Anguimorpha

Anguimorphs of the infraorder Anguimorpha include the anguids (alligator lizards, glass lizards, galliwasps and legless lizards). The infraorder was named by Fürbringer in 1900 to include all autarchoglossans closer to Varanus and Anguis than Scincus. These lizards, along with iguanians and snakes, constitute the proposed "venom clade" Toxicofera of all venomous reptiles.[1]

Anguimorphs
Anguidae
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Clade: Toxicofera
Suborder: Anguimorpha
Fürbringer, 1900
Subclades

Families

Anguidae

There are 9 genera found within the Anguidae family. They are characterized by being heavily armored with non-overlapping scales, and almost all having well-developed ventrolateral folds (excluding Anguis). Anguidae members can, however, be somewhat difficult to identify in their family, as members can be limbed or limbless, and can be both viviparous and oviparous.

Anniellidae

There is only one genus within the Anniellidae family, comprising 6 species of American legless lizards. They are characterized as having no limbs, an can be found in California and Baja California. They have wedge shaped heads and a countersunk jaw that allow them to bury themselves in sand or loose soil. They give live birth and usually have two offspring

Diploglossidae

There are three genera in the Diploglossidae family. They are characterized by having very long, autotomized tails, and no ventrolateral fold. They give both live birth, and lay clutches, according to the genus.

Xenosauridae

There is only once genus, with 6 species, found in the Xenosauridae family. This family is both dorsally and ventrally covered in knob-like scales. Their tail is about 1.2 times the length of their body. They give live birth, with a litter usually consisting of two offspring.

Helodermatidae

The family Helodermatidae (beaded lizards) has only one genus with 5 species, incluing the Gila monster. This family is the only known family of lizards that have well-developed venom glands. They have somewhat tubercular scales both dorsally and laterally, with their ventral scales being smooth , and being larger than the dorsal and lateral scales. They are oviparous, with clutch sizes averaging about 6 eggs per clutch.

Shinisauridae

The family of Shinisauridae is only made up of one species, Shinisaurus crocodilurus, the Chinese crocodile lizard. This species is semiaquatic, found in forests along streams. Found in southern China, this species is viviparous, with litters ranging from 2-7 individuals. This species has well developed limbs, and has a tail that is around 1.2 times the length of its body.

Lanthanotidae

The family Lanthanotidae consists of a single species, the earless monitor lizard (Lanthanotus borneensis). This species has thick skin, which is covered by small, rounded scales. The main defining feature that distinguishes this species from other monitors is its lack of a parietal eye and the lack of a hemibaculum. The species is presumed to be semiaquatic, but little is known about its wild habits, as most information and study comes from captive individuals.

Varanidae

The Varanidae are a family of carnivorous and frugivorous monitor lizards, which contains one extant genus (Varanus) with 73 species, including the Komodo dragon. They can be characterized by their thick skin and small, rounded scales. The ventral scales are slightly larger than the dorsal scales. They have a parietal eye and a hemibaculum. This oviparous family has a clutch size that correlates with the body size. They also have limbs that are relatively small for their body size. The family is also broken up into 9 distinct morphological subgroups.

References

  1. ^ Fry, B.; et al. (February 2006). "Early evolution of the venom system in lizards and snakes" (PDF). Nature. 439 (7076): 584–588. doi:10.1038/nature04328. PMID 16292255.
American legless lizard

The family Anniellidae, known as American legless lizards, contains six species in a single genus Anniella: A. pulchra, the California legless lizard, the rare A. geronimensis, Baja California legless lizard, and four more discovered in 2013.

Anniella pulchra

Anniella pulchra, the California legless lizard, is a limbless, burrowing lizard often mistaken for a snake.

Chometokadmon

Chometokadmon is an extinct genus of anguimorph lizard from the Early Cretaceous of Italy. The type and only species is Chometokadmon fitzingeri, named by Italian zoologist Oronzio Gabriele Costa in 1864. It is known from only one specimen, a nearly complete skeleton from the comune of Pietraroja in the Apennine Mountains. Costa identified the specimen as a lizard, but in 1915 paleontologist Geremia d'Erasmo reclassified the skeleton as that of a rhynchocephalian on the basis of another rhynchocephalian specimen Costa had described, which d'Erasmo thought belonged to the same species. Later studies of the anatomy of these two specimens revealed that they belonged to two different species; Costa's Chometokadmon was a lizard whereas the other specimen, renamed Derasmosaurus in honor of d'Erasmo, was a rhynchocephalian. The first detailed description of Chometokadmon came in 2006, allowing it to be incorporated into a phylogenetic analysis of lizards. The analysis placed Chometokadmon as a member of the clade (evolutionary grouping) Anguimorpha, which includes Anguidae, Xenosauridae, and Varanoidea.

