Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules

Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (AACR) were an international library cataloging standard. First published in 1967 and edited by C. Sumner Spalding,[1] a second edition (AACR2) edited by Michael Gorman and Paul W. Winkler was issued in 1978, with subsequent revisions (AACR2R) appearing in 1988 and 1998; all updates ceased in 2005.

Published jointly by the American Library Association, the Canadian Library Association, and the UK Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals, the rules were designed for the construction of library catalogs and similar bibliographic tools. The rules cover the physical description of library resources, as well as the provision of name and title access points.

AACR2 was issued in several print versions, including a concise edition, as well as an online version. Various translations were also available. Principles of AACR included cataloguing based on the item 'in hand' rather than inferring information from external sources and the concept of the 'chief source of information' which is preferred where conflicts exist.

Anglo American cataloging rules

Initial adoption

Despite the claim to be 'Anglo-American', the first edition of AACR was published in 1967 in somewhat distinct North American and British texts. The second edition of 1978 unified the two sets of rules (adopting the British spelling 'cataloguing') and brought them in line with the International Standard Bibliographic Description. Libraries wishing to migrate from the previous North American text were obliged to implement 'desuperimposition', a substantial change in the form of headings for corporate bodies.


While the 2002 updates included substantial improvements to AACR's treatment of non-book materials, the proliferation of 21st century formats in a networked environment and the rise of electronic publishing signaled the necessity for significant change in the cataloging code. Plans for a third edition (AACR3) were abandoned in 2005.[2]

The international cataloging community turned its attention to drafting a completely new standard to succeed AACR. Informed by the work of the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records, the new framework was crafted to be more flexible and suitable for use in a digital environment: Resource Description and Access (RDA) was released in June 2010. The Library of Congress, National Library of Medicine, National Agricultural Library, and several national libraries of other English-speaking countries performed a formal test of RDA, resulting in a June 2011 report of findings.[3]

See also


  1. ^ Pioneer in Cataloging Dies
  2. ^ Joint Steering Committee for Development of RDA: Historic Documents
  3. ^ Testing Resource Description and Access (RDA): Archives

External links


AACR may refer to:

Across a Crowded Room, an album by Richard Thompson released in 1985

American Association for Cancer Research, an organization based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

American Cable and Radio Corporation, a former communications holding company in the middle 20th century previously known as All America Cables and Radio

Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, a publication for library professionals

Association for the Advancement of Civil Rights, a political party in Gibraltar

Autoritatea Aeronautică Civilă Română ("Romanian Civil Aeronautical Authority")

ALA-LC romanization

ALA-LC (American Library Association - Library of Congress) is a set of standards for romanization, the representation of text in other writing systems using the Latin script.


Anglo-Americans are people who are English-speaking inhabitants of Anglo-America. It typically refers to the nations and ethnic groups in the Americas that speak English as a native language who comprise the majority of people who speak English as a first language. This usage originated in the discussion of the history of English-speaking people of the United States and the Spanish-speaking people residing in the western United States during the Mexican–American War.


In library and information science, cataloging (or cataloguing) is the process of creating metadata representing information resources, such as books, sound recordings, moving images, etc. Cataloging provides information such as creator names, titles, and subject terms that describe resources, typically through the creation of bibliographic records. The records serve as surrogates for the stored information resources. Since the 1970s these metadata are in machine-readable form and are indexed by information retrieval tools, such as bibliographic databases or search engines. While typically the cataloging process results in the production of library catalogs, it also produces other types of discovery tools for documents and collections.

Bibliographic control provides the philosophical basis of cataloging, defining the rules for sufficiently describing information resources to enable users to find and select the most appropriate resource. A cataloger is an individual responsible for the processes of description, subject analysis, classification, and authority control of library materials. Catalogers serve as the "foundation of all library service, as they are the ones who organize information in such a way as to make it easily accessible".

Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records

Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR ) is a conceptual entity–relationship model developed by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) that relates user tasks of retrieval and access in online library catalogues and bibliographic databases from a user’s perspective. It represents a more holistic approach to retrieval and access as the relationships between the entities provide links to navigate through the hierarchy of relationships. The model is significant because it is separate from specific cataloguing standards such as Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (AACR) or International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD).

International Standard Bibliographic Description

The International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD) is a set of rules produced by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) to create a bibliographic description in a standard, human-readable form, especially for use in a bibliography or a library catalog. A preliminary consolidated edition of the ISBD was published in 2007 and the consolidated edition was published in 2011, superseding earlier separate ISBDs for monographs, older monographic publications, cartographic materials, serials and other continuing resources, electronic resources, non-book materials, and printed music. IFLA's ISBD Review Group is responsible for maintaining the ISBD.

One of the original purposes of the ISBD was to provide a standard form of bibliographic description that could be used to exchange records internationally. This would support IFLA's Universal Bibliographic Control program.

