Ani

Ani (Armenian: Անի; Greek: Ἄνιον, Ánion;[5] Latin: Abnicum;[6][7] Georgian: ანი, Ani, or ანისი, Anisi;[8] Turkish: Anı)[9] is a ruined medieval Armenian city now situated in Turkey's province of Kars, next to the closed border with Armenia.

Between 961 and 1045, it was the capital of the Bagratid Armenian kingdom that covered much of present-day Armenia and eastern Turkey. Called the "City of 1001 Churches",[7][10][11] Ani stood on various trade routes and its many religious buildings, palaces, and fortifications were amongst the most technically and artistically advanced structures in the world.[12][13] At its height, Ani was one of the biggest cities in the world,[14] and its population was probably on the order of 100,000.[15][16]

Long ago renowned for its splendor and magnificence, Ani was sacked by the Mongols in 1236 and devastated in a 1319 earthquake, after which it was reduced to a village and gradually abandoned and largely forgotten by the seventeenth century.[17][16] Ani is a widely recognized cultural, religious, and national heritage symbol for Armenians.[18] According to Razmik Panossian, Ani is one of the most visible and ‘tangible’ symbols of past Armenian greatness and hence a source of pride.[16]

Ani
Ani seen from Armenia
The ruins of Ani as seen from the Armenian side. The cathedral with its missing dome is seen on the left, the half-collapsed Church of the Holy Redeemer on the right.
Ani is located in Turkey
Ani
Shown within Turkey
LocationOcaklı (nearest settlement),[1][2] Kars Province, Turkey
RegionArmenian Highlands
Coordinates40°30′27″N 43°34′22″E / 40.50750°N 43.57278°ECoordinates: 40°30′27″N 43°34′22″E / 40.50750°N 43.57278°E
TypeSettlement
History
Founded5th century (first mentioned)
Abandoned17th century
PeriodsMiddle Ages
CulturesArmenian (predominantly)
Official nameArchaeological Site of Ani
TypeCultural
Criteriaii, iii, iv
Designated2016 (40th session)
Reference no.1518
State PartyTurkey
RegionEurope and North America
Bagratuni flag
The standard of Ani[3][4]

Etymology

The city took its name from the Armenian fortress-city and pagan center of Ani-Kamakh located in the region of Daranaghi in Upper Armenia.[15] Ani was also previously known as Khnamk (Խնամք), although historians are uncertain as to why it was called so.[15] Johann Heinrich Hübschmann, a German philologist and linguist who studied the Armenian language, suggested that the word may have come from the Armenian word "khnamel" (խնամել), an infinitive which means "to take care of".[15] Ani was also the diminutive name of ancient Armenian goddess Anahit who was seen as the mother-protector of Armenia.

Location

The city is located on a triangular site, visually dramatic and naturally defensive, protected on its eastern side by the ravine of the Akhurian River and on its western side by the Bostanlar or Tzaghkotzadzor valley.[6] The Akhurian is a branch of the Araks River[6] and forms part of the currently closed border between Turkey and Armenia. The site is at an elevation of around 1,340 meters (4,400 ft).[7]

The site is located about 400 metres from the Turkey-Armenia border. Across the border is the Armenian village of Kharkov, part of Shirak Province.

History

Early history

Armenian chroniclers such as Yeghishe and Ghazar Parpetsi first mentioned Ani in the 5th century.[15] They described it as a strong fortress built on a hilltop and a possession of the Armenian Kamsarakan dynasty.

Bagratuni capital

Bagratuni Armenia 1000-en
The Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia, c. 1000

By the early 9th century, the former territories of the Kamsarakans in Arsharunik and Shirak (including Ani) had been incorporated into the territories of the Armenian Bagratuni dynasty.[19] Their leader, Ashot Msaker (Ashot the Meateater) (806–827) was given the title of ishkhan (prince) of Armenia by the Caliphate in 804.[20] The Bagratunis had their first capital at Bagaran, some 40 km south of Ani, before moving it to Shirakavan, some 25 km northeast of Ani, and then transferring it to Kars in the year 929. In 961, king Ashot III (953–77) transferred the capital from Kars to Ani.[7] Ani expanded rapidly during the reign of King Smbat II (977–89). In 992 the Armenian Catholicosate moved its seat to Ani. In the 10th century the population was perhaps 50,000–100,000.[21] By the start of the eleventh century the population of Ani was well over 100,000, and its renown was such that it was known as the "city of forty gates" and the "city of a thousand and one churches." Ani also became the site of the royal mausoleum of Bagratuni kings.[22]

Ani attained the peak of its power during the long reign of King Gagik I (989–1020). After his death his two sons quarreled over the succession. The eldest son, Hovhannes-Smbat (1020–41), gained control of Ani while his younger brother, Ashot IV (1020–40), controlled other parts of the Bagratuni kingdom. Hovhannes-Smbat, fearing that the Byzantine Empire would attack his now-weakened kingdom, made the Byzantine Emperor Basil II his heir.[23] When Hovhannes-Smbat died in 1041, Emperor Michael IV the Paphlagonian, claimed sovereignty over Ani. The new king of Ani, Gagik II (1042–45), opposed this and several Byzantine armies sent to capture Ani were repulsed. However, in 1046 Ani surrendered to the Byzantines,[7] after Gagik was invited to Constantinople and detained there, and at the instigation of pro-Byzantine elements among its population. A Byzantine governor was installed in the city.[15]

