Anglo-Catholicism, Anglican Catholicism, or Catholic Anglicanism comprises people, beliefs and practices within Anglicanism that emphasise the Catholic heritage and identity of the various Anglican churches.[1][2]

The term Anglo-Catholic was coined in the early 19th century,[3] although movements emphasising the Catholic nature of Anglicanism had already existed.[4][5] Particularly influential in the history of Anglo-Catholicism were the Caroline Divines of the seventeenth century and later the leaders of the Oxford Movement, which began at the University of Oxford in 1833 and ushered in a period of Anglican history known as the "Catholic Revival".[6]

A minority of Anglo-Catholics, sometimes called Anglican Papalists, consider themselves under papal supremacy even though they are not in communion with the Roman Catholic Church. Such Anglo-Catholics, especially in England, often celebrate Mass according to the contemporary Roman Catholic rite and are concerned with seeking reunion with the Roman Catholic Church.

In addition, members of the personal ordinariates for former Anglicans created by Pope Benedict XVI are sometimes unofficially referred to as "Anglican Catholics".[7][8]


Following the passing of the Act of Supremacy and Henry VIII's break with the Roman Catholic Church, the Church of England continued to adhere to traditional Catholic teachings and did not initially make any alterations to doctrine.[9] The Ten Articles were published in 1536 and constitute the first official Anglican articles of faith.[10] The articles for the most part concurred with the teachings of the Church in England as they had been prior to the Protestant Reformation and defended, among other things, the Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist, the sacrament of Confession, the honouring and invocation of Christian saints and prayer for the dead.[11] Belief in purgatory, however, was made non-essential.[a] This was followed by the Institution of the Christian Man (also called The Bishops' Book) in 1537, a combined effort by numerous clergy and theologians which—though not strongly Protestant in its inclinations—showed a slight move towards Reformed positions. The Bishops' Book was unpopular with conservative sections of the Church, and quickly grew to be disliked by Henry VIII as well.[12] The Six Articles, released two years later, moved away from all Reformed ideas and strongly affirmed Catholic positions regarding matters such as transubstantiation and Mass for the dead.[13][14] The King's Book, the official article of religion written by Henry in 1543, likewise expressed Catholic sacramental theology and encouraged prayer for the dead.[15]

A major shift in Anglican doctrine came in the reign of Henry's son, Edward VI, who repealed the Six Articles[16] and under whose rule the Church of England became more identifiably Protestant. Though the Church's practices and approach to the sacraments became strongly influenced by those of continental reformers,[17] it nevertheless retained episcopal church structure.[18] The Church of England was then briefly reunited with the Roman Catholic Church under Mary, before separating again under Elizabeth I. The Elizabethan Religious Settlement was an attempt to end the religious divisions among Christians in England, and is often seen as an important event in Anglican history, ultimately laying the foundations for the "via media" concept of Anglicanism.[19]

The nature of early Anglicanism was to be of great importance to the Anglo-Catholics of the 19th century, who would argue that their beliefs and practices were common during this period and were inoffensive to the earliest members of the Church of England.[20]

Caroline Divines

The Caroline Divines were a group of influential Anglican theologians active in the 17th century who opposed Calvinism and Puritanism[21] and stressed the importance of episcopal polity, apostolic succession and the sacraments.[22][23] The Caroline Divines also favoured elaborate liturgy (in some cases favouring the liturgy of the pre-Reformation church[24]) and aesthetics. Their influence saw a revival in the use of images and statues in churches.[25]

The leaders of the Anglo-Catholic revival in the 19th century would draw heavily from the works of the Caroline Divines.[26]

Oxford Movement

The modern Anglo-Catholic movement began with the Oxford Movement in the Victorian era, sometimes termed "Tractarianism".

In the early 19th century, various factors caused misgivings among English church people, including the decline of church life and the spread of unconventional practices in the Church of England. The British government's action in 1833 of beginning a reduction in the number of Church of Ireland bishoprics and archbishoprics inspired a sermon from John Keble in the University Church in Oxford on the subject of "National Apostasy". This sermon marked the inception of what became known as the Oxford Movement.

The principal objective of the Oxford Movement was the defence of the Church of England as a divinely-founded institution, of the doctrine of apostolic succession and of the Book of Common Prayer as a "rule of faith". The key idea was that Anglicanism was not a Protestant denomination but a branch of the historic Catholic Church, along with the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox churches. It was argued that Anglicanism had preserved the historical apostolic succession of priests and bishops and thus the Catholic sacraments. These ideas were promoted in a series of ninety "Tracts for the Times".

The principal leaders of the Oxford Movement were John Keble, John Henry Newman and Edward Bouverie Pusey. The movement gained influential support, but it was also attacked by some bishops of the Church and by the latitudinarians within the University of Oxford, who believed in conforming to official Church of England practices but who felt that matters of doctrine, liturgical practice, and ecclesiastical organization were of relatively little importance. Within the Oxford movement, there gradually arose a much smaller group which tended towards submission to the supremacy of the Roman Catholic Church. In 1845, the university censured a tract entitled Ideal of a Christian Church and its author, the pro-Roman Catholic theologian W. G. Ward, on which basis was imputed the moniker "Ideal Ward". The year 1850 saw the victory of the Evangelical cleric George Cornelius Gorham in a celebrated legal action against church authorities. Consequently, some Anglicans of Anglo-Catholic churchmanship were received into the Roman Catholic Church, while others, such as Mark Pattison, embraced Latitudinarian Anglicanism, and yet others, such James Anthony Froude, became sceptics.[27] The majority of adherents of the movement, however, remained in the Church of England and, despite hostility in the press and in government, the movement spread. Its liturgical practices were influential, as were its social achievements (including its slum settlements) and its revival of male and female monasticism within Anglicanism.

