The Anglo–Spanish War (Spanish: Guerra Anglo-Española) was a military conflict fought between Britain and Spain as part of the Seven Years' War. It lasted from January 1762 until February 1763 when the Treaty of Paris brought it to an end.
For most of the Seven Years' War Spain remained neutral, turning down both the French and British, but during the war's latter stages, the Spanish became alarmed at the threat posed by the British to their colonies as French losses mounted. In anticipation of the Spanish entering the war on the French side, the British attacked Spanish colonies. In August 1762 a British expedition against Cuba took Havana and western Cuba, then a month later the British seized Manila. The loss of both the capitals of the Spanish West Indies and the Spanish East Indies represented a blow to Spanish prestige. Between May and November three major Franco-Spanish invasions of Portugal were defeated and they were forced to withdraw with heavy losses inflicted by the Portuguese with British assistance. In South America the Spanish succeeded in taking a strategically important port town but otherwise the skirmishes with the Portuguese there changed little.
By the Treaty of Paris (1763) Spain handed over Florida and Menorca to Britain and returned territories in Portugal and Brazil to Portugal in exchange for British withdrawal from Cuba. As compensation for their ally's losses, the French ceded Louisiana to Spain by the Treaty of Fontainebleau (1762).
When war was declared between France and Great Britain in 1756, Spain had remained neutral through most of the war. King Ferdinand VI of Spain's prime minister Ricardo Wall effectively opposed the French party who wanted to enter the war on the side of France. Britain made an attempt to persuade Spain to join the war on their side, by offering Gibraltar in exchange for Spanish help in regaining Menorca, but this was rejected by Madrid. Everything changed when Ferdinand VI died in 1759 and was succeeded by his younger brother Charles III of Spain. Charles was more ambitious than his melancholy brother. One of the main objects of Charles's policy was the survival of Spain as a colonial power and, therefore, as a power to be reckoned with in Europe. He was alarmed by the British conquest of the French Empire in North America, and feared his own empire would be Pitt's next target. He concluded the Bourbon Family Compact with France, offering them practical support.
With evidence of growing Franco-Spanish co-operation, Pitt suggested it was only a matter of time before Spain entered the war. The prospect of war with Spain shattered the cabinet unity which had existed up to that point. Pitt strongly advocated a pre-emptive strike which would allow them to capture the annual plate fleet, denying Spain of its vital resources of wealth which were shipped in. The rest of the cabinet refused, and Pitt resigned. In spite of this war with Spain swiftly became unavoidable; by 1761 France looked like losing the war against Great Britain. Furthermore, Spain suffered from attacks by British privateers in Spanish waters, and claimed compensation.
Fearing that a British victory over France in the Seven Years' War would upset the balance of colonial power, Charles signed the Family Compact with France (both countries were ruled by branches of the Bourbon family) in August 1761. As a result, on 4 January 1762 Britain duly declared war on Spain.
From the British point of view the most pressing issue in the war with Spain was a threatened invasion of Portugal, which although a historic British ally, had, like Spain, remained neutral through most of the conflict. France persuaded a reluctant Spain into attacking Portugal and hoped that this new front would draw away British forces then directed against France. Portugal's long but rugged border with Spain was considered by the French to be vulnerable and easy to overrun (a view not shared by the Spanish), rather than the more complex effort needed to besiege the British fortress of Gibraltar. Spanish forces massed on the Portuguese border, ready to strike. Britain moved swiftly to support their Portuguese allies, shipping in supplies and officers to help co-ordinate the defence.
The original Spanish plan was to take Almeida and then to advance towards the Alentejo and Lisbon, but they switched their target to Porto as it would strike more directly at British commerce. Under the direction of the Marquis of Sarria Spanish troops crossed from Galicia into Northern Portugal capturing several towns. However, the thrust against Porto stalled in difficult terrain and due to the flooding of the River Esla. British troops began arriving that summer with 6,000 coming from Belle Île under Lord Loudoun and a further 2,000 from Ireland. On May 9 Spain invested and captured the border fortress of Almeida. A British-Portuguese counter-attack led by John Burgoyne captured the Spanish town Valencia de Alcántara. French forces began to arrive to support the Spaniards, but like their allies they began to suffer high levels of attrition through disease and desertion. In November with problems with their lines of supply and communication the Bourbon allies withdrew and sued for peace. Despite the large numbers of forces involved, there had been no major battles.
The Seven Years' War spilled over into Portuguese-Spanish conflict in their South American colonies. The South American war involved small colonial forces taking and retaking remote frontier areas and ended in a stalemate. The only significant action involving the British was against the Cevallos expedition, in which Spanish forces took and then defended the strategically important port town on the River Plate Colony of Sacramento.