Cultural and economic center

AniMap
Plan of the city

Ani did not lie along any previously important trade routes, but because of its size, power, and wealth it became an important trading hub. Its primary trading partners were the Byzantine Empire, the Persian Empire, the Arabs, as well as smaller nations in southern Russia and Central Asia.[15]

Gradual decline and abandonment

In 1064, a large Seljuk army under Alp Arslan attacked Ani; after a siege of 25 days, they captured the city and slaughtered its population.[6] An account of the sack and massacres in Ani is given by the Arab historian Sibt ibn al-Jawzi, who quotes an eyewitness saying:

Putting the Persian sword to work, they spared no one... One could see there the grief and calamity of every age of human kind. For children were ravished from the embraces of their mothers and mercilessly hurled against rocks, while the mothers drenched them with tears and blood... The city became filled from one end to the other with bodies of the slain and [the bodies of the slain] became a road. [...] The army entered the city, massacred its inhabitants, pillaged and burned it, leaving it in ruins and taking prisoner all those who remained alive...The dead bodies were so many that they blocked the streets; one could not go anywhere without stepping over them. And the number of prisoners was not less than 50,000 souls. I was determined to enter city and see the destruction with my own eyes. I tried to find a street in which I would not have to walk over the corpses; but that was impossible.[24]

In 1072, the Seljuks sold Ani to the Shaddadids, a Muslim Kurdish dynasty.[6] The Shaddadids generally pursued a conciliatory policy towards the city's overwhelmingly Armenian and Christian population and actually married several members of the Bagratid nobility. Whenever the Shaddadid governance became too intolerant, however, the population would appeal to the Christian Kingdom of Georgia for help. The Georgians captured Ani five times between 1124 and 1209:[7] in 1124, 1161, 1174, 1199, and 1209.[25] The first three times, it was recaptured by the Shaddadids. In the year 1199, Georgia's Queen Tamar captured Ani and in 1201 gave the governorship of the city to the generals Zakare and Ivane.[26] Zakare was succeeded by his son Shanshe (Shahnshah). Zakare's new dynasty — the Zakarids — considered themselves to be the successors to the Bagratids. Prosperity quickly returned to Ani; its defences were strengthened and many new churches were constructed. The Mongols unsuccessfully besieged Ani in 1226, but in 1236 they captured and sacked the city, massacring large numbers of its population. Under the Mongols the Zakarids continued to rule Ani, as the vassals of the Georgian monarch.[27]

By the 14th century, the city was ruled by a succession of local Turkish dynasties, including the Jalayrids and the Kara Koyunlu (Black Sheep clan) who made Ani their capital. It was ruined by an earthquake in 1319.[6][7] Tamerlane captured Ani in the 1380s. On his death the Kara Koyunlu regained control but transferred their capital to Yerevan. In 1441 the Armenian Catholicosate did the same. The Persian Safavids then ruled Ani until it became part of the Turkish Ottoman Empire in 1579. A small town remained within its walls at least until the middle of the seventeenth century, but the site was entirely abandoned by 1735 when the last monks left the monastery in the Virgin's Fortress or Kizkale.

Modern times

Marr archeological dig of Ani
In 1905–06, archaeological excavations of the church of Saint Gregory of King Gagik were undertaken, headed by Nikolai Marr.

In the first half of the 19th century, European travelers discovered Ani for the outside world, publishing their descriptions in academic journals and travel accounts. The private buildings were little more than heaps of stones but grand public buildings and the city's double wall were preserved and reckoned to present "many points of great architectural beauty".[6] Ohannes Kurkdjian produced stereoscopic image of Ani in the 2nd half of the 19th century.

In 1878, the Ottoman Empire's Kars region—including Ani—was incorporated into the Russian Empire's Transcaucasian region.[7] In 1892 the first archaeological excavations were conducted at Ani, sponsored by the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences and supervised by the Georgian archaeologist and orientalist Nicholas Marr (1864–1934). Marr's excavations at Ani resumed in 1904 and continued yearly until 1917. Large sectors of the city were professionally excavated, numerous buildings were uncovered and measured, the finds were studied and published in academic journals, guidebooks for the monuments and the museum were written, and the whole site was surveyed for the first time.[29] Emergency repairs were also undertaken on those buildings that were most at risk of collapse. A museum was established to house the tens of thousands of items found during the excavations. This museum was housed in two buildings: the Minuchihr mosque, and a purpose-built stone building.[30] Armenians from neighboring villages and towns also began to visit the city on a regular basis,[31] and there was even talk by Marr's team of building a school for educating the local Armenian children, building parks, and planting trees to beautify the site.[32]

