Anime music video

An anime music video (AMV), known in wasei-eigo as MAD (music anime douga), typically is a fan-made music video consisting of clips from one or more Japanese animated shows or movies set to an audio track, often songs or promotional trailer audio. The term is generally specific to Japanese anime, however, it can occasionally include American animation footage or video game footage. AMVs are not official music videos released by the musicians, they are fan compositions which synchronize edited video clips with an audio track. AMVs are most commonly posted and distributed over the Internet through or YouTube. Anime conventions frequently run AMV contests who usually show the finalists/winner's AMVs.

AMVs should not be confused with music videos that employ original, professionally made animation (such as numerous music videos for songs by Iron Maiden), or with such short music video films (such as Japanese duo Chage and Aska's song "On Your Mark" that was produced by the film company Studio Ghibli). AMVs should also not be confused with fan-made "general animation" videos using non-Japanese animated video sources like western cartoons, or with the practice of vidding in Western media fandom, which evolved convergently and has a distinct history and fan culture. Parallels can be drawn between AMVs and songvids, non-animated fan-made videos using footage from movies, television series, or other sources.

The first anime music video was created in 1982 by 21-year-old Jim Kaposztas.[1] Kaposztas hooked up two VCRs to each other and edited the most violent scenes from Star Blazers to "All You Need Is Love" by The Beatles to produce a humorous effect.[2]

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AKROSS Con Screening (2009)


The creation of an AMV centers on using various video editing styles to create a feeling of synchronization and unity. Some examples include:

  • Raw Editing: Using basic zooming in and out "effects" along with simple transitions.
  • FX (Effects) Editing: This style consists of tons of visual effects. This can be accomplished in programs such as Sony Vegas or Adobe After Effects.
  • Timing Editing: The editor edits the clips such that the anime footage is in sync with the lyrics or beats (from the song) to create a perfect harmony. (E.g. Matching beats to gunshot scenes or making an anime character's lips move to make it seem like the character is saying or singing those words in the AMV)
  • Flow Editing: This requires the editor to use transitions and to keep the AMV flowing rather than to have it consist of rough cuts and choppy parts.
  • Animation Editing: Although it sounds similar to the term AMV editing, it is a new style where editors take a still image and animate it (making it move) (This also applies to Manga Music Videos (MMVs) which are similar to AMVs, instead they use manga as the main source of footage).
  • Masking: This style requires the editor to remove the background from the anime scene they would like to add effects to. It is a painstaking and time-consuming process.


John Oppliger of AnimeNation has noted that fan-produced AMVs are popular mostly with Western fans but not with Japanese fans. One reason he cited was that Western fans experience a "more purely" visual experience inasmuch as most Western fans cannot understand the Japanese language, the original language of most anime, and as a result "the visuals make a greater impact" on the senses.[3] The second reason he cited was that Westerners are "encouraged by social pressure to grow out of cartoons and comics during the onset of adolescence" whereas Japanese natives grow up with animation "as a constant companion"; as a result, English-speaking fans tend to utilize and reconstruct existing anime to create AMVs whereas Japanese fans "are more intuitively inclined" to create or expand on existing manga and anime.[4]

Legal issues

The Japanese culture is generally permissive with regard to the appropriation of ideas. Works such as dōjinshi, unauthorized comics continuing the story of an official comic series, are actually encouraged by many anime makers.[5] These dōjinshi take an original copyrighted work and expand upon the story, allowing the characters to continue on after, before, or during the original story. Most anime producers encourage this practice, as it expands their series. Some see it as a tribute while others see it from a business viewpoint that it draws in more support for the anime than it would have had otherwise. Some manga artists create their own dōjinshi, such as Maki Murakami's "circle" Crocodile Ave (Gravitation).

