Anglo-Egyptian treaty of 1936

The Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936 (officially, The Treaty of Alliance Between His Majesty, in Respect of the United Kingdom, and His Majesty, the King of Egypt) was a treaty signed between the United Kingdom and the Kingdom of Egypt. Under the terms of the treaty, the United Kingdom was required to withdraw all its troops from Egypt, except those necessary to protect the Suez Canal and its surroundings, numbering 10,000 troops plus auxiliary personnel. Additionally, the United Kingdom would supply and train Egypt's army and assist in its defence in case of war. The treaty was to last for 20 years; it was negotiated in the Zaafarana palace, signed in London on 26 August 1936 and ratified on 22 December. It was registered in League of Nations Treaty Series on 6 January 1937.[1]

Anglo Egyptian treaty of 1936 signing - 18-November 1936
Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936

Among the pretexts for the treaty was the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, which had started in 1935. King Farouk feared that the Italians might invade Egypt or drag it into the fighting. The 1936 treaty did not resolve the question of Sudan, which, under the terms of the existing Anglo-Egyptian Condominium Agreement of 1899, stated that Sudan should be jointly governed by Egypt and Britain, but with real power remaining in British hands.[2] With rising tension in Europe, the treaty expressively favoured maintaining the status quo. The treaty, however, was not welcomed by Egyptian nationalists like the Arab Socialist Party, who wanted full independence. It ignited a wave of demonstrations against the British and the Wafd Party, which had supported the treaty.

On 23 September 1945, after the end of World War II, the Egyptian government demanded the modification of the treaty to terminate the British military presence, and also to allow the annexation of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.[3] Following the Wafd Party's victory in the boycotted 1950 election of Egypt, the new Wafd government unilaterally abrogated the treaty in October 1951. Three years later, and with new government leadership under Colonel Gamal Abdel Nasser, the UK agreed to withdraw its troops in the Anglo–Egyptian Agreement of 1954; the British withdrawal was completed in June 1956. This date is seen as when Egypt gained full independence, although Nasser had already established an independent foreign policy that caused tension with several Western powers.

Following the abrupt withdrawal of an offer by Britain and the United States to fund the building of the Aswan Dam, Egypt nationalised the Suez Canal on 26 July 1956,[4] ostensibly to pay for the dam, although in reality the Soviets provided most of the funding. The nationalisation was technically in violation of the international agreement that Nasser had signed on 19 October 1954, although he agreed to pay compensation to the shareholders. Some months later, France, Israel and Britain colluded to overthrow Nasser,[5] and the Suez Crisis ensued.

Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936
TypeBilateral treaty
Signed26 August 1936
LocationLondon, England, UK
Original
signatories
 United Kingdom
Egypt Egypt
RatifiersUnited Kingdom
Egypt
Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936.pdf
Anglo-Egyptian treaty of 1936

Background

In November 1918, seven prominent Egyptians from the landed gentry and the legal profession, including Sa'd Zaghlul, formed a delegation, or wafd, whose chief goal was the complete independence of Egypt from British rule. But when the wafd asked the British High Commissioner in Egypt if they could represent the country at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference, he refused. As a result, the delegation organizers took their message of independence to the people of Egypt and this led to the founding of one of the most popular political parties in modern Egyptian history.[6]

Wafdist leaders thought that the ideas of independence and constitutional government were closely related and they had someone to model themselves after - the British. In 1923, a constitution was proclaimed, and in January 1924 the first elections were held to decide who would be a part of the new parliament. Many European-educated Egyptians believed that the mere existence of a constitution and a parliament would legitimize Egyptian claims for complete independence.[6]

But Egyptian democratic independence ran into many obstacles; the nature of the constitution gave many powers to the king, including the power to dissolve parliament. So the king used this constitutional power to get rid of parliament when they went against his wishes, culminating in many periods of royal rule. The British also continued to meddle in Egyptian politics, and they did not allow for a fully independent political apparatus to develop. Also the Wafd party and other minor political parties never created a coalition to stand together against the British, instead they held each other in contempt. The result of these obstacles was a constant struggle for power between the British-backed King Fuad, and the Wafd party that sought complete independence from the British.