In 1918, during the latter stages of World War I, the armies of the Ottoman Empire were fighting their way across the territory of the newly declared Republic of Armenia, capturing Kars in April 1918. At Ani, attempts were made to evacuate the artifacts contained in the museum as Turkish soldiers were approaching the site. About 6000 of the most portable items were removed by archaeologist Ashkharbek Kalantar, a participant of Marr's excavation campaigns. At the behest of Joseph Orbeli, the saved items were consolidated into a museum collection; they are currently part of the collection of Yerevan's State Museum of Armenian History.[33] Everything that was left behind was later looted or destroyed.[34] Turkey's surrender at the end of World War I led to the restoration of Ani to Armenian control, but a resumed offensive against the Armenian Republic in 1920 resulted in Turkey's recapture of Ani. In 1921 the signing of the Treaty of Kars formalized the incorporation of the territory containing Ani into the Republic of Turkey.[35]

In May 1921, the government minister Rıza Nur ordered the commander of the Eastern Front, Kazım Karabekir, for the monuments of Ani to "be wiped off the face of the earth."[36] Karabekir records in his memoirs that he has vigorously rejected this command and it has never been carried out.[37] Some destruction did take place, including most of Marr's excavations and building repairs.[38]

Current state

Today, according to Lonely Planet and Frommer's travel guides to Turkey:

Official permission to visit Ani is no longer needed. Just go to Ani and buy a ticket. If you don't have your own car, haggle with a taxi or minibus driver in Kars for the round-trip to Ani, perhaps sharing the cost with other travelers. If you have trouble, the Tourist Office may help. Plan to spend at least a half-day at Ani. It's not a bad idea to bring a picnic lunch and a water bottle.[39]

According to The Economist, Armenians have "accused the Turks of neglecting the place in a spirit of chauvinism. The Turks retort that Ani's remains have been shaken by blasts from a quarry on the Armenian side of the border.[13]

Another commentator said: Ani is now a ghost city, uninhabited for over three centuries and marooned inside a Turkish military zone on Turkey's decaying closed border with the modern Republic of Armenia. Ani's recent history has been one of continuous and always increasing destruction. Neglect, earthquakes, cultural cleansing, vandalism, quarrying, amateurish restorations and excavations – all these and more have taken a heavy toll on Ani's monuments.[12]

In the estimation of the Landmarks Foundation (a non-profit organization established for the protection of sacred sites) this ancient city "needs to be protected regardless of whose jurisdiction it falls under. Earthquakes in 1319, 1832, and 1988, Army Target practice and general neglect all have had devastating effects on the architecture of the city. The city of Ani is a sacred place which needs ongoing protection.[40]"

Turkey's authorities now say they will do their best to conserve and develop the site and the culture ministry has listed Ani among the sites it is keenest to conserve. In the words of Mehmet Ufuk Erden, the local governor: "By restoring Ani, we'll make a contribution to humanity...We will start with one church and one mosque, and over time we will include every single monument."[13]

In an October 2010 report titled Saving Our Vanishing Heritage, Global Heritage Fund identified Ani as one of 12 worldwide sites most "On the Verge" of irreparable loss and destruction, citing insufficient management and looting as primary causes.[41][42]

The World Monuments Fund (WMF) placed Ani on its 1996, 1998, and 2000 Watch Lists of 100 Most Endangered Sites. In May 2011, WMF announced it was beginning conservation work on the cathedral and Church of the Holy Redeemer in partnership with the Turkish Ministry of Culture.[43]

In March 2015, it was reported that Turkey will nominate Ani to be listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2016.[44] The archaeological site of Ani was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site on July 15, 2016.[45] According to art historian Heghnar Zeitlian Watenpaugh the addition "would secure significant benefits in protection, research expertise, and funding."[46]

Monuments at Ani

All the structures at Ani are constructed using the local volcanic basalt, a sort of tufa stone. It is easily carved and comes in a variety of vibrant colors, from creamy yellow, to rose-red, to jet black. The most important surviving monuments are as follows.

Ani-Cathedral, Ruine.jpeg
Cathedral of Ani

The Cathedral

Also known as Surp Asdvadzadzin (the Church of the Holy Mother of God), its construction was started in the year 989, under King Smbat II. Work was halted after his death, and was only finished in 1001 (or in 1010 under another reading of its building inscription). The design of the cathedral was the work of Trdat, the most celebrated architect of medieval Armenia. The cathedral is a domed basilica (the dome collapsed in 1319). The interior contains several progressive features (such as the use of pointed arches and clustered piers) that give to it the appearance of Gothic architecture (a style which the Ani cathedral predates by several centuries).[47]

Surp Stephanos Church

There is no inscription giving the date of its construction, but an edict in Georgian is dated 1218. The church was referred to as "Georgian". During this period "Georgian" did not simply mean an ethnic Georgian, it had a denominational meaning and would have designated all those in Ani who professed the Chalcedonian faith, mostly Armenians. Although the Georgian Church controlled this church, its congregation would have mostly been Armenians.[48]

