Angular (web framework)

Angular (commonly referred to as "Angular 2+" or "Angular v2 and above")[4][5] is a TypeScript-based open-source web application framework led by the Angular Team at Google and by a community of individuals and corporations. Angular is a complete rewrite from the same team that built AngularJS.

Angular full color logo
Initial release2.0 / 14 September 2016[1]
Stable release
7.2.12 / 4 April 2019[2]
Preview release
8.0.0-beta.11 / 4 April 2019[3]
Written inTypeScript
PlatformWeb platform
TypeWeb framework
LicenseMIT License

Differences between Angular and AngularJS

Architecture of an Angular 2 application
Architecture of an Angular application. The main building blocks are modules, components, templates, metadata, data binding, directives, services and dependency injection.

Angular was a ground-up rewrite of AngularJS.

  • Angular does not have a concept of "scope" or controllers, instead it uses a hierarchy of components as its primary architectural characteristic.[6]
  • Angular has a different expression syntax, focusing on "[ ]" for property binding, and "( )" for event binding[7]
  • Modularity – much core functionality has moved to modules
  • Angular recommends the use of Microsoft's TypeScript language, which introduces the following features:
  • TypeScript is a superset of ECMAScript 6 (ES6), and is backwards compatible with ECMAScript 5 (i.e.: JavaScript). * Dynamic loading
  • Asynchronous template compilation
  • Iterative callbacks provided by RxJS. RxJS limits state visibility and debugging, but these can be solved with reactive add-ons like ngReact or ngrx.
  • Support Angular Universal, a technology that runs your Angular application on the server
  • Has its own suite of modern UI components that work across the web, mobile and desktop, called Angular Material



Originally, the rewrite of AngularJS was called "Angular 2" by the team, but this led to confusion among developers. To clarify, the team announced that separate terms should be used for each framework with "AngularJS" referring to the 1.X versions and "Angular" without the "JS" referring to versions 2 and up.[8]

Version 2

Angular 2.0 was announced at the ng-Europe conference 22-23. October 2014.[9][10] The drastic changes in the 2.0 version created considerable controversy among developers.[11] On April 30, 2015, the Angular developers announced that Angular 2 moved from Alpha to Developer Preview.[12] Angular 2 moved to Beta in December 2015,[13] and the first release candidate was published in May 2016.[14] The final version was released on September 14, 2016.

Version 4

On 13 December 2016 Angular 4 was announced, skipping 3 to avoid a confusion due to the misalignment of the router package's version which was already distributed as v3.3.0.[15] The final version was released on March 23, 2017.[16] Angular 4 is backward compatible with Angular 2.[17]

Angular version 4.3 is a minor release, meaning that it contains no breaking changes and that it is a drop-in replacement for 4.x.x.

Features in version 4.3

  • Introducing HttpClient, a smaller, easier to use, and more powerful library for making HTTP Requests.
  • New router life cycle events for Guards and Resolvers. Four new events: GuardsCheckStart, GuardsCheckEnd, ResolveStart, ResolveEnd join the existing set of life cycle event such as NavigationStart.
  • Conditionally disable animations.

Version 5

Angular 5 was released on November 1, 2017.[18] Key improvements in Angular 5 include support for progressive web apps, a build optimizer and improvements related to Material Design.[19]

Version 6

Angular 6 was released on May 4, 2018.[20]. This is a major release focused less on the underlying framework, and more on the toolchain and on making it easier to move quickly with Angular in the future, like: ng update, ng add, Angular Elements, Angular Material + CDK Components, Angular Material Starter Components, CLI Workspaces, Library Support, Tree Shakable Providers, Animations Performance Improvements, and RxJS v6.

Version 7

Angular 7 was released on October 18, 2018. Updates regarding Application Performance, Angular Material & CDK, Virtual Scrolling, Improved Accessibility of Selects, now supports Content Projection using web standard for custom elements, and dependency updates regarding Typescript 3.1, RxJS 6.3, Node 10 (still supporting Node 8).[21]

Future Releases

One of the highlights is the expected release of Ivy[22], a backwards compatible, completely new render engine based on the incremental DOM architecture. Ivy has been engineered with tree shaking in mind, which means that application bundles will only include the parts of Angular source code that is actually used by the application.

Each version is expected to be backward-compatible with the prior release. Google pledged to do twice-a-year upgrades.

Support policy and schedule

All the major releases are supported for 18 months. This consists of 6 months of active support, during which regularly-scheduled updates and patches are released. It is then followed by 12 months of long-term support (LTS), during which only critical fixes and security patches are released.