Iskandar of Johor

Al-Mutawakkil Alallah Sultan Iskandar ibni Almarhum Sultan Ismail Al-Khalidi (Jawi:zسلطان إسكندر الهاج ابن المرحوم سلطان اسماعيل الخالدا;z8 April 1932 – 22 January 2010) was the 24th Sultan of Johor and the 4th Sultan of modern Johor. He succeeded his father Sultan Ismail upon the latter's death on 10 May 1981. He was the eighth Yang di-Pertuan Agong (Supreme King or High King) of Malaysia from 26 April 1984 to 25 April 1989. Sultan Iskandar's reign lasted for almost 29 years until his death in January 2010. His children are married into the different royal houses of Malaysia. His eldest daughter Tunku Kamariah, the Tengku Puan Laksamana, married the Tengku Laksamana of Selangor, Tengku Sulaiman Shah. His successor and eldest son Sultan Ibrahim married Raja Zarith Sofiah of the Perak Royal Family. His daughter Tunku Azizah Aminah Maimunah married the heir apparent of Pahang, now Sultan Abdullah. His younger son Tunku Abdul Majid married a member of the Kedah Royal Family, Tunku Teh Mazni.

As was the case with his grandfather, Sultan Ibrahim, Sultan Iskandar's independent mindset resulted in strained relations with the Malaysian federal government on numerous occasions. This was more so during his days as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, whereby a number of notable public incidents involved Sultan Iskandar. Nevertheless, Sultan Iskandar was reputed to show great concern to his subjects, and was held in high esteem by many of his subjects–particularly the Malays and Orang Aslis. His time as the Sultan of Johor was marred by accusations of violence and brutality. Sultan Iskandar was notorious for his bad temper which often resulted in violent episodes of rage and brutality to members of his staff and the general public. The 1992 Gomez incident surrounding the Sultan eventually culminated in the removal of "legal immunity" for members of the royal family.

Sultan Iskandar is reputed to have been a staunch disciplinarian, with willingness to occasionally voice personal opinions on governmental issues. On the personal side, subjects who have personally approached the Sultan in his later years described him as a person with a warm and generous personality. However, past critics had also argued that Sultan Iskandar was a person with a turbulent temper. These claims were made by citing records of past notorious incidents, which include an experience of being disinherited from being the Tunku Mahkota of Johor (or Crown Prince in English) by his father, in 1961, as well as a series of alleged criminal acts occurring between the 1970s and the 1990s which were published in the press and provoked widespread moral outrage within the Malaysian public.During his younger days as a prince, Iskandar was commonly known by his first name, "Mahmud" or his full name "Mahmud Iskandar". He largely discontinued the use of his first name after he became Sultan in 1981, although some people still referred to him by his full name on an occasional basis.

Library catalog

A library catalog or library catalogue is a registerization of all bibliographic items found in a library or group of libraries, such as a network of libraries at several locations. A bibliographic item can be any information entity (e.g., books, computer files, graphics, realia, cartographic materials, etc.) that is considered library material (e.g., a single novel in an anthology), or a group of library materials (e.g., a trilogy), or linked from the catalog (e.g., a webpage) as far as it is relevant to the catalog and to the users (patrons) of the library who exist there.

The card catalog was a familiar sight to library users for generations, but it has been effectively replaced by the online public access catalog (OPAC). Some still refer to the online catalog as a "card catalog". Some libraries with OPAC access still have card catalogs on site, but these are now strictly a secondary resource and are seldom updated. Many libraries that retain their physical card catalog will post a sign advising the last year that the card catalog was updated. Some libraries have eliminated their card catalog in favour of the OPAC for the purpose of saving space for other use, such as additional shelving.

The largest library catalog in the world is the union catalog managed by the non-profit library cooperative OCLC, based in Dublin, Ohio. In January 2016, had over 360,000,000 catalog records and over 2 billion library holdings.

Mary Pollard

Mary "Paul" Pollard (5 June 1922 – 24 June 2005) was a librarian at the Library of Trinity College Dublin and a specialist in early printed books.


Metadata is "data [information] that provides information about other data". Many distinct types of metadata exist, among these descriptive metadata, structural metadata, administrative metadata, reference metadata and statistical metadata.

Descriptive metadata describes a resource for purposes such as discovery and identification. It can include elements such as title, abstract, author, and keywords.

Structural metadata is metadata about containers of data and indicates how compound objects are put together, for example, how pages are ordered to form chapters. It describes the types, versions, relationships and other characteristics of digital materials.

Administrative metadata provides information to help manage a resource, such as when and how it was created, file type and other technical information, and who can access it.

Reference metadata describes the contents and quality of statistical data

Statistical metadata may also describe processes that collect, process, or produce statistical data; such metadata are also called process data.