The church of St Gregory of Tigran Honents

This church, finished in 1215, is the best-preserved monument at Ani. It was built during the rule of the Zakarids and was commissioned by the wealthy Armenian merchant Tigran Honents.[49] Its plan is of a type called a domed hall. In front of its entrance are the ruins of a narthex and a small chapel that are from a slightly later period. The exterior of the church is spectacularly decorated. Ornate stone carvings of real and imaginary animals fill the spandrels between blind arcade that runs around all four sides of the church. The interior contains an important and unique series of frescoes cycles that depict two main themes. In the eastern third of the church is depicted the Life of Saint Gregory the Illuminator, in the middle third of the church is depicted the Life of Christ. Such extensive fresco cycles are rare features in Armenian architecture – it is believed that these ones were executed by Georgian artists, and the cycle also includes scenes from the life of St. Nino, who converted the Georgians to Christianity. In the narthex and its chapel survive fragmentary frescoes that are more Byzantine in style.[50]

The church of the Holy Redeemer

20110419 Church of Redeemer Collage Ani Turkey
The Church of the Redeemer (Surb Prkich).

This church was completed shortly after the year 1035. It had a unique design: 19-sided externally, 8-apsed internally, with a huge central dome set upon a tall drum. It was built by Prince Ablgharib Pahlavid to house a fragment of the True Cross. The church was largely intact until 1955, when the entire eastern half collapsed during a storm.[51]

The church of St Gregory of the Abughamrents

This small building probably dates from the late 10th century. It was built as a private chapel for the Pahlavuni family. Their mausoleum, built in 1040 and now reduced to its foundations, was constructed against the northern side of the church. The church has a centralised plan, with a dome over a drum, and the interior has six exedera.[52]

King Gagik's church of St Gregory

Also known as the Gagikashen, this church was constructed between the years 1001 and 1005 and intended to be a recreation of the celebrated cathedral of Zvartnots at Vagharshapat. Nikolai Marr uncovered the foundations of this remarkable building in 1905 and 1906. Before that, all that was visible on the site was a huge earthen mound. The designer of the church was the architect Trdat. The church is known to have collapsed a relatively short time after its construction and houses were later constructed on top of its ruins. Trdat's design closely follows that of Zvartnotz in its size and in its plan (a quatrefoil core surrounded by a circular ambulatory).[53]

The church of the Holy Apostles

The date of its construction is not known, but the earliest dated inscription on its walls is from 1031. It was founded by the Pahlavuni family and was used by the archbishops of Ani (many of whom belonged to that dynasty). It has a plan of a type called an inscribed quatrefoil with corner chambers. Only fragments remain of the church, but a narthex with spectacular stonework, built against the south side of the church, is still partially intact. It dates from the early 13th century. A number of other halls, chapels, and shrines once surrounded this church: Nicholas Marr excavated their foundations in 1909, but they are now mostly destroyed.[54]

Ani.mosque
Manuchihr Mosque west view

The mosque of Manuchihr

The mosque is named after its presumed founder, Manuchihr, the first member of the Shaddadid dynasty that ruled Ani after 1072. The oldest surviving part of the mosque is its still intact minaret. It has the Arabic word Bismillah ("In the name of God") in Kufic lettering high on its northern face. The prayer hall, half of which survives, dates from a later period (the 12th or 13th century). In 1906 the mosque was partially repaired in order for it to house a public museum containing objects found during Nicholas Marr's excavations.[55]

The citadel

At the southern end of Ani is a flat-topped hill once known as Midjnaberd (the Inner Fortress). It has its own defensive walls that date back to the period when the Kamsarakan dynasty ruled Ani (7th century AD). Nicholas Marr excavated the citadel hill in 1908 and 1909. He uncovered the extensive ruins of the palace of the Bagratid kings of Ani that occupied the highest part of the hill. Also inside the citadel are the visible ruins of three churches and several unidentified buildings. One of the churches, the "church of the palace" is the oldest surviving church in Ani, dating from the 6th or 7th century. Marr undertook emergency repairs to this church, but most of it has now collapsed – probably during an earthquake in 1966.[56]

The city walls

Ani townwall
The walls of Ani showing a defensive tower.

A line of walls that encircled the entire city defended Ani. The most powerful defences were along the northern side of the city, the only part of the site not protected by rivers or ravines. Here the city was protected by a double line of walls, the much taller inner wall studded by numerous large and closely spaced semicircular towers. Contemporary chroniclers wrote that King Smbat (977–989) built these walls. Later rulers strengthened Smbat's walls by making them substantially higher and thicker, and by adding more towers. Armenian inscriptions from the 12th and 13th century show that private individuals paid for some of these newer towers. The northern walls had three gateways, known as the Lion Gate, the Kars Gate, and the Dvin Gate (also known as the Chequer-Board Gate because of a panel of red and black stone squares over its entrance).[57]

Other monuments

There are many other minor monuments at Ani. These include a convent known as the Virgins' chapel; a church used by Chalcedonian Armenians; the remains of a single-arched bridge over the Arpa river; the ruins of numerous oil-presses and several bath houses; the remains of a second mosque with a collapsed minaret; a palace that probably dates from the 13th century; the foundations of several other palaces and smaller residences; the recently excavated remains of several streets lined with shops; etc.