The intense desire for real independence was only partially fulfilled in 1936, when Britain agreed to renegotiate the 1922 declaration of independence, because of Italian expansionism into Ethiopia in 1935.[6]

Treaty provisions

  • Removal of military forces from the Egyptian cities to the Suez Canal area but British soldiers in Sudan remain unconditionally.
  • The number of British troops in Egypt to number no more than 10 thousand soldiers and 400 pilots with the staff required for administrative and technical work in peacetime only, while during a state of war the UK has the right to increase the number.
  • British forces are not transferred to new areas until new barracks are built.
  • British troops remain in Alexandria eight years from the date of the Treaty
  • British air forces remain in the camp in the Canal Zone and are entitled to use Egyptian air space and the same right is given to Egyptian aircraft.
  • In case of war the Egyptian government is committed to provide all facilities and assistance to the British forces including the right to use Egyptian ports and airports and roads.
  • After 20 years from the implementation of the Treaty parties it shall be determined if the presence of British troops is necessary as th Egyptian army may be able to guarantee shipping in the Suez Canal safely. Disagreements may be submitted to the League of Nations.
  • Egypt has the right to demand the abolition of foreign privileges.
  • Cancel all agreements and documents contrary to the provisions of this Treaty including the February 28 statement
  • The return of the Egyptian army to Sudan and the recognition of joint management with Britain.
  • Freedom of Egypt to make treaties with foreign countries, provided that these are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Treaty.
  • Exchange ambassadors with Great Britain.

References

General
Specific

Cleveland, Bunton (2013). A History of the Modern Middle East. Boulder: Westview Press.

  1. ^ League of Nations Treaty Series, vol. 173, pp. 402–431.
  2. ^ Robert O. Collins, A History of Modern Sudan
  3. ^ Jessup, John E. (1989). A Chronology of Conflict and Resolution, 1945-1985. New York: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-24308-5.
  4. ^ "Suez crisis" The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics. Ed. Iain McLean and Alistair McMillan. Oxford University Press, 2003.
  5. ^ Avi Shlaim, The Protocol of Sèvres,1956: Anatomy of a War Plot Published in International Affairs, 73:3 (1997), 509–530
  6. ^ a b c Cleveland, Bunton (2013). A History of the Modern Middle East. Boulder: Westview Press.

External links

1951 in the United Kingdom

Events from the year 1951 in the United Kingdom. This is the year of the Festival of Britain and a general election returning Winston Churchill to power.

All-Red Route

An All-Red Route was, originally, a steamship route used by Royal Mail Ships during the heyday of the British Empire. The name derives from the common practice of colouring the territory of the British Empire red or pink on political maps.

Initially the term was used to apply only to steamship routes (as these were the only practical way of carrying communications between Great Britain and the rest of the Empire), particularly to India via the Suez Canal—a route sometimes referred to as the British Imperial Lifeline. Rail transport was used across France and Italy to the Mediterranean. From 1868 to 1871 the Mont Cenis Pass Railway, a temporary mountain railway line over the Mont Cenis Pass was used for mail.

After use of steamships became widespread at sea, strategically placed coaling stations were acquired to guarantee the mobility of both civil and naval fleets.

In the 1880s the term "All-Red Route" was expanded to include the telegraph network (see All Red Line) that connected various parts of the Empire, and by the 1920s it was also being used in reference to proposed air routes, initially airship and then flying boat, between Great Britain and the rest of the Empire, see Imperial Airship Scheme.

The Suez Canal route dramatically shortened the sea path between Britain and its colonies in Asia, and, conscious of its significance, the British sent troops to seize control of the canal in 1882 at the beginning of the British occupation of Egypt; even after British troops were withdrawn from the rest of Egypt in accordance with the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936, Britain continued to control the canal and kept troops stationed in the canal zone. After Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalised the canal in 1956, sparking the Suez Crisis, UK Prime Minister Anthony Eden declared that "The Egyptian has his thumb on our windpipe", describing the Suez as the "great imperial lifeline".The major "All-Red Route" ran as follows:

Southern Britain → Gibraltar → Malta → Alexandria → Port Said (after construction of the Canal) → Suez → Aden → Muscat (and access to the Persian Gulf) → India → Sri Lanka → Burma → Malaya → Singapore (branching out into the Pacific Ocean towards Hong Kong, Australia, New Zealand, and other British colonies).

With the end of the British Empire and the increasing prevalence of air travel, the terms "All-Red Route" and "British Imperial Lifeline" have fallen from use, and now exist largely in a historical context, generally in reference to the routes in use during the British Empire.

Ansar (Sudan)

The Ansar (Arabic: أنصار‎), or followers of the Mahdi, is a Sufi religious movement in the Sudan whose followers are disciples of Muhammad Ahmad (12 August 1844 – 22 June 1885), the self-proclaimed Mahdi.

Northern Sudan has long been inhabited by Nubian people who farm the Nile valley and follow a nomadic pastoral way of life elsewhere. Sudan came under Egyptian suzerainty when an Ottoman force conquered and occupied the region in 1820–21. Muhammed Ahmad, a Sudanese religious leader based on Aba Island, proclaimed himself Mahdi on 29 June 1881. His followers won a series of victories against the Egyptians culminating in the capture of Khartoum in January 1885.