It seems that American anime distributors hold a similar sort of view in regards to AMVs. In an interview with site AnimeNewsNetwork, FUNimation Entertainment copyright specialist Evan Flournay said they generally see AMVs as a sort of free advertising. "The basic thinking going into fan videos is thus: if it whets the audience's appetite, we'll leave it alone. But if it sates the audience's appetite, it needs to come down," he says.[6][7]

In recent years there has been an increased demand, primarily on the part of the record industry, for the removal of AMVs from sites like YouTube and, with particular regard to YouTube due to its relative popularity as well as its for-profit status. Public discussions and perspectives give varying accounts of exactly how widespread these actions have become. Most notably in November 2005, the administrator of (Phade) was contacted by Wind-up Records, requesting the removal of content featuring the work of the bands Creed, Evanescence, and Seether.[8]

While music labels and corporations generally see AMVs in negative light, often the actual musical artists in question do not hold the same views. A number of AMV editors report to having had positive contact with various artists, including Trey Gunn and Mae.[9] Japanese electronic duo Boom Boom Satellites even teamed with site AMVJ Remix Sessions to sanction an AMV competition to help promote one of their singles, going so far as to provide the source material for editors to use. The winner's video would be featured during one of the pair's tours. The first of this competition took place in January 2008 using the song "Easy Action" and the anime movie Vexille.[10] A second competition took place later that year in November using the song "Shut Up And Explode" and the anime Xam'd: Lost Memories.[11]

In his book Code: Version 2.0 and a subsequent talk in Google's AtGoogleTalks Author's Series,[12] Creative Commons founder Lawrence Lessig specifically mentions AMVs as an example when dealing with the legality and creative nature of digital remix culture.


  • Movie Anime Dōjinshi – Japanese term for the same thing, typically posted on Niconico
  • Gaming Music Video – similar, but using game footage instead of anime
  • Cosplay Music Video – only live-action with the performance of cosplayers
  • Vidding


  1. ^ Macias, Patrick (2007-11-15). "Remix this: anime gets hijacked". The Japan Times. Retrieved 2009-10-20.
  2. ^ AnimeCons TV (2 October 2011). Jim Kaposztas Interview. AnimeCons TV. Retrieved 1 June 2018.
  3. ^ Oppliger, John (2003-09-08). "Ask John: Why Are Anime Music Videos so Popular?". AnimeNation. Archived from the original on 2009-04-30. Retrieved 2009-09-08.
  4. ^ Oppliger, John (2005-06-23). "Ask John: Why Hasn't Doujinshi Caught on Outside of Japan?". AnimeNation. Archived from the original on 2012-01-11. Retrieved 2009-09-08.
  5. ^ Lessig, Lawrence (March 25, 2004). "Chapter One: Creators". Free Culture. Retrieved 2009-09-08. This is the phenomenon of dōjinshi. Dōjinshi are also comics, but they are a kind of copycat comic. The creation of dōjinshi is governed by a creators' ethic stating that a work is not dōjinshi if it is just a copy; the artist must make a contribution to the art he copies by transforming it either subtly or significantly... These copycat comics exhibit significant market penetration as well. More than 33,000 "circles" of creators from across Japan produce dōjinshi. More than 450,000 Japanese come together twice a year, in the largest public gathering in the country, to exchange and sell them. This market exists in parallel to the mainstream commercial manga market. In some ways, it obviously competes with that market, but there is no sustained effort by those who control the commercial manga market to shut the dōjinshi market down. It flourishes, despite the competition and despite the law."
  6. ^ "Evanescence, Seether and Creed videos no longer available". Discussion on the forum, thread created November 15, 2005.
  7. ^ "Musical artists who like AMVs". Discussion on the forum, thread created March 11, 2009.
  8. ^ "BoomBoomSatellites x Vexille Promotion Contest". Discussion on the forum, thread created January 16, 2008.
  9. ^ "BoomBoomSatellites x Xam'd Promotion Contest". Discussion on the forum, thread created November 20, 2008.
  10. ^ "Authors@Google: Lawrence Lessig". Lawrence Lessig, author of "Free Culture," visits Google's New York office as part of the Authors@Google series. This event took place on October 3, 2006.

External links


AMV is a three-letter initialism with multiple meanings, as described below:

AMV, the IATA airport code for Amderma Airport (Амдерма), Russia

AMV (TV program), an Australian television series

AMV (TV station), an Australian television station

AMV video format, a proprietary video file format

A Motley Vision, a Mormon criticism blog

Abandoned medieval village, another designation for the UK's deserted medieval villages (DMVs)

Abbott Mead Vickers BBDO, a British advertising agency

Alfalfa mosaic virus, a plant virus of the family Bromoviridae

All Mobile Video, a sound stage owner in New York City

Anime music video, a video consisting of anime clips arranged to a song

Anterior medullary velum, a part of the structure of the brain

Patria AMV, a Finnish military vehicle

Avian myeloblastosis

Alternative manga

Alternative manga are Japanese comics that are published outside the more commercial manga market, or which have different art styles, themes, and narratives to those found in the more popular manga magazines.