Recent developments

Since at least the 1970s, Anglo-Catholicism has been dividing into two distinct camps, along a fault-line which can perhaps be traced back to Bishop Charles Gore's work in the 19th century.

The Oxford Movement had been inspired in the first place by a rejection of liberalism and latitudinarianism in favour of the traditional faith of the "Church Catholic", defined by the teachings of the Church Fathers and the common doctrines of the historical eastern and western Christian churches.

Anglican Service Book (1991)
Anglican Service Book (1991), a traditional-language version of the Book of Common Prayer

Because of the emphasis on upholding traditions, until the 1970s most Anglo-Catholics rejected liberalising development such as the conferral of holy orders on women. Present-day "traditionalist" Anglo-Catholics seek to maintain tradition and to keep Anglican doctrine in line with that of the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches. They often ally themselves with conservative Evangelicals to defend traditional teachings on sexual morality and women's roles in the Church. The main organisation in the Church of England that opposes the ordination of women, Forward in Faith, is largely composed of Anglo-Catholics.

Gore's work, however, bearing the mark of liberal Protestant higher criticism, paved the way for an alternative form of Anglo-Catholicism influenced by liberal theology. Thus in recent years, many Anglo-Catholics have accepted the ordination of women, the use of inclusive language in Bible translations and the liturgy, and progressive attitudes towards homosexuality and the blessing of same sex unions. Such Anglicans often refer to themselves as "Liberal Catholics". The more "progressive" or "liberal" style of Anglo-Catholicism is represented by Affirming Catholicism and the Society of Catholic Priests.

A third strand of Anglican Catholicism criticises elements of both liberalism and conservatism, drawing instead on the 20th century Roman Catholic Nouvelle Théologie, especially Henri de Lubac. This movement rejected the dominance of Thomism and Neo-Scholasticism in Catholic theology, and advocated instead for a "return to the sources" of the Christian faith (scripture and the writings of the Church Fathers) while remaining open to dialogue with the contemporary world on issues of theology. John Milbank and others within this strand have been instrumental in the creation of the ecumenical (though predominantly Anglican and Roman Catholic) movement known as Radical Orthodoxy.

Some traditionalist Anglo-Catholics have left official Anglicanism to form "continuing Anglican churches" such as those in the Anglican Catholic Church and Traditional Anglican Communion. Others such as Ann Widdecombe have left Anglicanism altogether for the Roman Catholic or Eastern Orthodox churches, in the belief that liberal doctrinal changes in the Anglican churches have gone too far.

Anglican ordinariates

In late 2009, in response to requests from various groups of Anglicans around the world who were dissatisfied with liberalizing movements within the Anglican Communion, Pope Benedict XVI issued the apostolic constitution Anglicanorum Coetibus. This document invites groups of traditionalist Anglicans to form what are termed "Anglican ordinariates" or "personal ordinariates" under the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Holy See of the Catholic Church in Rome, while preserving elements of the liturgical, musical, theological and other aspects of their Anglican patrimony. Under these terms, regional groupings of Anglican Catholics may apply for reception by the Holy See under the jurisdiction of an "ordinary" (i.e. a bishop or priest[b]) appointed by Rome to oversee the community. While being in a country or region which is part of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church, these ordinaries will nonetheless retain aspects of the Anglican patrimony, such as married priests and traditional English choral music and liturgy. Because apostolic constitutions are the highest level of papal legislation and are not time-limited, the invitation is open into the indefinite future.

Some have drawn parallels with the Eastern Catholic Churches. However, although there are some commonalities, Anglican ordinariates are part of the Latin Church sui iuris within the Catholic Church, as they had been before the breach with Rome following the reign of Mary I of England, and their Anglican Use liturgy is a use (variation) of the Latin Rite.

The first Anglican ordinariate, known as the Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of Walsingham, was established on 15 January 2011 in the United Kingdom.[28] The second Anglican ordinariate, known as the Personal Ordinariate of the Chair of Saint Peter, was established on 1 January 2012 in the United States.[29] The already existing Anglican Use parishes in the United States, which have existed since the 1980s, formed a portion of the first American Anglican ordinariate.[30] These parishes were already in communion with Rome and use modified Anglican liturgies approved by the Holy See. They were joined by other groups and parishes of Episcopalians and some other Anglicans. A third Anglican ordinariate, known as the Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of the Southern Cross, was established on 15 June 2012 in Australia.[31]

Practices and beliefs


Historically, Anglo-Catholics have valued "highly the tradition of the early, undivided Church, they saw its authority as co-extensive with Scripture. They re-emphasized the Church's institutional history and form. Anglo-Catholicism was emotionally intense, and yet drawn to aspects of the pre-Reformation Church, including the revival of religious orders, the reintroduction of the language and symbolism of the eucharistic sacrifice," and "the revival of private confession. Its spirituality was Evangelical, but High Church in content and form."[32] At the same time, Anglo-Catholics held that "the Roman Catholic has corrupted the original ritualism; and she [the Anglican Church] claims that the ritualism which she presents is a revival in purity of the original ritualism of the Catholic Church."[33] The spirituality of Anglo-Catholics is drawn largely from the teachings of the early Church, in addition to the Caroline Divines.[34] Archbishop of Canterbury Matthew Parker, in 1572, published De Antiquitate Britannicæ Ecclesiæ, which traced the roots of the Anglican Church, arguing "that the early British Church differed from Roman Catholicism in key points and thus provided an alternative model for patristic Christianity,"[35] a view repeated by many Anglo-Catholics such as Charles Chapman Grafton, Bishop of the Diocese of Fond du Lac.[36] In addition, Anglo-Catholics hold that the Anglican churches have maintained "catholicity and apostolicity."[37] In the same vein, Anglo-Catholics emphasize the doctrines of apostolic succession and the threefold order, holding that these were retained by the Anglican Church after it went through the English Reformation.[38][39]

In agreement with the Eastern Orthodox Church and Oriental Orthodox Churches, Anglo-Catholics—along with Old-Catholics and Lutherans—generally appeal to the "canon" (or rule) of St Vincent of Lerins: "What everywhere, what always, and what by all has been believed, that is truly and properly Catholic."