Muhammed Ahmad died a few months later. His successor, Abdallahi ibn Muhammad, maintained the independence of the Mahdist state until 1898, when an Anglo-Egyptian force regained control. The Mahdi's eldest surviving son, Abd al-Rahman al-Mahdi, was the religious and political leader of the Ansar throughout most of the colonial era of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1898-1955) and for a few years after the Sudan gained independence in January 1956. His descendants have led the movement since then.

Egyptian Revolutionary Command Council

The Revolutionary Command Council (RCC; Arabic: مجلس قيادة الثورة‎ Majlis Qiyāda ath-Thawra) was the body established to supervise the Republic of Egypt and Anglo-Egyptian Sudan after the Revolution of 1952. It initially selected Ali Maher Pasha as Prime Minister, but forced him to resign after conflict over land reform. At that time, the Council took full control of Egypt. The RCC controlled the state until 1954, when the Council dissolved itself.

Egypt–United Kingdom relations

Egypt–United Kingdom relations refers to the bilateral relationship between the Arab Republic of Egypt and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Relations are strong and longstanding. They involve politics, defence, trade and education.

First emergency special session of the United Nations General Assembly

The first emergency special session of the United Nations General Assembly was convened on 1 November and ended on 10 November 1956 resolving the Suez Crisis by creating the United Nations Emergency Force to provide an international presence between the belligerents in the canal zone. The emergency special session was convened due to the failure of the Security Council to resolve the instability at the Suez Canal, invoking "Uniting for Peace" resolution which transferred the issue from the Security Council to the General Assembly. On the fourth day of the session the Canadian representative, Lester B. Pearson, introduced the concept of a UN police force. The creation of the United Nations Emergency Force (the first peacekeeping force) was approved by the General Assembly with 57 supports and zero opposes. The vote had 19 countries abstaining, including the United Kingdom, France, Egypt, the Soviet Union and several Eastern European countries.

HMS Illustrious (87)

HMS Illustrious was the lead ship of her class of aircraft carriers built for the Royal Navy before World War II. Her first assignment after completion and working up was with the Mediterranean Fleet, in which her aircraft's most notable achievement was sinking one Italian battleship and badly damaging two others during the Battle of Taranto in late 1940. Two months later the carrier was crippled by German dive bombers and was repaired in the United States. After sustaining damage on the voyage home in late 1941 by a collision with her sister ship Formidable, Illustrious was sent to the Indian Ocean in early 1942 to support the invasion of Vichy French Madagascar (Operation Ironclad). After returning home in early 1943, the ship was given a lengthy refit and briefly assigned to the Home Fleet. She was transferred to Force H for the Battle of Salerno in mid-1943 and then rejoined the Eastern Fleet in the Indian Ocean at the beginning of 1944. Her aircraft attacked several targets in the Japanese-occupied Dutch East Indies over the following year before Illustrious was transferred to the newly formed British Pacific Fleet (BPF). The carrier participated in the early stages of the Battle of Okinawa until mechanical defects arising from accumulated battle damage became so severe that she was ordered home early for repairs in May 1945.

The war ended while she was in the dockyard and the Admiralty decided to modify her for use as the Home Fleet's trials and training carrier. In this role she conducted the deck-landing trials for most of the British postwar naval aircraft in the early 1950s. She was occasionally used to ferry troops and aircraft to and from foreign deployments as well as participating in exercises. In 1951, she helped to transport troops to quell rioting in Cyprus after the collapse of the Anglo-Egyptian treaty of 1936. She was paid off in early 1955 and sold for scrap in late 1956.

History of Egypt under the British

The history of Egypt under the British lasts from 1882, when it was occupied by British forces during the Anglo-Egyptian War, until 1956, when the last British forces withdrew in accordance with the Anglo-Egyptian agreement of 1954 after the Suez Crisis. The first period of British rule (1882–1914) is often called the "veiled protectorate". During this time the Khedivate of Egypt remained an autonomous province of the Ottoman Empire, and the British occupation had no legal basis but constituted a de facto protectorate over the country. This state of affairs lasted until the Ottoman Empire joined the First World War on the side of the Central Powers in November 1914 and Britain unilaterally declared a protectorate over Egypt. The ruling khedive was deposed and his successor, Hussein Kamel, compelled to declare himself Sultan of Egypt independent of the Ottomans in December 1914.The formal protectorate over Egypt did not long outlast the war. It was brought to an end by the unilateral declaration of Egyptian independence on 28 February 1922. Shortly afterwards, Sultan Fuad I declared himself King of Egypt, but the British occupation continued, in accordance with several reserve clauses in the declaration of independence. The situation was normalised in the Anglo-Egyptian treaty of 1936, which granted Britain the right to station troops in Egypt for the defence of the Suez Canal, its link with the Indian Empire. Britain also continued to control the training of the Egyptian Army. During the Second World War (1939–45), Egypt came under attack from Italian Libya on account of the British presence there, although Egypt itself remained neutral until late in the war. After the war Egypt sought to modify the treaty, but it was abrogated in its entirety by an anti-British government in October 1951. After the 1952 coup d'état, the British agreed to withdraw their troops and by June 1956 had done so. Britain went to war against Egypt over the Suez Canal in late 1956, but with insufficient international support was forced to back down.