Iguanomorpha

Iguania is an infraorder of squamate reptiles that includes iguanas, chameleons, agamids, and New World lizards like anoles and phrynosomatids. Using morphological features as a guide to evolutionary relationships, the Iguania are believed to form the sister group to the remainder of the Squamata. However, molecular information has placed Iguania well within the Squamata as sister taxa to the Anguimorpha and closely related to snakes. Iguanians are largely arboreal and usually have primitive fleshy, non-prehensile tongues, although the tongue is highly modified in chameleons. The group has a fossil record that extends back to the Early Jurassic (the oldest known member is Bharatagama, which lived about 190 million years ago in what is now India).

List of reptiles of Turkey

This is a list of reptiles of Turkey.

There are 136 species of reptiles in Turkey.

Monstersauria

Monstersauria is a clade of varanoid lizards, defined as all taxa more closely related to Heloderma than Varanus. It includes Heloderma, as well as several extinct genera, such as Estesia, Primaderma and Gobiderma, but it was found to be polyphyletic in the most recent and complete squamate phylogenetic analysis by Reeder et al. (2015).

Ophidiomorpha

Ophidiomorpha is a clade composed of snakes and their primitive and early relatives proposed by Palci and Caldwell (2007) The clade was defined as a node-based clade containing the most recent common ancestor of dolichosaurs, adriosaurs, Aphanizocnemus, and fossil and extant Ophidia and all of its descendants.The existence of Ophidiomorpha as a clade may become problematic as it is placed within the Pythonomorpha, a clade that itself is not universally agreed upon containing mosasaurs and snakes, their most recent common ancestor and all of its descendants. Indeed, most 20th-century herpetologists and paleontologists rejected this idea and sought instead to demonstrate a close relationship between mosasaurs and varanid lizards.

Pythonomorpha was later resurrected by a number of paleontologists (Lee, 1997; Caldwell et Lee, 1997) who had conducted cladistic analyses that seemed to show that snakes and mosasaurs may have been more closely related to one another than either were to the varanid lizards, and that snakes more likely arose from aquatic ancestors.

Platynota

Platynota is a group of anguimorph lizards and thus belongs to the order Squamata of the class Reptilia. Since it was named in 1839, it has included several groups, including monitor lizards, snakes, mosasaurs, and helodermatids. Its taxonomic use still varies, as it is sometimes considered equivalent to the group Varanoidea and other times viewed as a distinct group. It is phylogenetically defined as a clade containing Varanidae (the monitor lizards). It also includes many extinct species.

Pythonomorpha

Pythonomorpha was originally proposed by paleontologist Edward Drinker Cope (1869) as a reptilian order comprising mosasaurs, which he believed to be close relatives of Ophidia (snakes). The etymology of the term Pythonomorpha comes from the Greek Python (a monstrous snake from Greek mythology) and morphe ("form"), and refers to the generally serpentine body plan of members of the group. Cope wrote, "In the mosasauroids, we almost realize the fictions of snake-like dragons and sea-serpents, in which men have been ever prone to indulge. On account of the ophidian part of their affinities, I have called this order Pythonomorpha." Cope incorporated two families, the Clidastidae (now defunct but including only Clidastes) and the Mosasauridae (including Macrosaurus [?=Tylosaurus], Mosasaurus, and Platecarpus).

However, a close relationship between mosasaurs and snakes was rejected by most 20th-century herpetologists and paleontologists, who sought, instead, to demonstrate a close relationship between mosasaurs and varanid (monitor) lizards and who generally considered snakes to have evolved from terrestrial, burrowing lizards (see, for example, Russell, 1967). Cope's Pythonomorpha was later resurrected by a number of paleontologists (Lee, 1997; Caldwell et Lee, 1997) who had conducted cladistic analyses that seemed to show that snakes and mosasaurs may have been more closely related to one another than either were to the varanid lizards, and that snakes more likely arose from aquatic ancestors. As redefined by Lee (1997), the monophyletic Pythonomorpha consists of "The most recent common ancestor of mosasauroids and snakes, and all its descendants." This would include the aigialosaurs, dolichosaurs, coniasaurs, mosasaurs, and all snakes. Lee (1997) was able to show no less than 38 synapomorphies supporting Pythonomorpha.