The Anglican Thirty-Nine Articles make distinctions between Anglican and Roman Catholic understandings of doctrine; in the eyes of Anglo-Catholics, the Thirty-Nine Articles are Catholic, containing statements that profess the universal faith of the early Church.[40] As the Articles were intentionally written in such a way as to be open to a range of interpretations,[41] Anglo-Catholics have defended their practices and beliefs as being consistent with the Thirty-Nine Articles.[2] A recent trend in Anglo-Catholic thought related to the Thirty-Nine Articles has included the New Perspective on Paul.

Anglo-Catholic priests often hear private confessions and anoint the sick, regarding these practices as sacraments. The classic Anglican aphorism regarding private confession is: "All may, some should, none must." Anglo-Catholics also offer prayers for the departed and the intercession of the saints; C. S. Lewis, often considered an Anglo-Catholic in his theological sensibilities, was once quoted as stating that,

Of course I pray for the dead. The action is so spontaneous, so all but inevitable, that only the most compulsive theological case against it would deter me. And I hardly know how the rest of my prayers would survive if those for the dead were forbidden. At our age, the majority of those we love best are dead. What sort of intercourse with God could I have if what I love best were unmentionable to him?[42]

Anglicans of Anglo-Catholic churchmanship also believe in the real objective presence of Christ in the Eucharist and understand the way He is manifest in the sacrament to be a mystery of faith.[43][44] Like the Eastern Orthodox, Anglo-Catholics, with the exception of the minority of Anglican Papalists, reject the Roman doctrines of the papal supremacy and papal infallibility, with Walter Herbert Stowe, an Anglo-Catholic cleric, explaining the Anglican position on these issues:[45]

Anglo-Catholics reject all these claims except that of Primacy on the following grounds: (i) There is no evidence in Scripture or anywhere else that Christ conferred these powers upon St. Peter; (2) there is no evidence that St. Peter claimed them for himself or his successors; (3) there is strong contrary evidence that St. Peter erred in an important matter of faith in Antioch, the eating together and social intercourse of Jewish and Gentile Christians affecting the whole future of the Church and the Christian Religion, and this lapse was so serious that St. Paul withstood him to the face; (4) he did not preside at the first Council of the Church in Jerusalem and did not hand down the decision of the Council; (5) he was Bishop of Antioch before he was bishop anywhere else, and, if the papal claims are in any way true, the Bishop of Antioch has a better right to hold them; (6) that St. Peter was ever in Rome is disputed, and the most that can be said for it is that it is an interesting historical problem; (7) there is no evidence whatsoever that he conferred such powers upon his successors-to-be in the See of Rome; (8) there was no primitive acceptance of such claims, and there never has been universal acceptance in any later age.[46]

However, Anglo-Catholics share with Roman Catholics a belief in the sacramental nature of the priesthood and in the sacrificial character of the Mass. A minority of Anglo-Catholics also encourage priestly celibacy. Most Anglo-Catholics, due to the silence of The Thirty-Nine Articles on the issue, encourage devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary, but not all Anglo-Catholics adhere to a high doctrine of Mariology; in England, her title of Our Lady of Walsingham is popular.[47]

Liturgical practices

Anglo-Catholics are often identified by their liturgical practices and ornaments. These have traditionally been characterised by the "six points" of the later Catholic Revival's eucharistic practice:

  • Eucharistic vestments.
  • Eastward-facing orientation of the priest at the altar instead of at the north side, the traditional evangelical Anglican practice. Many Anglo-Catholics now prefer "facing the people".
  • Unleavened bread for the Eucharist.
  • Mixing of water with the eucharistic wine.
  • Incense and candles.

Many other traditional Catholic practices are observed within Anglo-Catholicism, including eucharistic adoration. Most of these Anglo-Catholic "innovations" have since been accepted by Broad Church Anglicans, if not by Evangelical or Low Church Anglicans.

Various liturgical strands exist within Anglo-Catholicism:

Preferences for Elizabethan English and modern English texts vary within the movement.

In the United States a group of Anglo-Catholics at the Episcopal Church of the Good Shepherd (Rosemont, Pennsylvania) published, under the rubrics of the 1979 Book of Common Prayer, the Anglican Service Book as "a traditional language adaptation of the 1979 Book of Common Prayer together with the Psalter or Psalms of David and additional devotions." This book is based on the 1979 Book of Common Prayer but includes offices and devotions in the traditional language of the 1928 Prayer Book that are not in the 1979 edition. The book also draws from sources such as the Anglican Missal.

In some Anglo-Catholic churches, clergy are referred to as Mother or Father, instead of Reverend.

See also


  1. ^ Article 10 states: "but forasmuch as the place where they be, the name thereof, and kind of pains there, also be to us uncertain by Scripture; therefore this with all other things we remit to Almighty God, unto whose mercy it is meet and convenient for us to commend them, trusting that God accepteth our prayers for them"
  2. ^ In the catholic church in general, ordinaries are supposed to be bishops, or at least episcopal vicars, but this condition was relaxed for Anglican ordinariates so as to allow married former Anglican bishops to become ordinaries: while priests in Anglican ordinariates may be married, bishops may not, as this is the general rule in both Catholic and Orthodox churches. Therefore, married Anglican bishops or priests converting to catholicism receive the priestly ordination, and may not become Catholic bishops afterwards.