Animation music

Animation music is original music written specifically to accompany an animation. One of the first American animation songs is "Minnie's Yoo Hoo" (1930). In Japan, anime music has reached the top 10 of the weekly Oricon Singles Chart.

Anime Festival Wichita

Anime Festival Wichita (Anime Festival of Wichita or AFW) is an annual three-day anime convention held in June or July at the Hyatt Regency Wichita in Wichita, Kansas.


Animefest is the oldest anime convention in The Czech Republic, Europe.

Animefest was held for the first time in 2004. It was and still is organised by Brněnští Otaku (translated as Brno otaku), at first a free group of otaku. As time went by, the convention became too large and for better organisation, a civic association Brněnští Otaku was founded in 2007.

Animefest is one of the two largest conventions held in The Czech Republic, having around the same number of visitors as Advík, which is held in Prague, in July.

Animefest holds Anime Music Video competition, the main prize of it being a plush doll of Totoro. This competition is held yearly since the first year of Animefest and because of that it is considered the main event of the year for most of Czech AMV creators. From 2010 to 2016, cosplay contest at Animefest is part of EuroCosplay event. Since 2017, group cosplay contest is qualifier for Clara Cow's Cosplay Cup. Since 2018, Animefest cosplay contest is part of European Cosplay Gathering.

Film comic

A film comic (フィルムコミック, firumu komikku) or anime comics (アニメコミックス, anime komikkusu) are Japanese manga volumes which use illustrated images from an anime series, film, or video release, rather than original custom art. They generally contain the full dialog from the anime from which they are adapted. While usually published in book form, they are also sometimes released electronically as e-books, occasionally called e-manga. Companies such as Tokyopop and Viz release film comics under the trademarks Cine-manga and Ani-manga, respectively.The technique is similar to photo comics, many of which use stills from live-action movies or television series to adapt these stories to the comics medium.

Film comics have been well received in English-speaking countries, with some titles selling more than 500,000 copies.

Glossary of anime and manga

This is a list of terms that are specific to anime and manga.

Note: Japanese words that are used in general (e.g. oniisan, kawaii and senpai) are not included on this list, unless a description with a reference for notability can be provided that shows how they relate.

Hiroshi Sasagawa

Hiroshi Sasagawa (笹川 ひろし, Sasagawa Hiroshi, born July 9, 1936) is a creator of several anime and manga series. His name is romanized in some sources as Hiroshi Sasakawa.

List of hentai anime

This is a list of notable hentai anime. Hentai is anime and manga that contains pornographic content.

Lists of anime

These lists of anime serve to provide an organized and methodological approach for finding relevant content about anime topics.

Lists of manga

Manga (漫画) are comics created in Japan, or by Japanese creators in the Japanese language, conforming to a style developed in Japan in the late 19th century. The term is also now used for a variety of other works in the style of or influenced by the Japanese comics. The production of manga in many forms remains extremely prolific, so a single list covering all the notable works would not be a useful document. Accordingly, coverage is divided into the many related lists below.

Mamoru Hosoda

Mamoru Hosoda (細田 守, Hosoda Mamoru, born September 19, 1967) is a Japanese film director and animator. He was nominated for an Academy Award in the category Best Animated Feature Film at the 91st Academy Awards for his seventh film Mirai.

On Your Mark

Ghibli Experimental Theater On Your Mark (ジブリ実験劇場 On Your Mark, Jiburi Jikkengekijō On Yua Māku) is an animated music video created by Studio Ghibli for the song "On Your Mark" by the Japanese rock duo Chage & Aska. The song was released in 1994 as part of the single "Heart". In 1995, Hayao Miyazaki wrote and directed the short film for the song as a side-project after having writer's block with Princess Mononoke. The anime music video is non-linear, providing multiple reiterations and alternate scenes to depict the events. The music video added sound effects to the audio track, but contains no dialogue. Miyazaki purposely misinterpreted the lyrics to present his vision of a world where the surface becomes inhospitable and humans live in an underground city. He made the video cryptic to evoke creative interpretations among viewers.

