The term Anglo-Indian can refer to at least two groups of people: those with mixed Indian and British ancestry, and people of British descent born or living in the Indian subcontinent. The latter sense is now mainly historical, but confusions can arise. The Oxford English Dictionary, for example, gives three possibilities: "Of mixed British and Indian parentage, of Indian descent but born or living in Britain or (chiefly historical) of British descent or birth but living or having lived long in India". People fitting the middle definition are more usually known as British Asian or British Indian. This article focuses primarily on the modern definition, a distinct minority community of mixed Eurasian ancestry, whose native language is English.
During the centuries that Britain was in India, the children born to the British and Indians began to form a new community. These Anglo-Indians formed a small but significant portion of the population during the British Raj, and were well represented in certain administrative roles. The Anglo-Indian population dwindled from roughly two million at the time of independence in 1947 to 300,000 - 1,000,000 by 2010. Many have adapted to local communities or emigrated to the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, the United States and New Zealand. This process was replicated in many other meetings of European traders and colonisers across the subcontinent, creating the Anglo-Burmese people in Myammar and the Burgher people in Sri Lanka.
|Regions with significant populations|
|Kolkata, Delhi, Kochi, Kollam(Quilon), Mumbai, Nagercoil, Lucknow, Hyderabad, Secunderabad, Bangalore, Chennai|
|India||Est. 300,000 – 1,000,000|
|English Local regional languages are also commonly spoken|
|Christianity (Protestantism or Catholicism), Hinduism, Islam, Sikhism, Jainism, Irreligion, Atheism|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Indo-Aryan people, Dravidian people, British people, Anglo-Burmese, Scottish-Indian, Irish Indians, Burghers, Kristang people, Indo people, Singaporean Eurasians, Macanese people|
The first use of "Anglo-Indian" was to describe all British people living in India. People of mixed British and Indian descent were referred to as "Eurasians". Terminology has changed, and the latter group are now called "Anglo-Indians", the term that will be used throughout this article.
During the British East India Company's rule in India in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, it was fairly common for British officers and soldiers to take local wives and have Eurasian children, owing to a lack of British women in India. By the mid-19th century, there were around 40,000 British soldiers, but fewer than 2,000 British officials present in India.
Originally, under Regulation VIII of 1813, they were excluded from the British legal system and in Bengal became subject to the rule of Islamic law outside Calcutta – and yet found themselves without any caste or status amongst those who were to judge them. In 1821, a pamphlet entitled "Thoughts on how to better the condition of Indo-Britons" by a "Practical Reformer," was written to promote the removal of prejudices existing in the minds of young Eurasians against engaging in trades. This was followed up by another pamphlet, entitled "An Appeal on behalf of Indo-Britons." Prominent Eurasians in Calcutta formed the "East Indian Committee" with a view to send a petition to the British Parliament for the redress of their grievances. John William Ricketts, a pioneer in the Eurasian cause, volunteered to proceed to England. His mission was successful, and on his return to India, by way of Madras, he received quite an ovation from his countrymen in that presidency; and was afterwards warmly welcomed in Calcutta, where a report of his mission was read at a public meeting held in the Calcutta Town Hall. In April 1834, in obedience to an Act of Parliament passed in August 1833, the Indian Government was forced to grant government jobs to Anglo-Indians.
As British women began arriving in India in large numbers around the early to mid-19th century, mostly as family members of officers and soldiers, British men became less likely to marry Indian women. Intermarriage declined after the events of the Rebellion of 1857, after which several anti-miscegenation laws were implemented. As a result, Eurasians were neglected by both the British and Indian populations in India.
Over generations, Anglo-Indians intermarried with other Anglo-Indians to form a community that developed a culture of its own. Their cuisine, dress, speech (use of English as their mother tongue), and religion (Christianity) all served to further segregate them from the native population. A number of factors fostered a strong sense of community among Anglo-Indians. Their English language school system, their Anglo-centric culture, and their Christian beliefs in particular helped bind them together.
They formed social clubs and associations to run functions, including regular dances on occasions such as Christmas and Easter. Indeed, their Christmas balls, held in most major cities, still form a distinctive part of Indian Christian culture.
Over time Anglo-Indians were specifically recruited into the Customs and Excise, Post and Telegraphs, Forestry Department, the railways and teaching professions – but they were employed in many other fields as well.
The Anglo-Indian community also had a role as go-betweens in the introduction of Western musical styles, harmonies and instruments in post-Independence India. During the colonial era, genres including ragtime and jazz were played by bands for the social elites, and these bands often contained Anglo-Indian members.