  1. ^ Booty, John E.; Sykes, Stephen; Knight, Jonathan (1 January 1998). The Study of Anglicanism. Fortress Press. p. 314. ISBN 9781451411188. Whereas the Wesleys emphasized the Evangelical heritage of Anglicanism, the Tractarians stressed its Catholic heritage.
  2. ^ a b Buchanan, Colin (4 August 2009). The A to Z of Anglicanism. Scarecrow Press. p. 510. ISBN 9780810870086. In the 20th century, useful and scholarly books on the Articles have included E.J. Bicknell, A Theological Introduction to the Thirty-Nine Articles (1925), and W.H. Griffith Thomas, The Principles of Theology: An Introduction to the Thirty-Nine Articles (1930)--Bicknell from an Anglo-Catholic standpoint, Thomas from an evangelical one.
  3. ^ "Anglo-Catholic, adj. and n.", OED (online ed.), Oxford University Press, December 2011, retrieved 11 Feb 2012.
  4. ^ Clutterbuck, Ivan (1993), Marginal Catholics, Gracewing, p. 9, ISBN 978-0-85244-234-0.
  5. ^ Cavanaugh, Stephen (2011), Anglicans and the Roman Catholic Church: Reflections on Recent Developments, Ignatius, ISBN 978-1-58617-499-6.
  6. ^ Cobb, John B; Wildman, Wesley J (1998), Fidelity with Plausibility: Modest Christologies in the Twentieth Century, State University of New York Press, p. 94, ISBN 978-0-7914-3595-3.
  7. ^ "Australian Anglican Catholic Ordinariate to be Established in June 2012". Catholic Canada. May 2012. Retrieved 31 August 2012.
  8. ^ "Anglican Catholic ordinariate for US formally established". Catholic Culture. Retrieved 31 August 2012.
  9. ^ Scruton, Roger (1996). A Dictionary of Political Thought. Macmillan. p. 470. ISBN 978-0-333-64786-8
  10. ^ Schofield, John (2006). Philip Melanchthon and the English Reformation, Ashgate Publishing. p. 68. ISBN 978-0-7546-5567-1
  11. ^ Bray, Gerald L. (2004) Documents of the English Reformation. James Clarke & Co. p 164-174. ISBN 978-0-227-17239-1
  12. ^ Nicholls, Mark (1998). A History of the Modern British Isles, 1529-1603: The Two Kingdoms. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 56. ISBN 978-0-631-19334-0
  13. ^ Carrington, C. E., Jackson, Hambden K. (2011). A History of England. Cambridge University Press. p. 270. ISBN 978-1-107-64803-6
  14. ^ Hillerbrand, Hans J. (2002). The Division of Christendom. Westminster/John Knox Press. p. 232. ISBN 978-0-664-22402-8
  15. ^ Richter 2011, p. 89.
  16. ^ Simon 1979, p. 215.
  17. ^ Pavlac 2011, p. 182.
  18. ^ Bagchi, David V. N., Steinmetz, David C. (2004). The Cambridge Companion to Reformation Theology. Cambridge University Press. p. 169. ISBN 978-0-521-77662-2
  19. ^ Dickens, AG (1991), The English Reformation, Pennsylvania State University Press, p. 403, ISBN 978-0-271-00798-4.
  20. ^ Hein, David; Shattuck, Gardiner H (2005), The Episcopalians, Church Publishing, p. 91, ISBN 978-0-89869-497-0.
  21. ^ Betz, Hans Dieter (2006), Religion Past and Present, et al, Brill, ISBN 978-90-04-14608-2.
  22. ^ Avis, Paul DL (2002), Anglicanism and the Christian Church, Continuum, p. 353, ISBN 978-0-567-08745-4.
  23. ^ McKim, Donald M (2000), The Westminster Dictionary of Theological Terms, Westminster: John Knox Press, p. 39, ISBN 978-0-664-25511-4.
  24. ^ Harris, John Glyndwr (2001), Christian Theology: The Spiritual Tradition, Sussex Academic Press, p. 199, ISBN 978-1-902210-22-3.
  25. ^ Parry, Graham (1981), The Golden Age Restor'd: The Culture of the Stuart Court, 1603–42, Manchester University Press, ISBN 978-0-7190-0825-2.
  26. ^ Katerberg, William (2001), Modernity and the Dilemma of North American Anglican Identities, 1880–1950, McGill-Queen's University Press, p. 12, ISBN 978-0-7735-2160-5.
  27. ^ Stowe, Walter Herbert (1932). "Anglo-Catholicism: What It Is Not and What It Is". London: Church Literature Association. Retrieved 12 June 2015. Newman and several of his inner circle went to Rome, but the vast majority of the Tractarians, including Keble and Pusey, never did. Another group of Tractarians, such as Mark Pattison and James Anthony Froude, lapsed into latitudinarianism or scepticism.
  28. ^ Arco, Anna (15 January 2011), "Priests ordained to the world's first ordinariate", The Catholic Herald, UK.
  29. ^ "What is the Personal Ordinariate of the Chair of Saint Peter?" (PDF). Personal Ordinariate of the Chair of St. Peter. Retrieved 3 June 2016.
  30. ^ CWN (9 May 2012). "US ordinariate receives first priest, parish". Catholic Culture. Retrieved 11 July 2012.
  31. ^ "About the Personal Ordinariate - The Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of the Southern Cross". The Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of the Southern Cross. Retrieved 2018-05-29.
  32. ^ Sheldrake, Philip (2005). The New Westminster Dictionary of Christian Spirituality. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 0664230032.
  33. ^ Bassett, Allen Lee (1863). The Northern Monthly Magazine, Volume 2. Retrieved 27 March 2014. The Anglo-Catholic asserts that the Roman Catholic has corrupted the original ritualism; and she claims that the ritualism which she presents in a revival in purity of the original ritualism of the Church.
  34. ^ Sheldrake, Philip (2005). The New Westminster Dictionary of Christian Spirituality. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 0664230032. Anglo-Catholic spirituality has drawn inspiration from two sources in particular, the early Church, and the seventeenth-century 'Caroline Divines'.
  35. ^ Davies, Oliver; O'Loughlin, Thomas (1999). Celtic Spirituality. Paulist Press. p. 7. ISBN 9780809138944. Retrieved 28 March 2014. In 1572 Matthew Parker, Archbishop of Canterbury, published his important work De Antiquitate Britannicae Ecclesiae, in which he argued that the early British Church differed from Catholicism in key points and thus provided an alternative model for patristic Christianity, in which the newly established Anglican tradition could see its own ancient roots. James Ussher, the Anglican Archbishop of Armagh, was promoted by a similar motivation in his A Discourse of the Religion Anciently Professed by the Irish and the British of 1631.
