Anhalt-Bernburg

Anhalt-Bernburg was a principality of the Holy Roman Empire and a duchy of the German Confederation ruled by the House of Ascania with its residence at Bernburg in present-day Saxony-Anhalt. It emerged as a subdivision from the Principality of Anhalt from 1252 until 1468, when it fell to the Ascanian principality of Anhalt-Dessau. Recreated in 1603, Anhalt-Bernburg finally merged into the re-unified Duchy of Anhalt upon the extinction of the line in 1863.

Principality (Duchy) of Anhalt-Bernburg

Fürstentum (Herzogtum) Anhalt-Bernburg  (German)
1252–1468

1603–1863
Flag of Anhalt-Bernburg
19th century flag
of Anhalt duchies
Anhalt territories in 1853, Anhalt-Bernburg in green
Anhalt territories in 1853, Anhalt-Bernburg in green
StatusState of the Holy Roman Empire (until 1806)
State of the Confederation of the Rhine (1806–13)
State of the German Confederation (from 1815)
CapitalBernburg
Common languagesUpper Saxon
GovernmentPrincipality
Historical eraMiddle Ages
• Partitioned from Anhalt
1252
• Inherited by Anhalt-Dessau
1468
• Repartitioned from Anhalt
1603
• Anhalt-Zeitz-Hoym partitioned away

1718–1812
• Raised to duchy
1803
• Anhalt re-united
1863
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Principality of Anhalt
Duchy of Anhalt
Today part ofSaxony-Anhalt, Germany

History

Bernburg Schloss gesehen von der Saale
Bernburg Castle

It was created in 1252, when the Principality of Anhalt was partitioned among the sons of Henry I into Anhalt-Aschersleben, Anhalt-Bernburg and Anhalt-Zerbst. Bernburg was allotted to Henry's second son Bernhard I. When the line of Anhalt-Aschersleben became extinct in 1315, Prince Bernhard II of Anhalt-Bernburg claimed their territory, he could however not prevail against his cousin Albert, Bishop of Halberstadt.

After the ruling family became extinct upon the death of Prince Bernhard VI in 1468, Anhalt-Bernburg was inherited by Prince George I of Anhalt-Dessau. With Anhalt-Dessau it was inherited by Prince Joachim Ernest of Anhalt-Zerbst in 1561, who unified all Anhalt lands under his rule in 1570.

Re-united Anhalt was again divided in 1603 among Prince Joachim Ernest's sons into the lines of Anhalt-Dessau, Anhalt-Köthen, Anhalt-Plötzkau, Anhalt-Bernburg and Anhalt-Zerbst. His second son Prince Christian I took his residence at Bernburg. Christian's younger son Frederick established the separate Principality of Anhalt-Harzgerode in 1635, which existed until 1709. Prince Victor Amadeus of Anhalt-Bernburg inherited Anhalt-Plötzkau in 1665. Upon his death in 1718 his lands were further divided and the Principality of Anhalt-Zeitz-Hoym was created for his second son Lebrecht, which was reunited with Anhalt-Bernburg in 1812.

In 1803 Prince Alexius Frederick Christian of Anhalt-Bernburg was elevated to the rank of a duke by Emperor Francis II of Habsburg. His son Duke Alexander Karl however died without issue in 1863, whereafter Anhalt-Bernburg was inherited by Leopold IV, Duke of Anhalt-Dessau, re-uniting all Anhalt lands under his rule.[1]

Princes of Anhalt-Bernburg, 1252–1468

To Anhalt-Dessau

Princes of Anhalt-Bernburg, 1603–1807

Raised to duchy

Dukes of Anhalt-Bernburg, 1803–1863

To re-united Anhalt

Notes

  1. ^ Hertslet 1875, p. 275.

References

  • Hertslet, Edward (1875), The map of Europe by treaty; showing the various political and territorial changes which have taken place since the general peace of 1814, London: Butterworths
Alexander Karl, Duke of Anhalt-Bernburg

Alexander Charles, Duke of Anhalt-Bernburg (2 March 1805 – 19 August 1863) was a German prince of the House of Ascania. From 1834 until 1863 he was the last duke of the Duchy of Anhalt-Bernburg.

Alexius Frederick Christian, Duke of Anhalt-Bernburg

Alexius Frederick Christian of Anhalt-Bernburg (12 June 1767 – 24 March 1834), was a German prince of the House of Ascania. From 1796 until 1807 he was Reigning prince of the principality of Anhalt-Bernburg, and from 1807 until 1834 the first Duke of the Duchy of Anhalt-Bernburg.

Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym

Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym (originally Anhalt-Zeitz-Hoym) was a German principality and member of the Holy Roman Empire. The death of Prince Victor Amadeus of Anhalt-Bernburg in 1718 resulted in the partition of his land, with his second son Prince Lebrecht inheriting what was originally known as Anhalt-Zeitz-Hoym.

The name of this principality was changed in 1727 from Anhalt-Zeitz-Hoym to Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym. The death of Prince Frederick on 24 December 1812 resulted in the extinction of the ruling house, and the territory was inherited by the Princes of Anhalt-Bernburg.

Anhalt-Harzgerode

Anhalt-Harzgerode was a small principality of the Holy Roman Empire, ruled by the House of Ascania with its residence at Harzgerode in present-day Saxony-Anhalt. It was created in 1635 following the partition of Anhalt-Bernburg with Frederick, a younger son of Prince Christian I becoming the reigning prince. The death of Frederick's son Prince William Louis in 1709 resulted in the extinction of the ruling family and Anhalt-Harzgerode was reunited with Anhalt-Bernburg.

