Anglosphere

The Anglosphere is a group of English-speaking nations that share common cultural and historical ties to the United Kingdom,[1][2] and which today maintain close political, diplomatic and military cooperation. While the nations included in different sources vary, the Anglosphere is usually not considered to include all countries where English is an official language (and the term is not, therefore, generally considered synonymous with anglophone), although the nations that are commonly included were all once part of the British Empire.[3] Most definitions include Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The term can also encompass the Republic of Ireland[4][5] and English-speaking Caribbean countries such as The Bahamas, Barbados, and Jamaica.[6]

Definitions and variable geometry

Anglosphere Geometry
Variable geometry of the Anglosphere, according to James Bennett (The Anglosphere Challenge)

The term Anglosphere was first coined, but not explicitly defined, by the science fiction writer Neal Stephenson in his book The Diamond Age, published in 1995.[7] John Lloyd adopted the term in 2000 and defined it as including the United Kingdom and the United States along with English-speaking Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Ireland, South Africa and the British West Indies.[6] The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines the Anglosphere as "the countries of the world in which the English language and cultural values predominate".[8][a]

Commonwealth and Anglosphere
     Commonwealth Realms where Elizabeth II remains head of state
     Commonwealth of Nations members (all except Rwanda and Mozambique formerly parts of the British Empire)
     countries that were formerly part of the British Empire but currently not a member of the Commonwealth
     countries formerly under United States rule or influence that have adopted English as one of their main languages

The five main countries in the Anglosphere (the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom) maintain a close affinity of cultural, diplomatic and military links with one another. All are aligned under such programs as:

Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom have Elizabeth II as head of state, form part of the Commonwealth of Nations and use of the Westminster parliamentary system of government. In the wake of the United Kingdom's decision to leave the European Union as a result of a referendum held in 2016, there has been mounting political and popular support for a loose free travel and common market area to be formed between them known as CANZUK.[2][12][13]

Below is a table comparing the five main countries of the Anglosphere. Data are for 2018 unless otherwise stated.

Country Population[14] Land Area (km2)[15] GDP (USD bn)[16] GDP per capita (USD) National Wealth

(USD bn)[17]

Military Spending

2017 (USD mn)[18]

 United States 326,766,748 9,147,420 $20,412.870 $62,469 $98,154 $609,758
 United Kingdom 66,573,504 241,930 $3,028.566 $45,492 $14,209 $47,193
 Canada 36,953,765 9,093,510 $1,847.081 $49,984 $8,319 $20,567
 Australia 24,772,247 7,682,300 $1,312.534 $52,984 $7,577 $27,462
 New Zealand 4,749,598 263,310 $198.516 $41,796 $1,010 $2,328
Five Eyes (FV) 459,815,862 26,428,470 $26,799.567 $58,283 $129,269 $707,309
FV as % of World 6.0% 17.7% 19.9% 329.6% 40.8% 41.6%

Public relations

Public opinion research has found that people in the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and New Zealand consistently rank each other's countries as their country's most important allies in the world.[19][20][21][22] Relations have traditionally been warm between Anglosphere countries, with bilateral partnerships such as those between Australia and New Zealand, the US and Canada and the US and UK constituting among the most successful partnerships in the world.[23][24][25]

Favourability ratings tend to be overwhelmingly positive between countries within a subset of the Anglosphere known as CANZUK (consisting of Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom),[26][27][28][22] whose members form part of the Commonwealth of Nations and retain Elizabeth II as head of state. While the United Kingdom's decision to leave the European Union in 2016 has had little impact on its favourability ratings with other members of the Anglosphere,[26][27][22] there has been a marked drop in the United States favourability ratings with other Anglosphere nations since the election of Donald Trump as the 45th President of the United States in 2016.[26][22][29][30][31] In 2017, the United States had negative favourability ratings with the CANZUK countries.[26][31]

Proponents

The American businessman James C. Bennett,[32] a proponent of the idea that there is something special about the cultural and legal (common law) traditions of English-speaking nations, writes in his 2004 book The Anglosphere Challenge:

The Anglosphere, as a network civilization without a corresponding political form, has necessarily imprecise boundaries. Geographically, the densest nodes of the Anglosphere are found in the United States and the United Kingdom. English-speaking Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Ireland and English-speaking South Africa (who constitute a very small minority in that country) are also significant populations. The English-speaking Caribbean, English-speaking Oceania and the English-speaking educated populations in Africa and India constitute other important nodes.