  36. ^ Charles Chapman Grafton (1911). The Lineage from Apostolic Times of the American Catholic Church: Commonly Called the Episcopal Church. Young Churchman. p. 69. Thus in doctrine and worship, we see that the Celtic Church in Britain conformed in all essentials to Holy Scripture and the teaching of Apostolic times, which in several respects it varied from Roman practice. The Celtic Church was poor and not aggressive. It had been drive into a state of isolation. It had suffered from cruel wars. it had, however, kept the Faith, the Apostolic government, the Priesthood, and it offered a true worship and was kept alive in God's great Providence. We may well look to her as our spiritual Mother, with a grateful heart, and be thankful that we have inherited so much from her whose daughters we are.
  37. ^ Sheldrake, Philip (2005). The New Westminster Dictionary of Christian Spirituality. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 0664230032. Anglo-Catholics' concern to defend the catholicity and apostolicity of the Anglican churches has led them to emphasize the conviction that priority in the formation and shaping of Christian discipleship is to be given to disciplined membership of the Christian community.
  38. ^ Armentrout, Don S. (1 January 2000). An Episcopal Dictionary of the Church: A User-Friendly Reference for Episcopalians. Church Publishing, Inc. p. 33. ISBN 9780898697018. Retrieved 28 March 2014. It has placed considerable emphasis upon the Holy Eucharist, and the apostolic succession of the episcopate. Anglo-catholics were concerned not with doctrine but with restoring the liturgical and devotional expression of doctrine in the life of the Anglican Church.
  39. ^ Buchanan, Colin. Historical Dictionary of Anglicanism. Scarecrow Press, Inc. p. 2006. ISBN 0810865068. Retrieved 27 March 2014. The central theme was "apostolic succession" and the authority and divine commission of the threefold orders retained by the Church of England at the Reformation, thus providing for a secure pattern of the sacraments.
  40. ^ Albion, Gordon (1935). Charles I and the Court of Rome: A Study in 17th Century Diplomacy. Burns, Oates & Washbourne, Limited. p. 169. The " Catholic" articles are N°" 1–5, 7–8, 9 (first half), 10, 12, 15 (first half), 16–18, 19 (first half), 20 (first half), 23, 25 (half), 26, 27, 33, 34, 38, 39.
  41. ^ Martz, Louis L (1991). From Renaissance to Baroque: Essays on Literature and Art. University of Missouri Press. p. 65. ISBN 978-0-8262-0796-8..
  42. ^ Lewis 1964, pp. 107–109.
  43. ^ Herbert Stowe, Walter (1932). "Anglo-Catholicism: What It Is Not and What It Is". Church Literature Association. How the bread and wine of the Eucharist become the Body and Blood of Christ after a special, sacramental and heavenly manner and still remain bread and wine, and how our Lord is really present (real as being the presence of a reality), is a mystery which no human mind can satisfactorily explain. It is a mystery of the same order as how the divine Logos could take upon himself human nature and become man without ceasing to be divine. It is a mystery of the Faith, and we were never promised that all the mysteries would be solved in this life. The plain man (and some not so plain) is wisest in sticking to the oft-quoted lines ascribed to Queen Elizabeth, but probably written by John Donne: "Christ was the Word that spake it; He took the bread and brake it; And what the Word did make it, That I believe and take it." The mysteries of the Eucharist are three: The mystery of identification, the mystery of conversion, the mystery of presence. The first and primary mystery is that of identification; the other two are inferences from it. The ancient Fathers were free from Eucharistic controversy because they took their stand on the first and primary mystery—that of identification—and accepted our Lord's words, " This is my Body," " This is my Blood," as the pledge of the blessings which this Sacrament conveys. We have since the early Middle Ages lost their peace because we have insisted on trying to explain unexplainable mysteries. But let it be repeated, Anglo-Catholics are not committed to the doctrine of Transubstantiation; they are committed to the doctrine of the Real Presence.
  44. ^ Lears, T. J. Jackson (1981). Antimodernism and the Transformation of American Culture, 1880-1920. University of Chicago Press. p. 202. ISBN 9780226469706. Many folk tale enthusiasts remained vicarious participants in a vague supernaturalism; Anglo-Catholics wanted not Wonderland but heaven, and they sought it through their sacraments, especially the Eucharist. Though they stopped short of transubstantiation, Anglo-Catholics insisted that the consecrated bread and wine contained the "Real Objective Presence" of God.
  45. ^ Stowe, Walter Herbert (1932). "Anglo-Catholicism: What It Is Not and What It Is". London: Church Literature Association. Retrieved 12 June 2015. The primary issue between Anglo- and Roman Catholicism is authority and the basis thereof. This fundamental issue centres in the Papacy and its authority, land from this conflict flow all other differences of faith, worship, discipline and atmosphere. The four key phrases which make up the Papal claims are primacy, spiritual supremacy, temporal supremacy, and infallibility in faith and morals.
  46. ^ Stowe, Walter Herbert (1932). "Anglo-Catholicism: What It Is Not and What It Is". London: Church Literature Association. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  47. ^ Campbell, Ted (1996-01-01). Christian Confessions: A Historical Introduction. Westminster John Knox Press. p. 150. ISBN 9780664256500. Retrieved 28 March 2014. Anglo-Catholics interpret the silence of the Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion to allow for belief in some or all of the Mariological doctrines affirmed by Catholics.