Cave Village

Directly outside of Ani, there was a settlement-zone carved into the cliffs. It may have served as "urban sprawl" when Ani grew too large for its city walls. Today, goats and sheep take advantage of the caves' cool interiors. One highlight of this part of Ani is a cave church with frescos on its surviving walls and ceiling.

Gallery

City of Ani 014

City of Ani

Walls of Ani

Walls of Ani

Ani 2

Northern entrance of Ani

Ani, Stadtmauer (39505607725)

Ani, Stadtmauer

20110419 bridge Akhurian River East view Ani Turkey

Ruins of the bridge from the west, with the Akhurian

20110419 Monastery of Hripsimian Virgins Ani Turkey

Chapel in the Monastery of the Hripsimian Virgins

36000 Ocaklı-Kars Merkez-Kars, Turkey - panoramio

Walls of Ani

36000 Ocaklı-Kars Merkez-Kars, Turkey - panoramio (5)

Walls of Ani.

Double-Walls-Northside-Ani-Armenia-1885

1885 engraving showing the walls of Ani.

Ani saint gregory church

Church of St. Gregory of the Abughamrents; in the background is the citadel.

The Church of Saint Gregory of Tigran Honents (4218326274)

The Church of Saint Gregory of Tigran Honents

Panorama

Panoramic view of north walls of Ani, April 2011.
Panoramic view of north walls of Ani, April 2011.

In culture

Ani is one of the most popular female given names in Armenia.[58]

Songs and poems have been written about Ani and its past glory. "Tesnem Anin u nor mernem" (Տեսնեմ Անին ու նոր մեռնեմ, Let me see Ani before I die) is a famous poem by Hovhannes Shiraz. It was turned into a song by Turkish-Armenian composer Cenk Taşkan.[59][60] Ara Gevorgyan's 1999 album of folk instrumental songs is titled Ani.[61]