If Pythonomorpha is valid, it contains not only mosauroids but the Ophidiomorpha, which was defined as a node-based clade containing the most recent common ancestor of dolichosaurs, adriosaurs, Aphanizocnemus, and fossil and extant Ophidia and all of its descendants.However, the validity of Pythonomorpha is still debated; indeed, there is no consensus about the relationships of snakes or mosasaurs to each other, or to the rest of the lizards. An analysis by Conrad (2008) placed mosasaurs with varanoid lizards, and snakes with skinks, while an analysis by Gauthier et al. (2012) suggested that mosasaurs are more primitive than either snakes or varanoids. However, a combined morphological and molecular analysis by Reeder et al. (2015) recovered Mosasauria and Serpentes as sisters, consistent with Pythonomorpha.

Scleroglossa

Scleroglossa is a clade (evolutionary group) of lizards that includes geckos, autarchoglossans (scincomorphs, anguimorphs, and varanoids), and amphisbaenians. Scleroglossa is supported by phylogenetic analyses that use morphological features (visible anatomical features). According to most morphological analyses, Scleroglossa is the sister group of the clade Iguania, which includes iguanas, chameleons, agamids, and New World lizards. Together, Scleroglossa and Iguania make up crown group Squamata, the smallest evolutionary grouping to include all living lizards and snakes.

The name Scleroglossa is derived from the Greek, skleros, meaning "hard" and glossa, meaning "tongue". The split between Scleroglossa and Iguania can be based on features of the tongue; iguanians have a muscular tongue and use lingual prehension to capture food, whereas scleroglossans have hard tongues and use teeth-and-jaw prehension to capture food, freeing the tongue for chemosensory activity.

Recent phylogenetic analyses based on molecular data (such as DNA sequences) nest iguanians deeper within Squamata along with snakes and anguimorphs. Under this phylogeny, Scleroglossa is not a valid grouping. A new clade Bifurcata (bifurcated tongue) has been proposed to include Iguania as a sister taxon to Anguimorpha.

Shinisauria

Shinisauria is a clade or evolutionary grouping of anguimorph lizards that includes the living Chinese crocodile lizard Shinisaurus and several of its closest extinct relatives. Shinisauria was named in 2008 as a stem-based taxon to include all anguimorphs more closely related to Shinisaurus than to any other lizard. Several recent phylogenetic analyses of lizard evolutionary relationships place Shinisauria in a basal position within the clade Platynota, which also includes monitor lizards, helodermatids, and the extinct mosasaurs. Shinisaurians were once thought to be closely related to the genus Xenosaurus, but they are now considered distant relatives within Anguimorpha. The fossil record of shinisaurians extends back to the Early Cretaceous with Dalinghosaurus, which is from the Yixian Formation of China. Two other extinct shinisaurians are currently known: Bahndwivici from the Eocene of Wyoming and Merkurosaurus from the Early Miocene of the Czech Republic.

Shinisauridae

Shinisauridae is a family of anguimorph lizards whose only living representative is the Chinese crocodile lizard (Shinisaurus) from China and Vietnam, but which also includes the extinct genus Bahndwivici from the Eocene Green River Formation of Wyoming in the United States.

Toxicofera

Toxicofera (Greek for "those who bear toxins") is a proposed clade of scaled reptiles (squamates) that includes the Serpentes (snakes), Anguimorpha (monitor lizards, gila monster, and alligator lizards) and Iguania (iguanas, agamas, and chameleons). Toxicofera contains about 4,600 species, (nearly 60%) of extant Squamata. It encompasses all venomous reptile species, as well as numerous related non-venomous species. There is little morphological evidence to support this grouping, however it has been recovered by all molecular analyses as of 2012.

Varanoidea

Varanoidea is a superfamily of lizards, including the well-known family Varanidae (the monitors or goanna). Also included in the Varanoidea are the Lanthanotidae (earless monitor lizards), and the extinct Palaeovaranidae.

Throughout their long evolutionary history, varanoids have exhibited great diversity, both in habitat and form. This superfamily includes the largest-known terrestrial lizard, Megalania (5–6 meters), and the largest extant lizard, the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis, 3+ meters).

Vietnamese crocodile lizard

The Vietnamese crocodile lizard (Shinisaurus crocodilurus vietnamensis) is a subspecies of the Chinese crocodile lizard. This subspecies is a semiaquatic lizard from Quảng Ninh Province in northern Vietnam.

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