Lewis, C. S. (1964). Letters to Malcolm: Chiefly on Prayer. New York: Harcourt Brace.
Pavlac, Brian Alexander (2011). A Concise Survey of Western Civilization: Supremacies and Diversities Throughout History. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-1-4422-0555-0.
Richter, Daniel K. (2011). Before the Revolution: America's Ancient Pasts. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-05580-3.
Simon, Joan (1979). Education and Society in Tudor England. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-29679-3.

Further reading

Hebert, A. G. (1944). The Form of the Church. London: Faber and Faber.
Wilkinson, John, ed. (1968). Catholic Anglicans Today. London: Darton, Longman & Todd. ISBN 978-0-232-50994-6.
Shelton Reed, John (1996). Glorious Battle: The Cultural Politics of Victorian Anglo-Catholicism. London: Vanderbilt University Press. ISBN 0-8265-1274-7.

External links

Affirming Catholicism

Affirming Catholicism is a movement operating in several provinces of the Anglican Communion, including the UK, Ireland, Canada, and the United States. In the US, the movement is known as Affirming Anglican Catholicism or AAC. The movement represents a liberal strand of Anglo-Catholicism and is particularly noted for holding that Anglo-Catholic belief and practice is compatible with the ordination of women. It also generally supports ordination into the threefold ministry (bishops, priests, deacons) regardless of gender or sexual orientation.The movement was formalised on 9 June 1990, at St Alban's Church, Holborn in London by a number of Anglo-Catholic clergy in the Diocese of London who had been marginalised within, or expelled from, existing Anglo-Catholic groups because of their support for women's ordination to the priesthood. It developed a theological stance which was staunchly liberal in matters of inclusivity but traditionally Catholic in matters of liturgy and the centrality and theology of the sacraments whilst believing that traditional restrictions on who may receive them should be re-examined.

AAC has ties with the Society of Catholic Priests; in the UK, AffCath is a partner organisation of Inclusive Church.

Anglican Diocese of The Murray

The Anglican Diocese of The Murray is located in the south-eastern region of South Australia, taking in the Fleurieu Peninsula, Riverland, Adelaide Hills, Murraylands and the southern suburbs of Adelaide. In 2011 the diocese had 22 parishes or pastoral districts. The cathedral church of the diocese is the Cathedral of St John the Baptist, Murray Bridge.

The previous Bishop of The Murray was Ross Davies, who relinquished the position in September 2010 and was received into the Roman Catholic Church. John Ford, the Bishop suffragan of Plymouth in the Church of England's Diocese of Exeter, was installed as the new bishop on 6 December 2013.The Diocese of The Murray is a traditionalist Anglo-Catholic diocese that does not ordain women to the priesthood. It was the last diocese in the Anglican Church of Australia to admit women to the diaconate, ordaining Margaret Holt as deacon in April 2017.

Anglican Use

The Anglican Use is an officially approved form of liturgy used by former members of the Anglican Communion who joined the Catholic Church while wishing to maintain the treasures of the Anglican tradition.

Anglican prayer beads

Anglican prayer beads, also known as the Anglican rosary or Anglican chaplet, are a loop of strung beads used chiefly by Anglicans in the Anglican Communion, as well as by communicants in the Anglican Continuum. Anglican prayer beads were developed in the latter part of the 20th century within the Episcopal Diocese of Texas and this Anglican devotion has spread to other Christian denominations, including Methodists and the Reformed; as such they also called Protestant prayer beads.

Community of the Glorious Ascension

The Community of the Glorious Ascension (CGA) is an Anglican monastic community in the United Kingdom, co-founded in 1960 by twin brothers Michael Ball and Peter Ball who both later became bishops. It was founded in Stratford Park in Stroud, Gloucestershire. Until 2012 There was also a small house of sisters at Prasada in Montauroux, in the South of France. This has since been closed and the sisters retired to the mother house in the UK.

In October 2015, Peter Ball was sentenced to 32 months' imprisonment for misconduct in public office and indecent assault after admitting the abuse of 18 young men between 1977 and 1992.The community currently maintains two separate priories, both at Chillington, South Devon.

Episcopal Diocese of Albany

The Episcopal Diocese of Albany is a diocese of the Episcopal Church covering 19 counties in northeastern New York state. It was created in 1868 from a division of the Episcopal Diocese of New York.