In June 1762 British forces from the West Indies landed on the island of Cuba and laid siege to Havana. Although they arrived at the height of the fever season, and previous expeditions against tropical Spanish fortresses failed due, in no small part, to tropical disease, the British government was optimistic of victory—if the troops could catch the Spanish off-guard before they had time to respond. The British commander Albemarle ordered a tunnel to be dug by his sappers so a mine could be planted under the walls of the city's fortress. British troops began to fall from disease at an alarming rate, but they were boosted by the arrival of 4,000 reinforcements from America. On 30 July Albemarle ordered the mine to be detonated, and his troops stormed the fortress.
With Havana now in their hands, the British lay poised to strike at other targets in the Spanish main should the war continue for another year. However, they had suffered 1,800 deaths and more than 4,000 casualties during the siege—almost entirely from disease—and for the moment set about consolidating their hold on the countryside around Havana. During the year of British occupation, commerce in Havana boomed, as the port was opened up to trade with the British Empire rather than the restricted monopoly with Cadiz that had existed before.
In early 1762 William Lyttelton, the British governor of Jamaica, sent an expedition to Spanish Nicaragua by raiding along the San Juan river with the primary objective of capturing the town of Granada. The British force and a large group of Miskito Sambu settlers numbering two thousand men and more than fifty boats attacked and destroyed cocoa plantations in the Matina Valley. This was followed by the villages of Jinotega, Acoyapa, Lovigüisca, San Pedro de Lóvago, the mission of Apompuá near Juigalpa and Muy Muy being pillaged and burnt. Soon after on July 26 this force laid siege to the Fortress of the Immaculate Conception; the garrison of which numbered only around a hundred. The garrison commander, Lieutenant Colonel Don José de Herrera y Sotomayor, had died over a week before, but his 19-year-old daughter Rafaela inspired the garrison who forced the British to finally lift their siege and retreat six days later.
Almost as soon as war had been declared with Spain, orders had been despatched for a British force at Madras to proceed to the Philippines and invade Manila. A combined force of 10,700 men under William Draper set off from India in late July, arriving in Manila Bay in September 1762. They had to move swiftly before the monsoon season hit. On 6 October the British stormed the city, capturing it. A large amount of plunder was taken from the city after the Battle of Manila.
Spanish forces regrouped under Simon Anda, who had escaped from Manila during the siege. Rebellions fomented by the British were sabotaged by Spanish agents and crushed by Spanish forces. The British were prevented from extending their authority beyond Manila and the nearby port of Cavite. All agreements made between the British commander and Archbishop Rojo were dismissed as illegal. Eventually the British forces started to suffer troop desertions and dissensions within the command.
News of the city's capture didn't reach Europe until after the Treaty of Paris; as such no provision was made regarding its status. During the siege, the Spanish lieutenant governor had agreed to a four million payment in silver dollars to the British known as the Manila Ransom in exchange for sparing the city. The full amount however was never paid when word of what had happened in the Philippines reached Europe. The British expedition however was rewarded after the capture of the treasure ships Filipina, carrying American silver from Acapulco, and in a battle off Cavite the Santísima Trinidad which carried China goods. The cargo was valued at $1.5 million and the ship at $3 million. The Spanish government demanded compensation for crimes committed against the residents of Manila during the occupation and the controversy over the ransom demanded by the British and the compensation demanded by the Spanish lasted many years. The twenty month occupation of Manila ended in 1764.
Britain held a dominant position at the negotiations, as they had during the last seven years seized Canada, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Dominica, Pondicherry, Senegal, and Belle Île from the French and Havana and Manila from the Spanish. Only one British territory, Menorca, was in enemy hands. Despite suffering a year of defeats, Spain was prepared to fight on—something which their French allies were opposed to. Bute proposed a suggestion that France cede her remaining North American territory of Louisiana to Spain to compensate Madrid for its losses during the war. This formula was acceptable to the Spanish government, and allowed Britain and France to negotiate with more legroom. France and Spain both considered the treaty that ended the war as being closer to a temporary armistice rather than a genuine final settlement, and William Pitt described it as an "armed truce". Britain had customarily massively reduced the size of its armed forces during peacetime, but during the 1760s a large military establishment was maintained—intended as a deterrent against France and Spain.