During the independence movement, many Anglo-Indians identified (or were assumed to identify) with British rule, and, therefore, incurred the distrust and hostility of Indian nationalists. Their position at independence was difficult. They felt a loyalty to a British "home" that most had never seen and where they would gain little social acceptance. (Bhowani Junction touches on the identity crisis faced by the Anglo-Indian community during the independence struggle.) They felt insecure in an India that put a premium on participation in the independence movement as a prerequisite for important government positions.
Many Anglo-Indians left the country in 1947, hoping to make a new life in the United Kingdom or elsewhere in the Commonwealth of Nations, such as Australia or Canada. The exodus continued through the 1950s and 1960s and by the late 1990s most had left with many of the remaining Anglo-Indians still aspiring to leave.
Like the Parsi community, the Anglo-Indians are essentially urban dwellers. Unlike the Parsis, the mass migrations saw more of the better educated and financially secure Anglo-Indians depart for other Commonwealth nations.
There has been a resurgence in celebrating Anglo-Indian culture in the twenty-first century, in the form of International Anglo-Indian Reunions and in publishing books. There have been nine reunions, with the latest being held in 2015 in Calcutta.
Several narratives and novels have been published recently. The Leopard's Call: An Anglo-Indian Love Story (2005) by Reginald Shires, tells of the life of two teachers at the small Bengali town of Falakata, down from Bhutan; At the Age for Love: A Novel of Bangalore during World War II (2006) is by the same author. In the Shadow of Crows (2009) by David Charles Manners, is the critically acclaimed true account of a young Englishman's unexpected discovery of his Anglo-Indian relations in the Darjeeling district. The Hammarskjold Killing (2007) by William Higham, is a novel in which a London-born Anglo-Indian heroine is caught up in a terrorist crisis in Sri Lanka. Where The Bulbul Sings (2011) by Serena Fairfax features a young Anglo-Indian woman who seeks to deny her heritage and bury her past.
India constitutionally guarantees of the rights of communities and religious and linguistic minorities, and thus permits Anglo-Indians to maintain their own schools and to use English as the medium of instruction. In order to encourage the integration of the community into the larger society, the government stipulates that a certain percentage of the student body come from other Indian communities.
In a 2013 BBC news feature on Anglo-Indians, journalist Kris Griffiths wrote: "It has been noted in recent years that the number of Anglo-Indians who have succeeded in certain fields is remarkably disproportionate to the community's size. For example, in the music industry there are Engelbert Humperdinck (born Madras), Peter Sarstedt (Delhi) and Cliff Richard (Lucknow). The looser definition of Anglo-Indian (any mixed British-Indian parentage) encompasses the likes of cricketer Nasser Hussain, footballer Michael Chopra and actor Ben Kingsley."
Anglo-Indians distinguished themselves in the military. Air Vice-Marshal Maurice Barker was India's first Anglo-Indian Air Marshal. At least seven other Anglo-Indians subsequently reached that post, a notable achievement for a small community. A number of others have been decorated for military achievements. Air Marshal Malcolm Wollen is often considered the man who won India's 1971 war fighting alongside Bangladesh. Anglo-Indians made similarly significant contributions to the Indian Navy and Army.
Another field in which Anglo-Indians won distinction was education. The second most respected matriculation qualification in India, the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education, was started and built by some of the community's best known educationalists, including Frank Anthony, who served as its president, and A.E.T. Barrow, its secretary for the better part of half a century. Most Anglo-Indians, even those without much formal education, find that gaining employment in schools is fairly easy because of their fluency in English.
In sporting circles Anglo-Indians have made a significant contribution, particularly at Olympic level where Norman Pritchard became India's first ever Olympic medallist, winning two silver medals at the 1900 Olympic Games in Paris, France. In cricket Roger Binny was the leading wicket-taker during the Indian cricket team's 1983 World Cup triumph. Wilson Jones was India's first ever World Professional Billiards Champion.
Several charities have been set up abroad to help the less fortunate in the community in India. Foremost among these is CTR (Calcutta Tiljallah Relief – based in the US), which has instituted a senior pension scheme, and provides monthly pensions to over 300 seniors. CTR also provides education to over 200 needy children. In addition, CTR publishes the following books:
The gross proceeds of all book sales goes to CTR.