Episcopal Diocese of Mississippi

The Episcopal Diocese of Mississippi, created in 1826, is the diocese of the Episcopal Church in the United States of America with jurisdiction over the entire state of Mississippi. It is in Province 4 and its cathedral, St. Andrew's Cathedral, is in Jackson, as are the diocesan offices.The first two Bishops of Mississippi were members of what is called the Southern High Church school, but this type of churchmanship should not be confused with Anglo-Catholicism (though many High Churchmen on both sides of the Atlantic came to identify with Anglo-Catholicism). Bishop Green was very close to Bishops Otey and Quintard of Tennessee, both of whom were High Church and neither Low Church nor Evangelical. The Southern High Church group were in definite ways descended from the example of Bishop John Henry Hobart of New York (died 1830), whose watchwords were "Evangelical Truth and Apostolic Order." Though Bishop Hobart was one of the greatest preachers of antebellum America, the "Evangelical" connoted not the New Means of the camp meetings but, simply, the assumption that the Gospel rightly and forthrightly proclaimed has the power to convert the world to Jesus Christ. Like the Bishop of New York, the Hobartian High Churchmen in the Southern phase were dedicated to the doctrine that Grace really is given in the sacraments, and they taught the doctrine of baptismal regeneration. This alone distinguished them from the Low Church (sometimes called Evangelical) party stemming from the Virginia Theological Seminary in Alexandria.

Hugh Miller Thompson, the Second Bishop of Mississippi, was a graduate of Nashotah House in Wisconsin, which is a seminary usually identified with Anglo-Catholicism. Thompson was a most progressive Christian and one of the most prolific writers of the nineteenth century. He was an essayist and the editor of two leading Episcopal journals. That the Diocese of Mississippi has been at least mildly High Church since its founding is illustrated in the fact that John Maury Allin, one of its most celebrated leaders in the twentieth century, was basically a High Churchman who was right at home in New York when he served as the Presiding Bishop. What has obtained since Allin's tenure as Bishop of Mississippi is more Broad Church than Evangelical or Low Church. (The nomenclature related to church parties and differences in Anglican Christianity is quite difficult to comprehend at first. The great variety of commitments -- High Church, Low Church, Broad Church, Evangelical, Liberal, Revisionist, Traditionalist, Anglo-Catholic, Emergent, Charismatic -- shows how diverse the Episcopal Church and Anglican Communion of Churches have been. Students of the history are advised to be cautious. For example, "Low Church" and "Latitudinarian" were synonymous in the late-17th century and much of the 18th, and no Evangelical would have wanted any part of that sort of religion. The Wesley brothers were in fact Tory High Churchmen and founders of Anglican Evangelicalism. How about that? On the other hand, George Whitefield, another Methodist and founder of the Evangelical movement, was decidedly "Low Church" as that term is usually defined in 19th-century and early-20th century assumptions. Perhaps it all began when Queen Elizabeth I (died 1603) insisted that the Island's religion would be "Catholic and Reformed." In Anglican history since Queen Elizabeth's day, authentic tolerance by one group in power for those with less political power in the Churches has waxed and waned; and, while tolerance is often espoused in the Episcopal Church, it is occasionally forgotten.)

Episcopalians in Mississippi have been by and large progressive in their views about race, economics, and other big issues in America. This is even more true of the Dioceses of Arkansas and Alabama. The Episcopal Church in Mississippi has usually tolerated freedom of belief and differing types of ritual practice (e.g., Anglo-Catholicism in Biloxi and a liberal orientation in communities like Oxford and Starkville where colleges have significant presences). As such, the fallout from the ideological and theological conflicts that beset the Episcopal Church between the 1970s and 2000s (such as the Gene Robinson controversy) has not been large in comparison to other Southern dioceses (e.g., Tennessee, Fort Worth, South Carolina).

As of 2013 the Diocese of Mississippi had 18,741 members, down from 20,925 in 2003.

Forward in Faith

Forward in Faith (FiF) is an organisation operating in the Church of England and the Scottish Episcopal Church. It represents a traditionalist strand of Anglo-Catholicism and is characterised by its opposition to the ordination of women to the priesthood and episcopate. It also takes a traditionalist line on other matters of doctrine. Credo Cymru is its counterpart in Wales. Forward in Faith North America (FIFNA) operates in the U.S.

High church

The term "high church" refers to beliefs and practices of ecclesiology, liturgy, and theology, generally with an emphasis on formality and resistance to "modernisation". Although used in connection with various Christian traditions, the term originated in and has been principally associated with the Anglican/Episcopal tradition, where it describes Anglican churches using a number of ritual practices associated in the popular mind with Roman Catholicism. The opposite is low church. Contemporary media discussing Anglican churches tend to prefer evangelical to "low church", and Anglo-Catholic to "high church", though the terms do not exactly correspond. Other contemporary denominations that contain high church wings include some Lutheran, Presbyterian, and Methodist churches.

Liberal Anglo-Catholicism

The terms liberal Anglo-Catholicism and liberal Anglo-Catholic refer to people, beliefs and practices within Anglicanism that affirm liberal Christian perspectives while maintaining the traditions culturally associated with Anglo-Catholicism. The word liberal in this context refers to both theological and social liberalism.The social liberalism of liberal Anglo-Catholics can be seen in an association with Christian socialism. With regard to Christian socialism, Frederick Denison Maurice in 1849 said, "I seriously believe that Christianity is the only foundation of Socialism, and that a true Socialism is the necessary result of a sound Christianity." Generally, liberal Anglo-Catholics will be social justice–minded. Jonathan Daniels, a seminarian of the Episcopal Church in the United States who died during the civil rights movement, is a modern martyr for liberal Anglo-Catholics.