See also

References

Notes
Citations
  1. ^ Watenpaugh 2014, p. 531: "The nearest inhabited village is Ocaklı, a farming village with little infrastructure."
  2. ^ "Büyük Katedral (Fethiye Cami) – Kars". kulturportali.gov.tr (in Turkish). Adres: Ocaklı Köyü, Ani Antik Kenti
  3. ^ Hasratyan, Murad (2011). "Անիի ճարտարապետությունը [Architecture of Ani]". Patma-Banasirakan Handes (3): 8. Դարպասի վերևի պատին Անի քաղաքի զինանշանն է՝ հովազի բարձրաքանդակով:
  4. ^ Անի. encyclopedia.am (in Armenian). Armenian Encyclopedia. Անիի զինանշանը` վազող հովազը
  5. ^ Garsoïan, Nina G.; Taylor, Alice (1991), "Ani", in Kazhdan, Alexander (ed.), The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, ISBN 9780195046526
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Wikisource Baynes, T.S., ed. (1878), "Anni" , Encyclopædia Britannica, 2 (9th ed.), New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, p. 72
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911), "Ani" , Encyclopædia Britannica, 2 (11th ed.), Cambridge University Press, p. 47
  8. ^ "ანისი [anisi]" (in Georgian). National Parliamentary Library of Georgia. Retrieved November 4, 2013.
  9. ^ Ziflioğlu, Vercihan (April 14, 2009). "Building a dialogue atop old ruins of Ani". Hürriyet. Archived from the original on July 12, 2016. The Turkish government’s practice of calling the town “Anı,” rather than Ani, in order to give it a more Turkish character...
  10. ^ (in Armenian) Hakobyan, Tadevos. (1980). Անիի Պատմություն, Հնագույն Ժամանակներից մինչև 1045 թ. [The History of Ani, from Ancient Times Until 1045], vol. I. Yerevan: Yerevan State University Press, pp. 214–217.
  11. ^ Not to confuse with the Binbirkilise/'1001 churches' near Karaman in modern Turkey'
  12. ^ a b Sim, Steven. "VirtualANI – Dedicated to the Deserted Medieval Armenian City of Ani". VirtualANI. Archived from the original on January 20, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2007.
  13. ^ a b c "Ani, a Disputed City Haunted by History". The Economist. June 15, 2006.
  14. ^ Joel Mokyr. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History. — Oxford University Press, 2003. — P. 157 "The struggle against Persian, Byzantine, and Arab political and economic domination, however, led to the restoration of the Armenian Kingdom (885–1045). Crafts and agricultural prospered. Its capital, Ani, famous for Armenian classical architecture, became one of the biggest cities in the world."
  15. ^ a b c d e f g Ghafadaryan, Karo (1974). "Անի [Ani]". Armenian Soviet Encyclopedia Volume I (in Armenian). Armenian Academy of Sciences. p. 407–412.
  16. ^ a b c Panossian 2006, p. 60.
  17. ^ Mutafian, Claude. "Ani after Ani: Eleventh to Seventeenth Centuries", in Armenian Kars and Ani, ed. Richard G. Hovannisian, Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda Publishers, 2011, pp. 163–64.
  18. ^ Vanadzin, Katie (January 29, 2015). "Recent Publication Highlights Complexities of Uncovering the History of the Medieval City of Ani". Armenian Weekly. As Watenpaugh explains, “Ani is so symbolic, so central for Armenians, as a religious site, as a cultural site, as a national heritage symbol, a symbol of nationhood.”
  19. ^ Whittow, Mark (1996). The Making of Byzantium, 600–1025. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 213–214. ISBN 978-0-520-20497-3.
  20. ^ Garsoian, Nina. "The Arab Invasions and the Rise of the Bagratuni (649–684)" in The Armenian People from Ancient to Modern Times, Volume I, The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century, ed. Richard G. Hovannisian. New York: St Martin's Press, 1997, p. 146. ISBN 978-0-312-10169-5
  21. ^ Redgate, Anne Elizabeth. The Armenians. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1998, p. 210.
  22. ^ Manuk-Khaloyan, Armen, "In the Cemetery of their Ancestors: The Royal Burial Tombs of the Bagratuni Kings of Greater Armenia (890-1073/79)", Revue des Études Arméniennes 35 (2013): 147–155.
  23. ^ Whittow. Making of Byzantium, p. 383.
  24. ^ Quoted in Norwich, John Julius (1991). Byzantium: The Apogee. New York: Viking. pp. 342–343. ISBN 978-0-394-53779-5.
  25. ^ Georgian National Academy of Sciences, Kartlis Tskhovreba (History of Georgia), Artanuji pub. Tbilisi 2014
  26. ^ Lordkipanidze, Mariam (1987). Georgia in the XI-XII Centuries. Tbilisi: Genatleba. p. 150.
  27. ^ Eastern Turkey: An Architectural and Archaeological Survey, 1. T. A. Sinclair
  28. ^ Bryce, James (1878). Transcaucasia and Ararat: Being Notes of a Vacation Tour in Autumn of 1876 (3rd ed.). London: Macmillan and Co. p. 301.
  29. ^ Kalantar, Ashkharbek, The Mediaeval Inscriptions of Vanstan, Armenia, Civilisations du Proche-Orient: Series 2 – Philologie – CDPOP 2, Vol. 2, Recherches et Publications, Neuchâtel, Paris, 1999; ISBN 978-2-940032-11-2
  30. ^ Marr, Nicolas (2001). Ani – Rêve d'Arménie. Anagramme Editions. ISBN 978-2-914571-00-5.
  31. ^ Manuk-Khaloyan, Armen. "The God-Borne Days of Ani: A Revealing Look at the Former Medieval Armenian Capital of Armenia at the Turn of the 20th Century." Armenian Weekly. November 29, 2011. Retrieved March 30, 2012.
  32. ^ Hakobyan, Tadevos (1982). Անիի Պատմություն, 1045 թ. մինչև անկումն ու ամայացումը [The History of Ani, from 1045 Until its Collapse and Abandonment], vol. 2 (in Armenian). Yerevan: Yerevan State University Press. pp. 368–386.
  33. ^ Kalantar, Ashkharbek (1994). Armenia from the Stone Age to the Middle Ages. Recherches et Publications. ISBN 978-2-940032-01-3.
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Bibliography

General
  • Panossian, Razmik (2006). The Armenians: From Kings and Priests to Merchants and Commissars. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231139267.
Specific

Further reading

  • Brosset, Marie-Félicité (1860–1861), Les Ruines d'Ani, Capital de l'Arménie sous les Rois Bagratides, aux Xe et XIe S, Histoire et Description, Ire Partie: Description, avec un Atlas de 24 Planches Lithographiées and IIe Partie: Histoire, avec un Atlas de 21 Planches Lithographiées, St Petersburg: Imperial Science Academy. ‹See Tfd›(in French)
  • Cowe, S. Peter (2001). Ani: World Architectural Heritage of a Medieval Armenian Capital. Sterling, Virginia: Peeters.
  • Hakobyan, Tadevos (1980–1982), Անիի Պատմություն, Հնագույն Ժամանակներից մինչև 1045 թ. [The History of Ani, from Ancient Times until 1045] and 1045 թ. մինչև անկումն ու ամայացումը [from 1045 until its Collapse and Abandonment], Yerevan: Yerevan State University Press (in Armenian)
  • Kevorkian, Raymond (2001). Ani – Capitale de l'Arménie en l'An Mil (in French).
  • Lynch, H.F.B. (1901). Armenia, Travels and Studies. London: Longmans. ISBN 1-4021-8950-8.
  • Marr, Nicolas Yacovlevich (2001). Ani – Rêve d'Arménie (in French). Paris: Anagramme Editions.
  • Minorsky, Vladimir (1953). Studies in Caucasian History. ISBN 0-521-05735-3.
  • Paolo, Cuneo (1984). Documents of Armenian Architecture, Vol. 12: Ani.
  • Kalantar, Ashkharbek (1994). Armenia from the Stone Age to the Middle Ages.
  • Sinclair, Thomas Allen (1987). Eastern Turkey: An Architectural and Archeological Survey, Volume 1. London: Pindar Press.