History of North Africa

North Africa is a relatively thin strip of land between the Sahara desert and the Mediterranean, stretching from Moroccan Atlantic coast to Egypt. Currently, the region comprises seven countries or territories, from west to east: Morocco, Western Sahara, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt. The region has been influenced by many diverse cultures. The development of sea travel firmly brought the region into the Mediterranean world, especially during the classical period. In the 1st millennium AD, the Sahara became an equally important area for trade as camel caravans brought goods and people from the south. The region also has a small but crucial land link to the Middle East, and that area has also played a key role in the history of North Africa.

Ismail Sedky

Ismail Sedky Pasha (Arabic: إسماعيل صدقي‎) (15 June 1875 – 9 July 1950) was an Egyptian politician who served as Prime Minister of Egypt from 1930 to 1933 and again in 1946.

King of Egypt

King of Egypt (Arabic: ملك مصر‎ Malik Miṣr) was the title used by the ruler of Egypt between 1922 and 1951. When the United Kingdom ended its protectorate over Egypt on 28 February 1922, Egypt's Sultan Fouad I issued a decree on 15 March 1922 whereby he adopted the title of King of Egypt. It has been reported that the title change was due not only to Egypt's newly independent status, but also to Fouad I's desire to be accorded the same title as the newly installed rulers of the newly created kingdoms of Hejaz, Syria and Iraq. The only other monarch to be styled King of Egypt was Fouad I's son Farouk I, whose title was changed to King of Egypt and the Sudan in October 1951 following the Wafdist government's unilateral abrogation of the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936. The monarchy was abolished on 18 June 1953 following the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 and the establishment of a republic. The then-king, the infant Fuad II of Egypt (Farouk having abdicated following the revolution), went into exile in Switzerland.

The rulers of Ancient Egypt may be described using the title King (a translation of the Egyptian word nsw) or Pharaoh (derived from pr ˤ3).

King of Egypt and the Sudan

King of Egypt and the Sudan (Arabic: ملك مصر والسودان‎ Malik Miṣr was-Sūdān) was the title used by the Egyptian monarch from 16 October 1951 until the abolition of the monarchy on 18 June 1953.

In 1951, the Egyptian Parliament amended the Constitution by Law 176 of 16 October 1951 to provide that the title of the King should be "King of Egypt and the Sudan" instead of "King of Egypt, Sovereign of Nubia, Sudan, Kordofan, and Darfur". This move came in the wake of Wafdist Prime Minister Nahhas Pasha's decision to unilaterally abrogate the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936. The change in King Farouk I's title was intended to further Egypt's claims over the Sudan, which had been an Anglo-Egyptian condominium since 1899.The title had long been used by Egyptian nationalists to emphasize their desire for the unity of the Nile Valley. For instance, expatriate Egyptian students in France greeted Farouk I during his 1937 tour of Europe by proclaiming "Long live the King of Egypt and Sudan". A Member of Parliament is also reported to have cried out "Long live His Majesty, King of Egypt and Sudan!" during Farouk I's coronation ceremony. However, the title had no legal standing prior to 1951, and Farouk I was officially "Sovereign of the Sudan" (not King) until the Wafdist government's decision to change his title. The title "King of the Sudan" was merely ceremonial, as the Egyptian King did not exercise effective control over Sudan, which was administered by the United Kingdom. The British objected to the title and did not recognize it, claiming that Egypt needed to respect the Sudanese people's right to self-determination. Many other countries also refused to recognize Farouk I as "King of the Sudan", notably the United States, as well as the Vatican.The only other monarch to officially use the title "King of Egypt and the Sudan" besides Farouk I was his infant son Fuad II. The title was used very briefly, as the Egyptian monarchy was abolished on 18 June 1953. Despite its short-lived existence, the title was used as an overprint on numerous Egyptian postage stamps. Many of the currently surviving stamps featuring Farouk I's portrait thus bear the Arabic inscription "King of Egypt and the Sudan".