— James C. Bennett.[9]

Bennett argues that there are two challenges confronting his concept of the Anglosphere. The first is finding ways to cope with rapid technological advancement and the second is the geopolitical challenges created by what he assumes will be an increasing gap between anglophone prosperity and economic struggles elsewhere.[33]

British historian Andrew Roberts claims that the Anglosphere has been central in the First World War, Second World War and Cold War. He goes on to contend that anglophone unity is necessary for the defeat of Islamism.[34]

According to a 2003 profile in The Guardian, historian Robert Conquest favoured a British withdrawal from the European Union in favour of creating "a much looser association of English-speaking nations, known as the 'Anglosphere'".[35][36]

New Zealand historian James Belich connected patterns of growth in the industrialisation of the United States and the United Kingdom with former Dominions of the British Empire; New Zealand, Australia, Canada and South Africa, and more loosely to growth in former UK constituent country Ireland, as well as British-allied Argentina, during the 19th and early to mid-20th century, in his book Replenishing the Earth. He used the term "Anglo-World" to refer to the US, UK and former Dominions, arguing that the experience and present reality of former British colonies like India, Kenya, and Jamaica differ in substantial and important ways from this core group of countries.

Criticisms

In 2000, Michael Ignatieff wrote in an exchange with Robert Conquest, published by the New York Review of Books, that the term neglects the evolution of fundamental legal and cultural differences between the US and the UK, and the ways in which UK and European norms have been drawn closer together during Britain's membership in the EU through regulatory harmonisation. Of Conquest's view of the Anglosphere, Ignatieff writes: "He seems to believe that Britain should either withdraw from Europe or refuse all further measures of cooperation, which would jeopardize Europe's real achievements. He wants Britain to throw in its lot with a union of English-speaking peoples, and I believe this to be a romantic illusion".[37]

In 2016, Nick Cohen wrote in an article titled "It's a Eurosceptic fantasy that the 'Anglosphere' wants Brexit" for The Spectator's Coffee House blog: "'Anglosphere' is just the right's PC replacement for what we used to call in blunter times 'the white Commonwealth'."[38] He repeated this criticism in another article for The Guardian in 2018.[39] Similar criticism was presented by other critics such as Canadian academic Srđan Vučetić.[40][41][42]

In 2018, amidst the aftermath of the Brexit referendum, two British professors of public policy Michael Kenny and Nick Pearce published a critical scholarly monograph titled Shadows of Empire: The Anglosphere in British Politics (ISBN 978-1509516612). In one of a series of accompanying opinion pieces, they questioned:[43]

The tragedy of the different national orientations that have emerged in British politics after empire—whether pro-European, Anglo-American, Anglospheric or some combination of these—is that none of them has yet been the compelling, coherent and popular answer to the country's most important question: How should Britain find its way in the wider, modern world?

They stated in another article:[44]

Meanwhile, the other core English-speaking countries to which the Anglosphere refers, show no serious inclination to join the UK in forging new political and economic alliances. They will, most likely, continue to work within existing regional and international institutions and remain indifferent to – or simply perplexed by – calls for some kind of formalised Anglosphere alliance.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "the group of countries where English is the main native language" (Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (6th ed.), Oxford University Press, 2007, ISBN 978-0-19-920687-2 ).