Today, there are estimated to be 80,000–125,000 Anglo-Indians living in India, most of whom are based in the cities of Kolkata, Chennai, Bengaluru, Mumbai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Trivandrum, Kochi, Pune, Secunderabad, Mysore, Mangalore, Kolar Gold Fields, Kanpur, Lucknow, Agra, Varanasi, Madurai, Coimbatore, Pothanur, Tiruchirapalli, The Nilgiris District, Nagercoil and a few in Hospet and Hatti Gold Mines. Anglo-Indians also live in the towns of Varkala, Allepey (Alappuzha), Kollam (Quilon/Coulão), Kozhikode (Calicut), Cannanore (Kannur), Fort Kochi in Cochin (Kochi) in the South Indian state of Kerala also at Goa and Pondicherry and in some towns of Bihar such as Jamalpur, McCluskieganj and in Uttarakhand such as Dehra Dun, Jharkhand such as Ranchi, Dhanbad and West Bengal such as Asansol, Kharagpur, Kalimpong. Also a significant number of this population resides in Odisha's Khurda Road, which is a busy railway junction and some in Cuttack. However, the Anglo Indian population has dwindled over the years with most people migrating abroad or to other parts of the country. Tangasseri in Kollam city is the only place in Kerala State where Anglo-Indian tradition is maintained. But almost all the colonial constructions got erased except the Tangasseri Lighthouse built by the British in 1902.
Most of the Anglo-Indians overseas are concentrated in Britain, Australia, Canada, United States, and New Zealand. Of the estimated million or so (including descendants) who have emigrated from India, some have settled in European countries like Switzerland, Germany, and France. According to the Anglo-Indians who have settled in Australia, integration for the most part has not been difficult. The community in Burma frequently intermarried with the local Anglo-Burmese community but both communities suffered from adverse discrimination since Burma's military took over the government in 1962, with most having now left the country to settle overseas.
(2) an Anglo Indian means a person whose father or any of whose other male progenitors in the male line is or was of European descent but who is domiciled within the territory of India and is or was born within such territory of parents habitually resident therein and not established there for temporary purposes only;
Anglo-Indians are the only community that has its own representatives nominated to the Lok Sabha (Lower House) in India's Parliament. This right was secured from Jawaharlal Nehru by Frank Anthony, the first and longtime president of the All India Anglo-Indian Association. The community is represented by two members. This is done because the community has no native state of its own.
Fourteen states out of twenty-nine states in India; Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand and West Bengal also have a single nominated Anglo-Indian member each in their respective State assemblies.
Anglo-Indian often only represents Indians mixed with British ancestry during the British Raj. There are many mixed Indians from other European countries during the colonial era. For example, the definition rarely embraces the descendants of the Indians from the old Portuguese colonies of both the Coromandel and Malabar Coasts, who joined the East India Company as mercenaries and brought their families with them. The definition has many extensions, for example, Luso-Indian (mixed Portuguese and Indian) of Goa, people of Indo-French descent, and Indo-Dutch descent.
Indians have encountered Europeans since their earliest civilization. They have been a continuous element in the sub-continent. Their presence is not to be considered Anglo-Indian. Similarly, Indians who mixed with Europeans after the British Raj are also not to be considered Anglo-Indian.
Historically, the term Anglo-Indian was also used in common parlance in Britain during the colonial era to refer to those people (such as Rudyard Kipling, or the hunter-naturalist Jim Corbett), who were of British descent but were born and raised in India, usually because their parents were serving in the colonial administration or armed forces; "Anglo-Indian", in this sense, was synonymous with "non-domiciled British".
Since the mid-nineteenth century, there has been a population of people of Indian (like Lascars) or mixed British-Indian ethnic origin living in Britain, both through intermarriage between white Britons and Indians, and through the migration of Anglo-Indians from India to Britain.
Indian-British interracial marriage began in Britain from the 17th century, when the British East India Company began bringing over thousands of Lascar seamen to Britain, where they married local British women, due to a lack of Indian women in Britain at the time. As there were no legal restrictions against mixed marriages in Britain, families with Indian Lascar fathers and English mothers established interracial communities in Britain's dock areas. This led to a growing number of "mixed race" children being born in the country; the number of ethnic minority females in Britain were often outnumbered by "half-caste Indian" daughters born from British mothers and Indian fathers. By the time World War I began, there were 51,616 Lascar seamen working in Britain.
Though sometimes referred to as Anglo-Indians, people of Indian or mixed British-Indian ethnicity residing in Britain generally prefer the terms White British, British Indian and mixed White-Asian instead. The first and last categorisations are also used by the UK census.