External links

Ani*Kuri15

Ani-Kuri 15 (アニ*クリ15) is a series of fifteen 1-minute shorts that aired on the Japanese TV station, NHK between May 2007 and 2008. Intended as companion pieces to the Ani*Kuri program and as filler between regularly scheduled programs, the shorts were broadcast in three seasons of 5 episodes. Each short was directed by a different director and the episodes were collected and uploaded to the official Ani*Kuri15 website in 2008.

Ani-Men

The Ani-Men is the name of several fictional teams appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. Four of them are villain groups, while one of them was introduced as a team of agents serving the High Evolutionary.

Ani-ye Olya

Ani-ye Olya (Persian: اني عليا‎, also Romanized as Ānī-ye ‘Olyā; also known as Ānī, Anī-ye Bālā, Annī-ye Bālā, Ini, and Inj) is a village in Ani Rural District, in the Central District of Germi County, Ardabil Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 1,164, in 195 families.

Ani-ye Sofla

Ani-ye Sofla (Persian: اني سفلي‎, also Romanized as Ānī-ye Soflá and Anī Soflá; also known as Anī-ye Pā’īn and Annī-ye Pā’īn) is a village in Ani Rural District, in the Central District of Germi County, Ardabil Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 550, in 104 families.

Ani-ye Vosta

Ani-ye Vosta (Persian: اني وسطي‎, also Romanized as Ānī-ye Vosţá; also known as Anī-ye Vasaţ, Anī-ye Vasaţī) is a village in Ani Rural District, in the Central District of Germi County, Ardabil Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 696, in 114 families.

Ani DiFranco

Angela Maria "Ani" DiFranco (; born 1970) is an American singer/songwriter. She has released more than 20 albums. DiFranco's music has been classified as folk rock and alternative rock, although it has additional influences from punk, funk, hip hop and jazz. She has released all her albums on her own record label, Righteous Babe, giving her significant creative freedom.

DiFranco supports many social and political movements by performing benefit concerts, appearing on benefit albums and speaking at rallies. Through the Righteous Babe Foundation DiFranco has backed grassroots cultural and political organizations supporting causes including abortion rights and LGBT visibility. She counts American folk singer and songwriter Pete Seeger among her mentors.DiFranco released a memoir entitled No Walls and the Recurring Dream on May 7, 2019, via Viking Books.

Ani Lorak

Karolina Myroslavivna Kuiek (Ukrainian: Кароліна Мирославівна Куєк, Russian: Каролина Мирославовна Куек, also transliterated as Kuyek or Kuek; born 27 September 1978), popularly known as Ani Lorak (Ukrainian: Ані Лорак), is a Ukrainian singer, songwriter, actress, entrepreneur, and former UN Goodwill Ambassador. Having received Ukraine's most prestigious and honorary title, the People's Artist of Ukraine, Lorak has been cited as one of the most powerful and influential women in her country, as well as ranked one of the most beautiful women from Eastern Europe. Ani Lorak reported the highest income of all singers in Ukraine in 2014 Lorak became known outside of the former Soviet Union after she represented Ukraine at the Eurovision Song Contest 2008 with the song "Shady Lady", coming in second place behind Dima Bilan from Russia.

Asian News International

Asian News International (ANI) is an Indian news agency based in New Delhi that provides multimedia news to 50 bureaus in India and most of South Asia. Coverage includes general news, entertainment, lifestyles, business, politics, science, sports and features. As of 2015 the chairman of the company was Prem Prakash. Sanjiv Prakash was the Editor and CEO of Asian News International.Asian News International was the first news agency in India to syndicate video news. It provides video footage to a large number of Indian news channels and a few international news channels like BBC, CNN and NHK.

Darth Vader

Darth Vader is a fictional character in the Star Wars franchise. He is a primary antagonist in the original trilogy, but, as Anakin Skywalker, is the main protagonist of the prequel trilogy. Star Wars creator George Lucas has collectively referred to the first six episodic films of the franchise as "the tragedy of Darth Vader."Originally a Jedi prophesied to bring balance to the Force, Anakin Skywalker is lured to the dark side of the Force by Palpatine and becomes a Sith Lord. After fighting a lightsaber battle with his former mentor Obi-Wan Kenobi in which he is dismembered, Vader is transformed into a cyborg. He then serves the Galactic Empire as Darth Vader until he redeems himself by saving his son, Luke Skywalker, and killing Palpatine, sacrificing his own life in the process. He is also the father of Princess Leia, the secret husband of Padmé Amidala, and grandfather of Kylo Ren, the main villain of the Star Wars sequel trilogy.

The character has been portrayed by numerous actors. His cinematic appearances span the first six Star Wars films, as well as Rogue One, and he is referenced in both The Force Awakens and The Last Jedi. He also appears in television series (most substantially The Clone Wars) and numerous iterations of the Star Wars Expanded Universe, including video games, novels, and comic books.