References

  1. ^ "Anglosphere definition and meaning – Collins English Dictionary". www.collinsdictionary.com.
  2. ^ a b "CANZUK, Conservatives and Canada: Marching backward to empire – iPolitics". 24 February 2017.
  3. ^ "The Anglosphere and its Others: The 'English-speaking Peoples' in a Changing World Order – British Academy". British Academy.
  4. ^ a b Editorial (3 November 2017). "The Guardian view on languages and the British: Brexit and an Anglosphere prison – Editorial". the Guardian.
  5. ^ "Which way is Ireland going?". Financial Times.
  6. ^ a b c Lloyd 2000.
  7. ^ a b "Anglosphere – Word Spy". Word Spy.
  8. ^ Merriam-Webster Staff 2010, Anglosphere.
  9. ^ a b Bennett 2004, p. 80.
  10. ^ Legrand, Tim (1 December 2015). "Transgovernmental Policy Networks in the Anglosphere". Public Administration. 93 (4): 973–991. doi:10.1111/padm.12198.
  11. ^ Legrand, Tim (22 June 2016). "Elite, exclusive and elusive: transgovernmental policy networks and iterative policy transfer in the Anglosphere". Policy Studies. 37 (5): 440–455. doi:10.1080/01442872.2016.1188912.
  12. ^ "UK public strongly backs freedom to live and work in Australia, Canada, and New Zealand" (PDF).
  13. ^ "Survey Reveals Support For CANZUK Free Movement". CANZUK International.
  14. ^ "World Population Prospects – Population Division – United Nations". esa.un.org. Retrieved 27 April 2017.
  15. ^ "Land area (sq. km) | Data". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 27 April 2017.
  16. ^ "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". www.imf.org. Retrieved 15 August 2018.
  17. ^ "Global Wealth Report 2017 Databook". Credit Suisse.
  18. ^ "SIPRI Military Expenditure Database | SIPRI". www.sipri.org. Retrieved 15 August 2018.
  19. ^ Katz, Josh (3 February 2017). "Which Country Is America's Strongest Ally? For Republicans, It's Australia". The New York Times.
  20. ^ "YouGov – Who do the British regard as allies?". YouGov: What the world thinks.
  21. ^ "While 60% of Canadians Consider U.S.A. Canada's Closest Friend and Ally, Only 18% of Americans Name Canada As Same – 56% Instead Name Britain".
  22. ^ a b c d "Poll". Lowy Institute. 2018.
  23. ^ "The Trans-Tasman Relationship: A New Zealand Perspective" (PDF).
  24. ^ "U.S. and Canada: The World's Most Successful Bilateral Relationship – RealClearWorld".
  25. ^ Marsh, Steve (1 June 2012). "'Global Security: US–UK relations': lessons for the special relationship?". Journal of Transatlantic Studies. 10 (2): 182–199. doi:10.1080/14794012.2012.678119.
  26. ^ a b c d "Sharp Drop in World Views of US, UK: Global Poll – GlobeScan". 4 July 2017.
  27. ^ a b "From the Outside In: G20 views of the UK before and after the EU referendum'" (PDF).
  28. ^ "Poll: Who's New Zealand's best friend?". Newshub. 22 June 2017 – via www.newshub.co.nz.
  29. ^ Marcin, Tim (9 May 2017). "Canada's Opinion of America Hits All-Time Low Under Trump". Newsweek.
  30. ^ "U.S. Image Suffers as Publics Around World Question Trump's Leadership". 26 June 2017.
  31. ^ a b "Global Indicators Database". 22 April 2010.
  32. ^ Reynolds, Glenn (28 October 2004). "Explaining the 'Anglosphere'". the Guardian.
  33. ^ Bennett 2004
  34. ^ Roberts 2006
  35. ^ Brown 2003.
  36. ^ "The power of the Anglosphere in Eurosceptical thought". 10 December 2015.
  37. ^ Conquest & Reply by Ignatieff 2000.
  38. ^ "It's a Eurosceptic fantasy that the 'Anglosphere' wants Brexit - Coffee House". 12 April 2016.
  39. ^ Cohen, Nick (14 July 2018). "Brexit Britain is out of options. Our humiliation is painful to watch - Nick Cohen". the Guardian.
  40. ^ "CANZUK, Conservatives and Canada: Marching backward to empire - iPolitics". 24 February 2017.
  41. ^ "Canada and the Anglo World – where do we stand?".
  42. ^ "Speaking in tongues".
  43. ^ Kenny, Michael; Pearce, Nick (13 July 2018). "Opinion – Britain, Time to Let Go of the 'Anglosphere'". The New York Times.
  44. ^ "In the shadows of empire: how the Anglosphere dream lives on – UK in a changing Europe". 11 May 2018.