The music video follows two policemen who raid a religious cult and find an angelic being only to have her taken away and confined to a laboratory. Haunted by the fate of the "angel", the two men formulate a plan and break into the laboratory. Fleeing in an armored truck the three plummet into an abyss after trying to force past a police aircraft along a narrow suspended roadway. After a montage of the previous scenes, the armored truck suddenly rockets into an apartment complex, allowing their escape. The three escape to the surface, ignoring the radiation and danger signs, emerging near an encased nuclear reactor. The two men set the "angel" free and she flies off into the sky.

The music video was well-received and praised for its animation and attention to detail. It premiered as a short before Studio Ghibli's Whisper of the Heart and has since been released on Laserdisc and DVD as part of All Things Ghibli Special Short Short.

Original net animation

An original net animation (ONA), known in Japan as Web Anime (Web(ウェブ)アニメ, Webu Anime), is an anime that is directly released onto the Internet. ONAs may also have been aired on television if they were first directly released on the Internet. The name mirrors original video animation, a term that has been used in the anime industry for straight-to-video animation since the early 1980s. The Internet is a relatively new outlet for animation distribution that has been made viable by the increasing number of streaming media websites in Japan.

A growing number of trailers and preview episodes of new anime have been released as ONA. For example, the anime movie of Megumi can be considered an ONA.

ONAs tend to be shorter than traditional anime titles, sometimes lasting only a few minutes.

There are many examples of an original net animation (ONA), such as Hetalia: Axis Powers, which only last a few minutes per episode.


PortConMaine is an annual anime and gaming convention held in the summer in Portland and South Portland, Maine. Founded by Julie York, it has been held every year since 2002 and hosts many anime and gaming events such as anime screenings, an anime music video contest, a masquerade, guest panels, workshops, game tournaments, a dealers' room, an auction, and PortConMaine's signature "Extreme Geek" event. In 2008, the convention expanded from three days to four with the first day, Thursday, only open to pre-registered attendees. As of 2016, Thursday became open to everyone.


Shakkazombie is a Japanese rap group consisting of three members (MC Osumi, Tsutchie, and MC Hide-Bowie). They formed in 1994 when Tsutchie joined Osumi and Hide-Bowie who were already making music at the time and released their first single "ShakkAttack" in 95. They are credited for introducing many up and coming artists in their collaborations.

Their song 空を取り戻した日 (Sora wo torimodoshita hi) was featured during the credits of Session XX of the acclaimed anime series Cowboy Bebop. The episode was only shown once, so the song was never featured in the "Cowboy Bebop" soundtracks.

Most noted in North America for their song '白いヤミの中' (The White Darkness), popularly known as 'Shiroi Yami no Naka', off of the single 'ビッグ・ブルー' (Big Blue) which was used in an anime music video entitled "Tainted Donuts".Tsutchie is a noted producer and DJ, having released two solo LPs, as well as a number of collaborative efforts. Perhaps the most notable of his collaborations is the duo "Ravolta", consisting of Tsutchie handling the production and Aiha of Seagull Screaming Kiss Her Kiss Her on vocals. Their only full-length record, "Sky", was released by Skylarkin Records in 1998 in Japan, and features a cover of George Michael's song "Faith". He also worked on the music for Samurai Champloo and GANGSTA Anime.

Tsuki no Waltz

Tsuki no Waltz (月のワルツ, lit. Waltz of the Moon) is a 2004 Japanese anime music video created for the popular NHK program Minna no Uta by director Atsuko Ishizuka and Studio Madhouse.


Vidding is an artform: the fan labor practice in media fandom of creating music videos from the footage of one or more visual media sources, thereby exploring the source itself in a new way. The creator may explore a single character, support a particular romantic pairing between characters, criticize or celebrate the original text, or point out an aspect of the TV show or film that they find under-appreciated which is commonly uploaded to a variety of social media outlets, the more popular being YouTube. The creators refer to themselves as "vidders", their product as "vids", "fanvids", "songvids" or the more recently adopted name "edits" and the act itself as vidding.

Vidding can occur within a fandom; however, it is also often considered its own fandom, as vidding fans will often watch vids simply because they are vids. (This is distinct from fan fiction readers and other fans, for instance, who tend to choose what to engage based on source text more than form.) Accordingly, vidding has its own dedicated fan conventions, including Vividcon and VidUKon.

Fan videos within the world of anime fandom are distinct from the videos created by vidders. A fan-made music video using anime footage fans is called an anime music video or AMV, not a fanvid. While a large number of anime video makers are male, the bulk of vidders in media fandom are women.

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