Kingdom of Egypt

The Kingdom of Egypt (Arabic: المملكة المصرية‎ Al-Mamlaka Al-Miṣreyya, "the Egyptian Kingdom") was the de jure independent Egyptian state established under the Muhammad Ali Dynasty in 1922 following the Unilateral Declaration of Egyptian Independence by the United Kingdom. Until the Anglo-Egyptian treaty of 1936, the Kingdom was only nominally independent, since the British retained control of foreign relations, communications, the military and the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. Between 1936 and 1952, the British continued to maintain military presence and political advisers, at a reduced level.

The legal status of Egypt had been highly convoluted, due to its de facto breakaway from the Ottoman Empire in 1805, its occupation by Britain in 1882, and its transformation into a sultanate and British protectorate in 1914. In line with the change in status from sultanate to kingdom, the Sultan of Egypt, Fuad I, saw his title changed to King.

The kingdom's sovereignty was subject to severe limitations imposed by the British, who retained enormous control over Egyptian affairs, and whose military continued to occupy the country. Throughout the kingdom's existence Sudan was formally united with Egypt. However, actual Egyptian authority in Sudan was largely nominal due to Britain's role as the dominant power in Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.

During the reign of King Fuad, the monarchy struggled with the Wafd Party, a broadly based nationalist political organization strongly opposed to British domination, and with the British themselves, who were determined to maintain control over the Suez Canal. Other political forces emerging in this period included the Communist Party (1925), and the Muslim Brotherhood (1928), which eventually became a potent political and religious force.

King Fuad died in 1936 and Farouk inherited the throne at the age of sixteen. Alarmed by Italy's recent invasion of Abyssinia, he signed the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty, requiring Britain to withdraw all troops from Egypt, except in the Suez Canal Zone (agreed to be evacuated by 1949).

The kingdom was plagued by corruption, and its citizens saw it as a puppet of the British. This, coupled with the defeat in the 1948-1949 Palestine War, led to the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 by the Free Officers Movement. Farouk abdicated in favour of his infant son Fuad II. In 1953 the monarchy was formally abolished and the Republic of Egypt was established. The legal status of Sudan was only resolved in 1954, when Egypt and Britain agreed that it should be granted independence in 1956.

Mahmoud Shokry

Mahmoud Shokry (Arabic: محمود شكري‎, Maḥmood Shukrī, also transliterated as Mahmoud Shukry or Mahmoud Shukri), was a chief of staff of the Egyptian Army with the rank of Fariq (Lt. General). He was appointed by King Farouk after the signing of the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936 which led to the withdrawal of British forces from Egypt. He has a street in the heart of Cairo named after him.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Egypt)

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Arab Republic of Egypt (Arabic: وزارة الخارجية المصرية‎) is the Egyptian government ministry which oversees the foreign relations of Egypt. On 17 July 2014 Sameh Shoukry was appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs.

Montreux Convention Regarding the Abolition of the Capitulations in Egypt

The Montreux Convention Regarding the Abolition of the Capitulations in Egypt was an international convention concluded on May 8, 1937, which led to the abolition of the extraterritorial legal system for foreigners in Egypt, known as the capitulations. It was signed by the governments of Egypt, the United States of America, Belgium, the United Kingdom, Denmark, Spain (the Republican side in the civil war), France, Greece, Italy, Ethiopia, Norway, the Netherlands, Portugal and Sweden. It went into effect on October 15, 1937, and was registered in League of Nations Treaty Series on the same day.

Munira Thabit

Munira Thabit (Arabic: منيرة ثابت‎) (1902–1967) was an Egyptian journalist and writer, known as one of the first journalists to demand equality for men and women. She was the first woman to enroll in the French Law School of Cairo and the first to earn a license en droit (the French undergraduate law degree) enabling her to practice law before the Egyptian Mixed Court. Despite her distinction as the first woman lawyer in Egypt, the barriers to practicing law as a woman, led her to pursue a writing career.

Unilateral Declaration of Egyptian Independence

The Unilateral Declaration of Egyptian Independence was issued by the government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on 28 February 1922. Through this declaration, the British government unilaterally ended its protectorate over Egypt and granted it nominal independence with the exception of four "reserved" areas: foreign relations, communications, the military and the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.

Zaafarana Palace

The Zaafarana Palace (Arabic: قصر الزعفران) is located in the Egyptian capital Cairo, near Abbasyia district at Khalifa Maamon Road.

Now it is inside the main campus of the Ain Shams University.

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