See also


  1. ^ "Angular, version 2: proprioception-reinforcement". September 14, 2016. Retrieved 2017-03-18.
  2. ^ "One framework. Mobile & desktop. Contribute to angular/angular development by creating an account on GitHub". 31 December 2018 – via GitHub.
  3. ^ "angular/ at master · angular/angular". GitHub. Retrieved 2018-08-29.
  4. ^ "r/Angular2". reddit.
  5. ^ "AngularJS and Angular 2+: a Detailed Comparison". 6 April 2018.
  6. ^ "Angular Docs".
  7. ^ "What's the difference between AngularJS and Angular?". September 19, 2017. Retrieved 2018-01-28.
  8. ^ "Angular: Branding Guidelines for AngularJS". Retrieved 2017-03-04.
  9. ^ Coman Hamilton. "A sneak peek at the radically new Angular 2.0". Retrieved 2015-10-21.
  10. ^ "Ng-Europe schedule".
  11. ^ Coman Hamilton. "Angular 2.0 announcement backfires". Retrieved 2015-10-21.
  12. ^ @angularjs (30 Apr 2015). "Angular 2 moves from Alpha to Developer Preview! Dev guide and API docs now available at ..." (Tweet). Retrieved 2015-10-21 – via Twitter.
  13. ^ "Angular: Angular 2 Beta". Retrieved 2016-07-13.
  14. ^ "angular/angular". GitHub. Retrieved 2016-05-04.
  15. ^ "Ok... let me explain: it's going to be Angular 4.0". Retrieved 2016-12-14.
  16. ^ "Angular 4.0.0 Now Available". Retrieved 2017-03-23.
  17. ^ "Angular 4 coming in 2017, to be backwards compatible with Angular 2". Retrieved 2016-12-14.
  18. ^ Fluin, Stephen. "Version 5.0.0 of Angular Now Available". Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  19. ^ "Angular 5 JavaScript framework delayed".
  20. ^ "Version 6.0.0 of Angular Now Available". Retrieved 4 May 2018.
  21. ^ Fluin, Stephen. "Version 7 of Angular — CLI Prompts, Virtual Scroll, Drag and Drop and more". Angular Blog. Retrieved 2018-12-06.
  22. ^ "Ivy Renderer (beta) · Issue #21706 · angular/angular". GitHub. Retrieved 2018-08-02.

External links


AngularJS is a JavaScript-based open-source front-end web framework mainly maintained by Google and by a community of individuals and corporations to address many of the challenges encountered in developing single-page applications. It aims to simplify both the development and the testing of such applications by providing a framework for client-side model–view–controller (MVC) and model–view–viewmodel (MVVM) architectures, along with components commonly used in rich Internet applications. (This flexibility has led to the acronym MVW, which stands for "model-view-whatever" and may also encompass model–view–presenter and model–view–adapter.) In 2014, the original AngularJS team began working on the Angular web framework.

The AngularJS framework works by first reading the Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) page, which has additional custom HTML attributes embedded into it. Angular interprets those attributes as directives to bind input or output parts of the page to a model that is represented by standard JavaScript variables. The values of those JavaScript variables can be manually set within the code, or retrieved from static or dynamic JSON resources.

According to JavaScript analytics service Libscore, AngularJS is used on the websites of Wolfram Alpha, NBC, Walgreens, Intel, Sprint, ABC News, and about 12,000 other sites out of 1 million tested in October 2016. AngularJS is currently in the top 100 of the most starred projects on GitHub.AngularJS is the frontend part of the MEAN stack, consisting of MongoDB database, Express.js web application server framework, Angular.js itself, and Node.js server runtime environment.

Ionic (mobile app framework)

Ionic is a complete open-source SDK for hybrid mobile app development created by Max Lynch, Ben Sperry and Adam Bradley of Drifty Co. in 2013. The original version was released in 2013 and built on top of AngularJS and Apache Cordova. The more recent releases, known as Ionic 3 or simply "Ionic", are built on Angular (web framework). However, The latest release allows you to choose your User interface framework from Angular (web framework), React (JavaScript library) and Vue.js. It also allows the use of Ionic User Interface components with no User Interface framework at all. Ionic provides tools and services for developing hybrid mobile apps based on a MVC environment, using Web technologies like CSS, HTML5, and Sass. Apps can be built with these Web technologies and then distributed through native app stores to be installed on devices by leveraging Cordova.Ionic Creator is a drag-and-drop interface building tool.

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