The Action of 17 July 1628 was the largest incident of the North American phase of the Beaver Wars. The English force led by the Kirke brothers succeeded in capturing a supply convoy bound for New France, severely impairing that colony's ability to resist attack.Action of 31 May 1762
The Action of 31 May 1762 was a minor naval engagement that took place off the Spanish coast off Cadiz, between a British Royal Naval frigate and a sloop against a Spanish frigate during the recently declared Anglo-Spanish War (1762–63). When the Spanish ship surrendered, it was found that she carried a large cargo of gold and silver that would lead to the greatest amount of prize money awarded to British warships.Adwan Rebellion
Adwan Rebellion or the Balqa Revolt was the largest uprising against the British mandate and the newly installed Transjordanian government, headed by Mezhar Ruslan, during its first years. The rebellion was initiated in the early months of 1923, under the slogan "Jordan for Jordanians", but was quickly crushed with the assistance of the British RAF. As a result, the revolt leader, Sultan al-Adwan, fled to Syria with his sons.Ambela Campaign
The Ambela Campaign (also called Umbeyla; Umbeylah; Ambeyla) in 1863 was one of many expeditions in the border area between the Emirate of Afghanistan and the Punjab Province of British India (this area was formally renamed to North-West Frontier Province in 1901, present-day Khyber Pakhtunkhwa); this campaign was against local Pashtuns of Yusufzai tribes of the border region between British India and Afghanistan.
The local Pashtuns were vehemently opposed to British colonial rule and frequently attacked British forces. In 1858, an expedition led by Sir Sydney Cotton drove the Pashtuns from their base. By 1863, however, they had regrouped around the mountain outpost of Malka. A force led by Neville Bowles Chamberlain planned to destroy Malka. They set up an operational base in the Chamla Valley accessed by the Ambela Pass, but they were soon bogged down a numerically superior local force. Reinforcements drafted in by the local Commander-in-Chief eventually broke through the pass, received the surrender of the Bunerwals and went on to burn Malka. The expedition saw 1,000 British casualties and an unknown number of Indian casualties.Anglo-Aro War
The Anglo–Aro War (1901–1902) was a conflict between the Aro Confederacy in present-day Eastern Nigeria, and the British Empire. The war began after increasing tension between Aro leaders and British colonialists after years of failed negotiations.Anglo-Manipur War
The Anglo-Manipur War was an armed conflict between the British Empire and the Kingdom of Manipur. The war lasted between 31 March – 27 April 1891, ending in a British victory.Anglo-Spanish War
Anglo-Spanish War may refer to:
The Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604)
The Anglo-Spanish War (1625–30) was part of the Thirty Years' War
The Anglo-Spanish War (1654–60)
The Portuguese Restoration War (1662–68) English military support for Portuguese Independence
The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–13)
The War of the Quadruple Alliance (1718–20)
The Anglo-Spanish War (1727–29)
The War of Jenkins' Ear, which later merged into the War of the Austrian Succession
The Anglo-Spanish War (1762–63) was part of the Seven Years' War
The Anglo-Spanish War (1779–83)
The Anglo-Spanish War (1796–1808) was part of the French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars
The Spanish American wars of independence (1815–32) British covert military support to Hispanic independentists
The First Carlist War (1833-40), when Britain actively supported Queen Isabella II against royal pretender Infante Carlos, Count of MolinaBattle of Manila (1762)
The Battle of Manila (Filipino: Labanan sa Maynila, Spanish: Batalla de Manila) was fought during the Seven Years' War, from 24 September 1762 to 6 October 1762, between the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Spain in and around Manila, the capital of the Philippines, a Spanish colony at that time. The British won, leading to a twenty-month occupation of Manila.Battle of Suriname
The Battle of Suriname or Battle of Surinam was a battle between the Netherlands and the United Kingdom for the control of the Suriname colony.
The colony, which was held by a Dutch garrison, was captured on May 5, 1804 by a British squadron of 31 ships carrying 500 soldiers under the command of Sir Samuel Hood,and Sir Charles Green. Following the capture, Green was made governor general of British Suriname.Bussa rebellion
The Bussa rebellion, also known as the Boussa rebellion, was a small insurrection in the town of Bussa against the policy of indirect rule in British-controlled Nigeria in June 1915. The rebellion was triggered by British deposition of the local Emir of Bussa, Kitoro Gani, and his replacement with a Native Administration. The rebels attacked and killed around half of the members of the Administration, while the rest fled, leaving the rebels in control in Bussa. Despite the Kamerun Campaign against the German Empire, the British were able to use a small force of soldiers which quickly suppressed the rebellion incurring no casualties. The Bussa Rebellion was the subject of a major work by British historian Michael Crowder.Capture of Ormuz (1622)
In the 1622 Capture of Ormuz (Persian: بازپس گیری هرمز) an Anglo-Persian force combined to take over the Portuguese garrison at Hormuz Island after a ten-week siege, thus opening up Persian trade with England in the Persian Gulf. Before the capture of Ormuz, the Portuguese had held the Castle of Ormuz for more than a century, since 1507 when Afonso de Albuquerque established it in the Capture of Ormuz, giving them full control of the trade between India and Europe through the Persian Gulf. "The capture of Ormuz by an Anglo-Persian force in 1622 entirely changed the balance of power and trade".Cotiote War