External links

ABCANZ Armies

ABCANZ Armies (formally, the American, British, Canadian, Australian and New Zealand Armies' Program) is a program aimed at optimizing interoperability and standardization of training and equipment between the armies of the United States of America, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, plus the United States Marine Corps and the Royal Marines. Established in 1947 as a means to capitalize on close cooperation between the United States, United Kingdom, and Canada during World War II, the program grew to include Australia (in 1963) and New Zealand (as an observer from 1965, with full membership in 2006).

AUSCANNZUKUS

AUSCANNZUKUS is an abbreviation for the naval Command, Control, Communications and Computers (C4) interoperability organization involving the Anglosphere nations of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. It is also used as security caveat in the UKUSA Community, where it is also known as "Five Eyes".

Combined Communications-Electronics Board

The Combined Communications-Electronics Board (CCEB) is a five-nation joint military communications-electronics (C-E) organisation whose mission is the coordination of any military C-E matter that is referred to it by a member nation. The member nations of the CCEB are Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States. The CCEB is the Sponsoring Authority for all Allied Communications Publications (ACPs). ACPs are raised and issued under common agreement between the member nations. The CCEB Board consists of a senior Command, Control, Communications and Computer (C4) representative from each of the member nations.The goal of the CCEB is to enhance the interoperability of communications systems among the military forces of the ABCA countries. The CCEB directs the activities of subordinate working groups charged with exchanging operational, procedural, and technical information in defined areas. CCEB products include Allied Communications Publications, Information Exchange Action Items, and CCEB publications. The U.S. CCEB representative is the Joint Chiefs of Staff Director for C4 Systems (J-6). The U.S. Army provides technical representatives to selected CCEB working groups at the request of the U.S. CCEB representative.The CCEB is a member to the Washington-based Multifora consisting of, but not limited to, ABCA Armies, AUSCANNZUKUS, and The Technical Cooperation Program. In the U.S., the Military Command, Control, Communications, and Computers Executive Board (MC4EB) serves as the principal member to the CCEB.

Commonwealth Caribbean

The term Anglophone Commonwealth Caribbean or British Commonwealth Caribbean is used to refer to the British West Indies independent and remaining overseas territories of the Anglosphere English-speaking countries of the Caribbean region. Upon a country's full independence from the United Kingdom, the Anglo Caribbean or the British Commonwealth Caribbean traditionally becomes the preferred sub-regional term as a replacement to British West Indies.

Crystal healing

Crystal healing is a pseudoscientific alternative medicine technique that uses semiprecious stones and crystals such as quartz, amethyst or opals. Adherents of the technique claim that these have healing powers, although there is no scientific basis for this claim.In one method, the practitioner places crystals on different parts of the body, often corresponding to chakras; or else the practitioner places crystals around the body in an attempt to construct an energy grid, which is purported to surround the client with healing energy. Despite this, scientific investigations have not validated claims that chakras or energy grids actually exist, nor is there any evidence that crystal healing has any greater effect upon the body than any other placebo; for these reasons it is considered a pseudoscience.