Darth Vader has become one of the most iconic villains in popular culture, and has been listed among the greatest villains and fictional characters ever. The American Film Institute listed him as the third greatest movie villain in cinema history on 100 Years... 100 Heroes and Villains, behind Hannibal Lecter and Norman Bates. His role as a tragic hero in the prequel trilogy was met with positive reviews.

Deee-Lite

Deee-Lite was an American house and club/dance music group, formed in New York City. The group's best-known single is "Groove Is in the Heart", which was released from their 1990 debut album, World Clique, and was a Top 10 hit in multiple countries. In December 2016, Billboard ranked them as the 55th-most successful dance artists of all time.

Etruscan religion

Etruscan religion comprises a set of stories, beliefs, and religious practices of the Etruscan civilization, originating in the 7th century BC from the preceding Iron Age Villanovan culture, heavily influenced by the mythology of ancient Greece and Phoenicia, and sharing similarities with concurrent Roman mythology and religion. As the Etruscan civilization was assimilated into the Roman Republic in the 4th century BC, the Etruscan religion and mythology were partially incorporated into classical Roman culture, following the Roman tendency to absorb some of the local gods and customs of conquered lands.

External anal sphincter

The external anal sphincter (or sphincter ani externus ) is a flat plane of skeletal muscle fibers, elliptical in shape and intimately adherent to the skin surrounding the margin of the anus.

Italian Nationalist Association

The Italian Nationalist Association (Associazione Nazionalista Italiana, ANI) was Italy's first nationalist political movement founded in 1910, under the influence of Italian nationalists such as Enrico Corradini and Giovanni Papini. Upon its formation, the ANI supported the repatriation of Austrian held Italian-populated lands to Italy and was willing to endorse war with Austria-Hungary to do so. The party had a paramilitary wing called the Blueshirts. The authoritarian nationalist faction of the ANI would be a major influence for the National Fascist Party of Benito Mussolini formed in 1921. In 1922 the ANI participated in the March on Rome, with an important role, but it was not completely aligned with Benito Mussolini' party. Nevertheless, the ANI merged into the Fascist Party in October 1923.

Khwe language

Khwe (also rendered Kxoe, Khoe; or ) is a dialect continuum of the Khoe family of Namibia, Angola, Botswana, South Africa, and parts of Zambia, with some 8,000 speakers.

Levator ani

The levator ani is a broad, thin muscle, situated on either side of the pelvis. It is formed from three muscle components: the pubococcygeus, the iliococcygeus, and the puborectalis.It is attached to the inner surface of each side of the lesser pelvis, and these unite to form the greater part of the pelvic floor. The coccygeus muscle completes the pelvic floor which is also called the pelvic diaphragm.

It supports the viscera in the pelvic cavity, and surrounds the various structures that pass through it.

The levator ani is the main pelvic floor muscle and painfully contracts during vaginismus. It also contracts rhythmically during orgasm.

Ola Cabs

Ola Cabs (stylised as OLΛ), is an Indian transportation network company (TNC) offering services that include peer-to-peer ridesharing, ride service hailing, taxi and food delivery. The company is based in Bangalore, India and was developed by ANI Technologies Pvt. Ltd. As of May 2019, Ola was valued at about $6.2 billion. A variety of venture capitalists including Softbank have large stakes in the company.Ola Cabs was founded on 3 December 2010 as an online cab aggregator in Mumbai, and is now based in Bangalore. As of 2018, the company has expanded to a network of more than 1,000,000 vehicles across 169 cities. In November 2014, Ola diversified to incorporate autorickshaws on a trial basis in Bangalore. After the trial phase, Ola Auto expanded to other cities like Delhi, Pune, Chennai and Hyderabad starting in December 2014.

In January 2018, Ola extended into its first overseas market, Australia, and in New Zealand in September 2018. In March 2019, Ola began its UK operations introducing Auto Rickshaws in UK.

Phowa language

Phowa is a dialect cluster of Loloish languages spoken by the Phula people of China. There are three principal varieties, Hlepho, Ani, and Labo, which may be considered distinct languages. Hlepho may be closer to Phukha than it is to Labo and Ani. Usage is decreasing, with about two thirds of Phowa speaking their language.

The representative Hlepho Phowa dialect studied in Pelkey (2011) is that of Feizuke 菲租克, Xinhua Township 新华乡, Pingbian County.

Pruritus ani

Pruritus ani is the irritation of the skin at the exit of the rectum, known as the anus, causing the desire to scratch. The intensity of anal itching increases from moisture, pressure, and rubbing caused by clothing and sitting. At worst, anal itching causes intolerable discomfort that often is accompanied by burning and soreness. It is estimated that up to 5% of the population of the United States experiences this type of discomfort daily.

Aegean
Black Sea
Central Anatolia
Eastern Anatolia
Marmara
Mediterranean
Southeastern
Anatolia
Aegean
Black Sea
Central Anatolia
East Anatolia
Marmara
Mediterranean
Southeastern Anatolia

Languages

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