There is a significant population of Anglo-Indians in Bangladesh of almost 200,000. The presence of Anglo-Indians in Bangladesh is since the British period. But their population had decreased to 4,000 in 1947 during the Partition of India from the present region of Bangladesh. Most of them had migrated to United Kingdom, United States, Australia, New Zealand and Canada. And during the 1971 Bangladesh Liberation War, almost 1,500 Anglo-Indians lost their lives during fighting in the war. But in 1970, one year before the war almost 9,000 Anglo-Indians had come from India. Then after the independence of Bangladesh, during 1974–1976 almost 28,000 Anglo-Indians had arrived in Bangladesh from India to settle down. After that in 1980 there were reported birth of 37,500 Anglo-Indian children in Bangladesh. And in 1993 there were almost 103,713 Anglo-Indians living here. Then finally it rose up to 200,000 in 2016.
Bangladesh constitutionally provides rights and freedom to the Anglo-Indians to perform their culture, customs, traditions and religions freely. They are allowed to maintain their own colonies even. They mainly live in Dhaka, Chittagong and Sylhet. So, there are Anglo-Indian shops, saloons, parlours and schools in this cities, especially in the colonies where they live. In Dhaka, specifically in Banani there have been many Anglo-Indian colonies where there is a residence of estimated 45,000–59,000 Anglo-Indians.
Anglo-Indian Canadians are Canadian citizens of Anglo-Indian heritage. Many Anglo-Indian Canadians have roots in the Indian subcontinent. Some of the earlier generations of Indians have British Indian heritage.Anglo-Indian cuisine
Anglo-Indian cuisine is the cuisine that developed during the British Raj in India, as the British wives interacted with their Indian cooks.The cuisine introduced dishes such as kedgeree, mulligatawny and pish pash to English palates. One of the few Anglo-Indian foods that has had a lasting impact on English cuisine is chutney.
Anglo-Indian cuisine was brought to England in the 1930s by the Veeraswamy restaurant, followed by a few others, but not by typical Indian restaurants.Babita
Babita (born as Babita Hari Shivdasani), also known by her married name Babita Kapoor, is a former Indian actress of Sindhi and British descent, who appeared in Hindi-language films. The daughter of actor Hari Shivdasani, she is the first cousin of her contemporary actress Sadhana Shivdasani. Her debut film was the successful drama Dus Lakh (1966), but it was the romantic thriller Raaz (1967), opposite Rajesh Khanna, that gained her recognition. From 1966 to 1973, she starred in nineteen films as the lead heroine, including the box office successes Dus Lakh (1966), Farz (1967), Haseena Maan Jayegi, Kismat (both in 1968), Ek Shriman Ek Shrimati (1969), Doli (1969), Kal Aaj Aur Kal (1971) and Banphool (1971). Following her marriage to actor Randhir Kapoor in 1971, she acted in Jeet and Ek Hasina Do Diwane (both in 1972). Her subsequent release, Sone Ke Hath (1973) flopped and she decided to leave her film career. The couple have two daughters together, film actresses Karisma and Kareena.Country Captain
Country Captain is a curried chicken and rice dish, which is popular in the Southern United States. It was introduced to the U.S. through Charleston, Savannah, New York and Philadelphia, but has origins in India. The dish was once included in the United States military Meal, Ready-to-Eat packs, in honor of it being a favorite dish of George S. Patton.
It has also appeared on television shows in both the United States and in the United Kingdom, with chefs Bobby Flay, Atul Kochhar and Cyrus Todiwala all cooking the dish. Todiwala served his version to Queen Elizabeth II as part of her Diamond Jubilee celebrations.Curry powder
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Helen Richardson Khan (born Helen Ann Richardson on 21 November 1938), popularly known as only Helen (Hindi pronunciation: [heːleːn]), is a Burma-born Indian film actress and dancer, working in Hindi films. She has received two Filmfare awards and has appeared in over 700 films, and is often cited as the most popular nautch dancer of her time. She was the inspiration for four films and a book. She is the second wife of veteran writer-producer Salim Khan.India–United Kingdom relations
India–United Kingdom relations, also known as Indian–British relations or Indo–British relations, refers to international relations between the Republic of India and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. India has a high commission in London and two consulates-general in Birmingham and Edinburgh. The United Kingdom has a high commission in New Delhi and five deputy high commissions in Mumbai, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad and Kolkata. Both countries are full members of the Commonwealth of Nations. Historically, the UK ruled India for 150 years before Indians gained independence in 1947.