ECHELON

ECHELON, originally a secret government code name, is a surveillance program (signals intelligence/SIGINT collection and analysis network) operated by the US with the aid of four other signatory nations to the UKUSA Security Agreement: Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United Kingdom, also known as the Five Eyes.The ECHELON program was created in the late 1960s to monitor the military and diplomatic communications of the Soviet Union and its Eastern Bloc allies during the Cold War, and it was formally established in 1971.By the end of the 20th century, the system referred to as "ECHELON" had evolved beyond its military and diplomatic origins to also become "…a global system for the interception of private and commercial communications" (mass surveillance and industrial espionage).

Five Eyes Air Force Interoperability Council

The Five Eyes Air Force Interoperability Council (AFIC) is a formal Five Eyes (Australia, Canada, New Zealand, United Kingdom, United States) military organisation with a mandate to enhance coalition warfighting capability through air force interoperability. AFIC consists of representatives each nation’s Air Forces and the United States Navy. AFIC has a Washington DC based Management Committee which oversees the execution of the program’s Vision and Mission with the cooperation of experts from member nations' defence departments.

AFIC's primary outputs are Air Standards, Advisory Publications and Information Publications which document common specifications, interoperability procedures and/or tactics, techniques, procedures (TTPs) in order to increase operational effectiveness.

Five Nations Passport Group

The Five Nations Passport Group is an international forum between the passport issuing authorities in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States to "share best practices and discuss innovations related to the development of passport policies, products and practices", thereby ensuring that the five countries work collectively towards achieving a secure travel document, safe international travel and protecting national borders.The annual Five Nations Passport Conference is a largely informal in-person meeting between officials of the participating agencies, with some additional invited guests such as the Irish Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade in 2011. It has taken place at least as far back as 2004.

Five Power Defence Arrangements

The Five Power Defence Arrangements (FPDA) are a series of defence relationships established by a series of multi-lateral agreements between the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia and Singapore (all Commonwealth members) signed in 1971, whereby the five powers are to consult each other "immediately" in the event or threat of an armed attack on any of these five countries for the purpose of deciding what measures should be taken jointly or separately in response. There is no specific commitment to intervene militarily. The Five Powers Defence Arrangements do not refer to exclusive economic zones (EEZ) and the enforcement of a state's EEZ rights is a matter for that state; a state may request the assistance of other states in so doing.

Guiri

Guiri (pronounced [ˈɡiɾi]) is a colloquial Spanish slur used in Spain applied to foreign tourists, particularly from countries in northern Europe or the Anglosphere.

James C. Bennett

James Charles Bennett (born 1948) is an American businessman, with a background in technology companies and consultancy, and a writer on technology and international affairs from a conservative point of view.

During the 1980s he was involved in space-launch ventures, being a founder in 1985 of American Rocket Company (AMROC) whose technology found its way into SpaceShipOne. In the 1990s he was a technology consultant. He is President and Chairman of Internet Transactions Transnational, Inc., a 1997 Internet start-up, and Vice Chairman of Openworld, Inc., a nonprofit group promoting sustainable self-help initiatives.

As of 2011, he is a proponent of fundamental reform of the U.S. government space program, both in its civilian and military manifestations.His publications and quotes like "democracy, immigration, multiculturalism… pick any two", popularising the idea of Anglospheric exceptionalism in a similar vein as Mark Steyn, have been called misleading by some libertarian writers. He was a columnist for United Press International 2000-3, with a weekly piece The Anglosphere Beat; he has propagated the idea of the Anglosphere as significant, as of 2004, in world affairs and alignments. His book-length study The Anglosphere Challenge: Why the English-Speaking Nations Will Lead the Way in the Twenty-First Century was published in 2004. He is co-founder and current President of the Anglosphere Institute of Alexandria, Virginia.

He is also an Adjunct Senior Fellow of the Hudson Institute, and a contributor to its publications. In addition, Mr. Bennett serves as an Expert at Wikistrat.Jim Bennet is one of the directors of the Institute for Molecular Manufacturing (IMM), affiliated with the Foresight Institute.

