Messiah" or Antichrist).
Twelvers believe that the Twelve Imams are the spiritual and political successors to the Islamic prophet Muhammad. According to the theology of Twelvers, the Twelve Imams are exemplary human individuals who not only rule over the community with justice, but are also able to preserve and interpret sharia and the esoteric meaning of the Quran. The words and deeds (Sunnah) of Muhammad and the Imams are a guide and model for the community to follow; as a result, Muhammad and the Imams must be free from error and sin, a doctrine known as Ismah or infallibility, and must be chosen by divine decree, or nass, through Muhammad.Twelver Shiism is the largest branch of Shia Islam, with about 85% of all Shias, or approximately 150 to 200 million Twelver Shias.Twelvers make majorities among Muslims in Iran, Azerbaijan, Iraq, Lebanon, Bahrain. Also, they make significant minorities in India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Bangladesh, Kuwait, Oman, UAE, Qatar, Nigeria, Chad, and Tanzania.
Iran is the only country with state religion as (Twelver) Shia Islam.
Twelvers share many tenets of Shia with related sects, such as the belief in Imams, but the Ismaili Shias believe in a different number of Imams and, for the most part, a different path of succession regarding the Imamate. They also differ in the role and overall definition of an Imam. Twelvers are also distinguished from Ismailis by their belief in Muhammad's status as the "Seal of the Prophets" (Khatam an-Nabiyyin), in rejecting the possibility of abrogation of Sharia laws, and in considering both esoteric and exoteric aspects of the Quran. Alevis in Turkey and Albania, and Alawites in Syria and Lebanon, share belief in the Twelve Imams with Twelvers, but their theological doctrines are markedly different.