Michael Gorman (librarian)

Michael Gorman (born 6 March 1941 in Witney, Oxfordshire) is a British-born librarian, library scholar and editor/writer on library issues noted for his traditional views. During his tenure as president of the American Library Association (ALA), he was vocal in his opinions on a range of subjects, notably technology and education. He currently lives in the Chicago area with his wife, Anne Reuland, an academic administrator at Loyola University.

Gorman's principles of librarianship derive from core liberal, democratic and humanist values. A key influence is S.R. Ranganathan, whom he regarded as "the greatest figure of librarianship in the 20th century." He maintains that it is through focusing on core professional values that librarians will facilitate personal growth and enhance the success of their institutions.

Monographic series

Monographic series (alternatively, monographs in series) are scholarly and scientific books released in successive volumes, each of which is structured like a separate book or scholarly monograph.

National Library of Mali

The National Library of Mali (French: Direction nationale des Bibliothèques et de la Documentation) is located in Bamako, Mali.In 1938, the Institut Français d’Afrique Noire (IFAN) was established to study the language, history, and culture of the peoples under French colonial rule in Africa. Following Mali's 1960 independence, in 1962 the IFAN Centre in Bamako was renamed by the Mali government the Institut des Sciences Humaines (Institute of Human Sciences) or the Mali Institute for the Study of the Humanities. The collections of Mali's National Library, National Archives and National Museum would eventually all be inherited from IFAN. On 29 February 1968, the library was transferred from Koulouba to Avenue Kasse Keita in Ouolofobougou, a section of Bamako. A 17 March 1984 law created the National Library.It is headed by the Director, who is appointed by the National Director of Arts and Culture. The former selects five sections chiefs who are each responsible for one of the library's divisions: Cataloging and Bibliography Division; Periodical and Document Division; Loan and Information Division; Acquisitions, Processing, and Legal Deposit Division; and Binding and Restoration Division. As of 1989, the library staff numbered 28, 16 women and 12 men.Books and periodicals are available free to the public for in-house viewing, though borrowing privileges may be obtained by becoming a registered cardholder. According to the United Nations, as of 2015 approximately 33 percent of adult Malians can read.The library hosts some of the exhibits for African Photography Encounters, a biannual Bamako photography festival.

Resource Description and Access

Resource Description and Access (RDA) is a standard for descriptive cataloging initially released in June 2010, providing instructions and guidelines on formulating bibliographic data. Intended for use by libraries and other cultural organizations such as museums and archives, RDA is the successor to Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, Second Edition (AACR2).

Slash (punctuation)

The slash is an oblique slanting line punctuation mark. Once used to mark periods and commas, the slash is now most often used to represent exclusive or inclusive or, division and fractions, and as a date separator. It is called a solidus in Unicode, is sometimes known as a stroke in British English, and it has several other historical or technical names, including oblique and virgule.

A slash in the reverse direction (\) is known as a backslash.

Title page

The title page of a book, thesis or other written work is the page at or near the front which displays its title, subtitle, author, publisher, and edition. (A half title, by contrast, displays only the title of a work.)

UCL Department of Information Studies

The Department of Information Studies is a department of the UCL Faculty of Arts and Humanities.The School of Librarianship of the University of London was created in 1919 as a school of University College London. The School was the first school of librarianship that was full-time. The School was shut in 1939 and opened again in 1945. It later changed its name to School of Library, Archive and Information Studies and then to Department of Information Studies.. The Department of Information Studies centenary will be celebrated in the academic year 2019/2020.

The School formerly awarded a Diploma in Librarianship. From 1970 onwards, this Diploma was known as a Diploma in Library and Information Studies. From 1947, the School also awarded a Diploma in Archive Administration. From 1966, the School also awarded Master of Arts (MA, by examination), Master of Philosophy (MPhil) and Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) degrees in Librarianship or Archives (the MPhil and PhD degrees are awarded for a thesis or dissertation). From 1972, the School also awarded a Master of Science (MSc) degree in Information Studies.

The Department currently offers taught postgraduate study in MA Archives and Records Management, MA/MSc Digital Humanities, MSc Information Science, MA Library and Information Studies, MA Publishing, and MRes in Information Studies. The MA Library and Information Studies and the MSc Information Studies programmes are accredited by Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals (CILIP), and is in the precandidacy stage of accreditation by the American Library Association (ALA). The MA in Library and Information Science has fees of £9,570 (full time) or £4,785 (part time) for UK/EU students. Scholarships and bursaries are available such as the scholarship awarded by the Worshipful Company of Stationers and Newspaper Makers.

University of Calicut

The University of Calicut, also known as Calicut University is a state university in India run by the state of Kerala. It is headquartered at Thenjipalam in Malappuram district. Established in 1968, it is the second university to be set up in Kerala after University of Kerala. The university is affiliated by the University Grants Commission of India. The university has off-campus centres in Malappuram, Kozhikode, Thrissur, Palakkad, Wayanad districts, and in Lakshadweep islands. It conducts courses and examinations for the students of the affiliated colleges. It has 30 post graduate departments and 426 colleges.

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