Lars

Lars is a common male name in Germanic-speaking countries, excluding the Anglosphere.

National poetry

This is a list of articles about poetry in a single language or produced by a single nation.

World languages will tend to have a large body of poetry contributed to by several nations (Anglosphere, Francophonie, Latin America, German-speaking Europe), while for smaller languages, the body of poetry in a particular language will be identical to the national poetry of the nation or ethnicity associated with that language.

Soyuz

"Soyuz" is a transliteration of the Cyrillic text "Союз", and is the Russian word for "Union". It was often used as an internal abbreviation for the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ("Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик": "Soyuz Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik") during the period of that country's existence. The term was used officially by both the Soviet State (for example in various projects it commissioned during the Space Race) and the citizenry as a whole. As terminological shorthand it was often used interchangeably with each of the slightly longer term "Сою́з Сове́тских" ("Soyuz Sovetskikh"; "Soviet Union"), and the initialism "СССP" ("USSR" in the Latin Alphabet).

As a Russian language term, its use was primarily confined to the Soviet Union itself, since in other countries (for example in the Anglosphere) the name of the Soviet Union was typically translated into the relevant native language, and abbreviated accordingly.

Stateroom (surveillance program)

STATEROOM is the code name of a highly secretive signals intelligence collection program involving the interception of international radio, telecommunications and internet traffic. It is operated out of the diplomatic missions of the signatories to the UKUSA Agreement and the members of the ECHELON network including Australia, New Zealand, United Kingdom, Canada and the United States.In almost a hundred U.S. embassies and consulates worldwide, Stateroom operations are conducted by the Special Collection Service (SCS), a unit that is jointly operated by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the National Security Agency (NSA).According to documents leaked by Edward Snowden, the true mission of Stateroom personnel is generally not revealed to the rest of the diplomatic staff at the facilities where they are assigned.

Stone Ghost

STONEGHOST or "Stone Ghost", is a codename for a network operated by the United States' Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) for information sharing and exchange between the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada and Australia. Other sources say that New Zealand is also participating, and that Stone Ghost therefore connects, and is maintained by the defense intelligence agencies of all Five Eyes countries.Stone Ghost does not carry Intelink-Top Secret information. It used to be known as Intelink-C and may also be referred to as "Q-Lat" or "Quad link". It is a highly secured network with strict physical and digital security requirements. The network hosts information about military topics, and about SIGINT, foreign intelligence and national security.

The Diamond Age

The Diamond Age: Or, A Young Lady's Illustrated Primer is a science fiction novel by American writer Neal Stephenson. It is to some extent a Bildungsroman or coming-of-age story, focused on a young girl named Nell, set in a future world in which nanotechnology affects all aspects of life. The novel deals with themes of education, social class, ethnicity, and the nature of artificial intelligence. The Diamond Age was first published in 1995 by Bantam Books, as a Bantam Spectra hardcover edition. In 1996, it won both the Hugo and Locus Awards, and was shortlisted for the Nebula and other awards. In 2009, a six-hour miniseries adapted from the novel was slated for development for the Syfy Channel,

although the adaptation did not ultimately emerge.

The Technical Cooperation Program

The Technical Cooperation Program (TTCP) is a long-standing international organisation concerned with cooperation on defence science and technology matters, including national security and civil defence. Its membership comprises Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States (US).

Trinidadians and Tobagonians

Trinidadians and Tobagonians, colloquially known as Trinis or Trinbagonians, are the people who are identified with the country of Trinidad and Tobago. The country is home to people of many different national, ethnic and religious origins. As a result, Trinidadians do not equate their nationality with ethnicity, but with citizenship, cultural identification with the islands as whole, or either Trinidad or Tobago specifically. Although citizens make up the majority of Trinidadians, there is a substantial number of Trinidadian expatriates, dual citizens and descendants living worldwide, chiefly elsewhere in the Anglosphere.

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