Bernhard I, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg

Bernhard I, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg (ca. 1218–1287) was a German prince of the House of Ascania and ruler of the principality of Anhalt-Bernburg.

He was the second son of Henry I, Count of Anhalt (who was elevated to the rank of prince in 1218), by his wife Irmgard, daughter of Hermann I, Landgrave of Thuringia.

Bernhard II, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg

Bernhard II, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg (ca. 1260 – aft. 26 December 1323), was a German prince of the House of Ascania and ruler of the principality of Anhalt-Bernburg.

He was the third son of Bernhard I, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg, by his wife Princess Sophie, daughter of King Abel of Denmark.

Bernhard III, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg

Bernhard III, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg (died 20 August 1348) was a German prince of the House of Ascania and ruler of the principality of Anhalt-Bernburg.

He was the eldest son of Bernhard II, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg, by his wife Helene, daughter of Wizlaw II, Prince of Rügen.

Charles Louis, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym

Prince Charles Louis of Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym; Schaumburg, 16 May 1723 – Schaumburg, 20 August 1806), was a German prince of the House of Ascania from the Anhalt-Bernburg branch and ruler of the principality of Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym.

He was the third (but second surviving) son of Victor I Amadeus Adolph, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym, by his first wife Charlotte Louise, daughter of William Maurice, Count of Isenburg-Büdingen-Birstein.

Christian I, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg

Christian I, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg, also known as Christian of Anhalt, (11 May 1568 – 17 April 1630) was a German prince of the House of Ascania. He was ruling prince of Anhalt and, from 1603, ruling prince of the revived principality of Anhalt-Bernburg. From 1595 he was governor of Upper Palatinate, and soon became the advisor-in-chief of Frederick IV, Elector Palatine.

Christian II, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg

Christian II of Anhalt-Bernburg (11 August 1599, in Amberg – 22 September 1656, in Bernburg), was a German prince of the House of Ascania and ruler of the principality of Anhalt-Bernburg.

He was the second (but eldest surviving) son of Christian I, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg by his wife Anna, daughter of Arnold III, Count of Bentheim-Steinfurt-Tecklenburg-Limburg.

Frederick Albert, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg

Frederick Albert of Anhalt-Bernburg (15 August 1735 – 9 April 1796), was a German prince of the House of Ascania and Reigning prince of the principality of Anhalt-Bernburg from 1765 to 1796.

Princess Adelheid of Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym

Princess Adelheid of Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym (German: Prinzessin Adelheid von Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym; 23 February 1800 – 13 September 1820) was a princess of Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym by birth as a daughter of Victor II, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym. As the wife of Duke Paul Frederick Augustus of Oldenburg she became a Duchess of Oldenburg by marriage.

Princess Emma of Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym

Princess Emma of Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym (20 May 1802–1 August 1858) was a German princess. She was the Grandmother of the Dutch Queen Emma of Waldeck and Pyrmont, who was born the day after she died and was named after her.

Princess Hermine of Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym

Princess Hermine of Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym (German: Prinzessin Hermine Amalie Marie von Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym; 2 December 1797 in Hoym, Germany – 14 September 1817 in Budapest, Hungary) was by birth a princess of the House of Ascania and by marriage an Archduchess of Austria.

Princess Luise of Anhalt-Bernburg

Princess Luise of Anhalt-Bernburg (30 October 1799, Ballenstedt – 9 December 1882, Eller, Düsseldorf) was a German Princess.

As the daughter of Alexius Frederick Christian, Duke of Anhalt-Bernburg and his wife Marie Friederike of Hesse-Kassel, she was a Princess of Anhalt-Bernburg and member of the House of Ascania. By her 21 November 1817 marriage to Prince Frederick of Prussia she was a princess of Prussia.

She had two children: Prince Alexander of Prussia (21 June 1820, Berlin – 4 January 1896, Berlin) and Prince George of Prussia (12 February 1826, Düsseldorf – 2 May 1902, Berlin).

Victor Amadeus, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg

Victor Amadeus of Anhalt-Bernburg (6 October 1634 in Harzgerode – 14 February 1718 in Bernburg), was a German prince of the House of Ascania and ruler of the principality of Anhalt-Bernburg.

He was the sixth (but second surviving) son of Christian II, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg, by his wife Eleonore Sophie, daughter of John the Younger, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg.

Victor Frederick, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg

Victor Frederick of Anhalt-Bernburg (20 September 1700–18 May 1765), was a German prince of the House of Ascania. He was Reigning prince of the principality of Anhalt-Bernburg from 1721 to 1765.

Victor I, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym

Victor I, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym (Schaumburg, 7 September 1693 – Schaumburg, 15 April 1772), was a German prince of the House of Ascania who belonged to a cadet branch of the princely house of Anhalt-Bernburg.

Through his mother, he inherited the County of Holzappel and Lordship of Schaumburg and founded the cadet branch of Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym.

Victor II, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym

Victor II Karl Frederick of Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym (Schaumburg, 2 November 1767 – Schaumburg, 22 April 1812), was a German prince of the House of Ascania from the Anhalt-Bernburg branch and a ruler of the principality of Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym.

He was the eldest son of Karl Louis, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym, by his second wife Amalie Eleonore, daughter of Frederick William, Prince of Solms-Braunfels.

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