Liberal Anglo-Catholics allow modern knowledge and research to inform their use of reason. Science and religion, for instance, are held to be legitimate and different methodologies of revealing God's truth. This also directly affects the liberal Anglo-Catholic's reading of scripture, ecclesiastical history, and general methodology of theology. A metaphor is that theology for liberal Anglo-Catholics is a "dance" that allows people to slowly grow in an understanding of God.In the UK the Affirming Catholicism movement is a home to many liberal Anglo-Catholics. Examples of liberal Anglo-Catholics include the former Archbishops of Canterbury Rowan Williams and Michael Ramsey. Westcott House, Cambridge, is a Church of England theological college in the tradition of liberal Anglo-Catholicism.

Oxford Movement

The Oxford Movement was a movement of High Church members of the Church of England which eventually developed into Anglo-Catholicism. The movement, whose original devotees were mostly associated with the University of Oxford, argued for the reinstatement of some older Christian traditions of faith and their inclusion into Anglican liturgy and theology. They thought of Anglicanism as one of three branches of the One, Holy, catholic, and Apostolic Church.

The movement's philosophy was known as Tractarianism after its series of publications, the Tracts for the Times, published from 1833 to 1841. Tractarians were also disparagingly referred to as "Newmanites" (before 1845) and "Puseyites" (after 1845) after two prominent Tractarians, John Henry Newman and Edward Bouverie Pusey. Other well-known Tractarians included John Keble, Charles Marriott, Richard Froude, Robert Wilberforce, Isaac Williams and William Palmer.

Provincial episcopal visitor

A provincial episcopal visitor (PEV), popularly known as a flying bishop, is a Church of England bishop assigned to minister to many of the clergy, laity and parishes who on grounds of theological conviction, "are unable to receive the ministry of women bishops or priests".The system by which said bishops provide certain churches with oversight is referred to as alternative episcopal oversight (AEO).

Ritualism in the Church of England

Ritualism, in the history of Christianity, refers to an emphasis on the rituals and liturgical ceremony of the church, in particular of Holy Communion.

In the Anglican church in the 19th century, the role of ritual became a contentious matter. The debate over ritual was also associated with struggles between High Church and Low Church movements.

Society of the Atonement

The Society of the Atonement, also known as the Friars and Sisters of the Atonement or Graymoor Friars and Sisters is a Franciscan religious congregation in the Latin Rite branch of the Catholic Church. The friars and sisters were founded in 1898 as a religious community in the Episcopal Church. The religious order is dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary under the Marian title of Our Lady of Atonement.

Society of the Holy Cross (Korea)

The Society of the Holy Cross (SHC) is an order of women religious (or nuns) in the Anglican Church of Korea. It is not to be confused with the Society of the Holy Cross, SSC (Societas Sanctae Crucis), which is an international order of Anglo-Catholic priests within the Anglican tradition.

The New English Hymnal

The New English Hymnal is a hymn book and liturgical source, aimed towards the Church of England, first published in 1986. It was published by the Canterbury Press (now SCM Canterbury Press). The copyright is held by The English Hymnal Company Limited. It is a successor to, and published in the same style as, the 1906 English Hymnal. It inherits much music from the earlier book, and although a few hymns are dropped many newer or re-written hymns are added, most of which had previously appeared in the intervening supplement English Praise. Although the words of several hymns have been altered slightly, it nonetheless enjoys continuing favour in a considerable number of cathedrals and collegiate chapels worldwide and it is a significant publication in Anglican church music. Its extensive provision of hymns for saints' days and mid-week religious festivals has proved popular with those schools still maintaining hymn-singing in daily acts of worship.

The then chairman of the English Hymnal Company, George Timms, was its general editor. The musical editor was Anthony Caesar with significant assistance from Arthur Hutchings, Christopher Dearnley and Michael Fleming.

Traditional Anglican Communion

The Traditional Anglican Communion (TAC) is an international communion of churches in the continuing Anglican movement independent of the Anglican Communion and the Archbishop of Canterbury. The TAC upholds the theological doctrines of the Affirmation of St. Louis. Each of the respective jurisdictions utilizes a traditional Book of Common Prayer deemed free of theological deviation. Most parishioners of these churches would be described as being traditional Prayer Book Anglicans in their theology and liturgical practice. Some Anglo-Catholic parishes use the Anglican Missal in their liturgies. The TAC is governed by a College of Bishops from across the Communion and headed by an elected Primate.The TAC was formed in 1991. Archbishop Louis Falk was its first primate. He was succeeded in 2002 by Archbishop John Hepworth of the Anglican Catholic Church in Australia. The current Primate is Archbishop Shane Janzen of the Anglican Catholic Church of Canada.

The TAC churches have been formed outside of the Anglican Communion churches over a number of different issues. The principal issue has been the ordination of women. Other issues include liturgical revisions, the acceptance of homosexual activity and the importance of Apostolic tradition within the Church.

Use of Hereford

The Use of Hereford or Hereford Use was a variant of the Roman Rite used in Herefordshire before the English Reformation. When Peter of Aigueblanche, Bishop of Hereford, returned to his native Savoy he used it in his church in Aiguebelle.

Ye Watchers and Ye Holy Ones

"Ye Watchers and Ye Holy Ones" (Latin: Vigiles et Sancti) is a popular Christian hymn with text by Athelstan Riley, first published in the English Hymnal (1906). It is sung to the German tune Lasst uns erfreuen (1623). Its uplifting melody and repeated "Alleluias" make this a favourite Anglo-Catholic hymn during the Easter season, the Feast of All Saints, and other times of great rejoicing.

The hymn was also notably adapted for the final movement of The Company of Heaven (1937), a cantata by Benjamin Britten.

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