The United Kingdom has an ethnic Indian population of over 1.4 million. Former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom David Cameron described Indian–British relations as the "New Special Relationship" in 2010.Infant Jesus School Kollam
The Infant Jesus Anglo Indian Higher Secondary School, Kollam is an educational institution affiliated to CISCE based in Kollam city in the south Indian state of Kerala. It was established in 1940 by Jerome M. Fernandez, the Bishop of Kollam. The school is situated in Tangasseri, which was a stronghold of western culture with a historical background of ancient Portuguese, Dutch and English settlements. The school was founded primarily to cater to the education of the Anglo Indian Community, the then predominant community of the region.
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The dish can be eaten hot or cold. Other fish can be used instead of haddock such as tuna or salmon, though that is not traditional.
In India, khichari (among other English spellings) usually refers to any of a large variety of legume-and-rice dishes. These dishes are made with a spice mixture designed for each recipe and either dry-toasted or fried in oil before inclusion. This dish moved to Victorian Britain and changed dramatically to the recipe described above.List of schools in Chennai
The school system in Chennai consists of an array of structured systems. Children typically start school (junior or lower kindergarten) at the age of three, progressing to senior or upper kindergarten followed by twelve years of study. Class 10 and class 12 involve taking public examinations conducted by various accreditation boards. Most of the schools are accredited to Tamil Nadu State Board.Marcus Bartley
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The school was founded by Mother Veronica to cater to the educational needs of girls, empowerment of women and the less privileged. In 1889, it was recognised by the erstwhile Madras presidency as a 'European Convent School'. The establishment changed its name to Mount Carmel Convent Anglo Indian Girls School when India gained independence in 1947, before which it was known as The Mount Carmel European School. The strength of the school is around 4000. The school is affiliated to the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations. The students are known for their fluency in the English language.
The school is headed by Rev. Sr. Elsy Paul.
MCC offers classes from LKG up to Std XII. The students are divided into four houses: Blue, Green, Red and Yellow. The Inter-House Cultural Fest and the annual athletic meet fosters the competitive spirit and sportsmanship of the houses. There are clubs and groups like The Literary Club and The Eco Club. A science exhibition is held annually.
The school offers education in various subjects like Maths, Science, Economics, English, etc. It offers Science and Commerce stream in the higher secondary level. The school provides classes in various extra-curricular activities like- dance, music, karate Zumba etc. The school hours is from 8:45 AM - 3:45 PM. The school offers classes in Catechism, Moral Science and Value Education for the spiritual well-being of its pupils. First Friday Holy Masses and rosary recitals are conducted for the Catholic students. Scapulars are also provided to the Catholics. Every year, the students from Classes VIII to X visit old age homes and provide alms to the poor.
The school motto is 'Hold Your Light Up High'.Robert Vadra
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Sarita Catherine Louise Choudhury (born 18 August 1966) is a British Indian actress, best known for her roles in the Mira Nair-directed feature films Mississippi Masala (1992), The Perez Family (1995) and Kama Sutra: A Tale of Love (1996). In the late 1990s, Choudhury added to her repertoire with supporting roles in the thriller A Perfect Murder, 3 A.M, and the John Cassavetes retread Gloria. In 2002, she starred in Just a Kiss. She played a lesbian virgin in Spike Lee's She Hate Me and acted as Anna Ran in Lady in the Water, a 2006 thriller by M. Night Shyamalan. She also played Egeria in The Hunger Games: Mockingjay part 2 and co-starred with Tom Hanks in the 2016 film A Hologram for the King.Vidhan Sabha
The Vidhan Sabha or the State Legislative Assembly is a house of a state legislature in the States and Union Territories of India. In the 29 states and 2 union territories with unicameral state legislature it is the sole legislative house. In 7 states it is the lower house of their bicameral state legislatures with the upper house being Vidhan Parishad or the State Legislative Council. 5 Union Territories are governed directly by the Union Government and have no legislative body. Members of a Vidhan Sabha are referred to as MLAs and are directly elected to serve 5 year terms by single-member constituencies. In 14 states the Governor of a state may appoint one Anglo-Indian MLA to their respective states Vidhan Sabha in accordance with the 23rd Amendment of the Constitution of India. The Constitution of India states that a Vidhan Sabha must have no less than 60 and no more than 500 members however an exception may be granted via an Act of Parliament as is the case in the states of Goa, Sikkim, Mizoram and the union territory of Puducherry which have fewer than 60 members. A Vidhan Sabha may be dissolved in a state of emergency, by the Governor on request of the Chief Minister, or if a motion of no confidence is passed against the majority coalition.Vindaloo
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