The Cotiote War (Kottayathu war) refers to a series of continuous struggles fought between the Cotiote Kottayam king, Pazhassi Raja Kerala Varma, and the English East India Company across a span of thirteen years between 1793 and 1806. Pazhassi Raja aimed to preserve the independence and unity of his kingdom while the British were determined to annex and dismember it. His own desire for independence and sense of betrayal by English on their earlier promise to respect his country’s independence combined with constant exhortations of his two patriot noblemen, Kaitheri Ambu and Kannavath Sankaran, led to outbreak of Cotiote War. It is the longest war waged by English East India Company during their wars of conquests in India – much longer than Anglo-Mysore Wars, Anglo-Maratha Wars, Anglo-Sikh Wars and Polygar Wars. It was one of the bloodiest and hardest wars waged by English in India – English regiments that operated suffered losses as high as eighty percent in 10 years of warfare. Cotiote army waged guerrilla warfare, chiefly centred in mountain forests of Aralam and Wynad, and larger zone of conflict extended from Mysore to Arabian Sea, from Coorg to Coimbatore. Warfare peaked in early 1797, 1800 to 1801, and 1803 to 1804 and due to constant reverses, Bombay regiments were withdrawn and instead Madras regiments were deployed with an increase in number of troops - from 8,000 in 1803 to 14,000 in early 1804. Cotiote War is the only war in which famed General Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington failed – Wellesley himself admitted that Cotiote War cannot be won as long as Raja was alive and his prediction came true. Cotiote War ended within months of death of Cotiote leader, Pazhassi Raja in a skirmish on November 30 of 1805. Following this war, kingdom of Cotiote was annexed into district of Malabar in Madras PresidencyEnglish had 6,000 men in the beginning which was increased to 8,000 in 1800 and to 14,000 in 1804 - Arthur Wellesley was in charge of operations between 1800 and 1804. Cotiote army manpower is not exactly known - estimates vary between 2,000 and 6,000. Cotiote army was well equipped with fire-locks but ran short of musket ammunition after 1799 and so used bows and swords widely. 10 years of war had caused 80 percent loss in British ranks - both European officers and Sepoys. But no estimate is available about death roll in Cotiote armies.First Maroon War
The First Maroon War was a conflict between the Jamaican Maroons and the colonial British authorities that started around 1728 and continued until the peace treaties of 1739 and 1740.Mohmand blockade
The Mohmand blockade (1916–1917) was a blockade formed by a series of blockhouses and barbed wire defences, along the Mohmand border on the North West Frontier by the Indian Army during World War I. The blockade began after a number of Mohmand raids into Peshawar. The most important engagement occurred on 15 November 1916, at Hafiz Kor, when a large number of Mohmands were defeated. The blockade was eventually lifted in July 1917 when the Mohmands finally submitted.Operations in the Tochi
The Operations in the Tochi (28 November 1914–27 March 1915) were carried out by Indian Army during World War I on the North West Frontier. The Tochi river flows East from the tribal territories, through North Waziristan, to join the Kurram and the Indus rivers. On the 28 and 29 November a raid by 2,000 tribesmen from Khost was defeated by the North Waziristan Militia near Miranshah, on the Tochi. The next January the militia again defeated a raid by tribesmen which had attacked Spina Khaisora. On 25–26 March a force of over 7,000 tribesmen, threatened Miranshah, but was defeated by the Bannu Brigade together with the local militia.Pioneer Column
The Pioneer Column was a force raised by Cecil Rhodes and his British South Africa Company in 1890 and used in his efforts to annex the territory of Mashonaland, later part of Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe).Shirley's Gold Coast expedition
In 1781, Great Britain declared war on the Dutch Republic, opening the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War. As part of its offensive strategy, the British organized an expedition against Dutch colonial outposts on the Gold Coast of Africa (present-day Ghana). Captain Thomas Shirley led the expedition, commanding HMS Leander and several transports carrying two small regiments of independently raised troops under the command of Captain Kenneth Mackenzie of the 78th Foot.Six-Day War (1899)
The Six-Day War of 1899 was fought between the British Empire and the major punti clans of the New Territories in Hong Kong on 14–19 April 1899. The British quickly and decisively ended armed resistance, but to prevent future resistance made concessions to placate the indigenous inhabitants. Despite losing to the better equipped British military, they achieved their ultimate goal which was to preserve their land rights, land use, and traditional customs. The special status and rights of the minority indigenous people of Hong Kong are extant to this day. The battle resulted in two wounded on the British side and about 500 dead on the Chinese side.Slachter's Nek Rebellion
The Slachter's Nek Rebellion was an uprising by Boers in 1815 on the eastern border of the Cape Colony.
Theatres of the Seven Years' War