Anglo-America (also referred to as Anglo-Saxon America[2]) most often designates to a region in the Americas in which English is a main language and British culture and the British Empire have had significant historical, ethnic, linguistic and cultural impact.[3] Anglo-America is distinct from Latin America, a region of the Americas where Romance languages (Spanish, Portuguese and French) are prevalent.[3]

Anglo America (orthographic projection)
Area19,418,198.6 km2 (7,497,408.4 sq mi)
Population density18.3/km2 (47/sq mi)
Time zonesUTC−03:30 to UTC-10
Largest citiesList of cities in North America, Cities in Guyana

Geographic region

The term Anglo-America frequently refers specifically to the United States and Canada, by far the two most populous English-speaking countries in North America.[4] Other areas composing the Anglophone Caribbean include territories of the former British West Indies, Belize, Bermuda, and Guyana.

Two notable territories with substantial non-Anglophone majorities are nonetheless often included in Anglo-America for non-linguistic reasons. In Canada, the francophone province of Quebec, Acadia in New Brunswick and a part of Cochrane District[5] are sometimes considered part of Anglo-America for cultural, economic, geographical, historical, and political reasons. Similarly, Spanish-speaking Puerto Rico is considered part of Anglo-America because of its status as an unincorporated territory of the United States.[6] Conversely, Sint Eustatius, Sint Maarten, and Saba are not typically included in Anglo-America, despite their English-speaking majorities, because they are constituent countries or public bodies that form part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

Population sizes, in 2010[7]
Country Population Land area Pop. density
Anguilla Anguilla (United Kingdom) 14,764 91 km2 (35 sq mi) 162.2/km2 (420/sq mi)
 Antigua and Barbuda 86,754 442.6 km2 (170.9 sq mi) 196.0/km2 (508/sq mi)
 Bahamas 310,426 10,010 km2 (3,860 sq mi) 31.0/km2 (80/sq mi)
 Barbados 285,653 430 km2 (170 sq mi) 664.3/km2 (1,721/sq mi)
 Belize 314,522 22,806 km2 (8,805 sq mi) 13.9/km2 (36/sq mi)
Bermuda Bermuda (United Kingdom) 68,268 54 km2 (21 sq mi) 1,264.2/km2 (3,274/sq mi)
British Virgin Islands British Virgin Islands (United Kingdom) 24,939 151 km2 (58 sq mi) 165.2/km2 (428/sq mi)
 Canada 34,255,000 9,984,670 km2 (3,855,100 sq mi) 3.7/km2 (9.6/sq mi)
Cayman Islands Cayman Islands (United Kingdom) 50,209 264 km2 (102 sq mi) 198.2/km2 (513/sq mi)
 Dominica 72,813 751 km2 (290 sq mi) 97.0/km2 (251/sq mi)
Falkland Islands Falkland Islands (United Kingdom) 3,140 12,173 km2 (4,700 sq mi) 0.3/km2 (0.78/sq mi)
 Grenada 107,818 344 km2 (133 sq mi) 313.4/km2 (812/sq mi)
 Guyana 748,486 196,849 km2 (76,004 sq mi) 3.8/km2 (9.8/sq mi)
 Jamaica 2,847,232 10,831 km2 (4,182 sq mi) 262.9/km2 (681/sq mi)
Montserrat Montserrat (United Kingdom) 5,118 102 km2 (39 sq mi) 50.2/km2 (130/sq mi)
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico (United States) 3,725,789 9,104 km2 (3,515 sq mi) 409.2/km2 (1,060/sq mi)
 Saint Kitts and Nevis 49,898 261 km2 (101 sq mi) 191.2/km2 (495/sq mi)
 Saint Lucia 160,922 606 km2 (234 sq mi) 265.5/km2 (688/sq mi)
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 104,217 389 km2 (150 sq mi) 267.9/km2 (694/sq mi)
 Trinidad and Tobago 1,228,691 5,128 km2 (1,980 sq mi) 239.6/km2 (621/sq mi)
Turks and Caicos Islands Turks and Caicos Islands (United Kingdom) 23,528 430 km2 (170 sq mi) 104/km2 (270/sq mi)
 United States 310,232,863 9,161,966 km2 (3,537,455 sq mi) 33.9/km2 (88/sq mi)
United States Virgin Islands United States Virgin Islands (United States) 109,775 346 km2 (134 sq mi) 317.3/km2 (822/sq mi)
Total 354,830,825 19,418,198.6 km2 (7,497,408.4 sq mi) 18.3/km2 (47/sq mi)

Ethnic groups

Ethnic distribution, in 2010[7]
Country Population Amerindians Asians Blacks Hispanic/
Caucasians Other
Anguilla Anguilla (United Kingdom) 14,764 90.1% 04.6% 03.7% 01.5%
 Antigua and Barbuda 86,754 91% 04.4% 01.7% 02.9%
 Bahamas 310,426 85% 12% 03%
 Barbados 285,653 01% 93% 02.6% 03.2% 0.2%
 Belize 314,522 10.6% 24.9% 46% 09.7%
Bermuda Bermuda (United Kingdom) 68,268 54.8% 06.4% 34.1% 04.7%
British Virgin Islands British Virgin Islands (United Kingdom) 24,939 82% 5% 06.8% 11.2%
 Canada[8] 33,759,742 3.8% 10.8% 2.01% 0.97% 0.3% 83.78% 0.6%
Cayman Islands Cayman Islands (United Kingdom) 50,209 20% 40% 20% 20%
 Dominica 72,813 02.9% 86.8% 08.9% 0.8% 0.7%
Falkland Islands Falkland Islands (United Kingdom) 3,140 5%
 Grenada 107,818 82% 18%
 Guyana 748,486 09.1% 43.5% 30.2% 16.7% 0.5%
 Jamaica 2,847,232 91.2% 06.2% 02.6%
Montserrat Montserrat (United Kingdom) 5,118 N/A N/A N/A
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico (United States) 3,725,789 0.5% 0.2% 12.4% 98.5% 11.9% 75.8% 03.1%
 Saint Kitts and Nevis 49,898 N/A N/A
 Saint Lucia 160,922 02.4% 82.5% 11.9% N/A 03.1%
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 104,217 02% 06% 66% 19% 04% 03%
 Trinidad and Tobago 1,228,691 40% 37.5% 20.5% 02%
Turks and Caicos Islands Turks and Caicos Islands (United Kingdom) 23,528 90% 10%
 United States 310,232,863 0.97% 04.8% 12.6% 16.3% 2.9% 72.4% 6.1%
United States Virgin Islands United States Virgin Islands (United States) 109,775 01.1% 76.2% 22.3% 03.5% 13.1% 06.1%


People from other parts of the world have immigrated to Anglo-America to have a better quality of life, find better employment, and escape famine, poverty, violence and conflict. People from many different ethnic origins in Latin America and more remote places all over the world including the less English-dominant parts of Oceania, continental Europe, Asia and Africa all live in Anglo-America contemporarily.

Standard of living, in 2009[7]
Country GDP (PPP)
Billions USD
GDP Per Capita
Gini[9] HDI rank
Anguilla Anguilla (United Kingdom) $0.2 billion 12,200
 Antigua and Barbuda $1.55 billion 18,100
 Bahamas $9.09 billion 29,800
 Barbados $5.20 billion 18,500
 Belize $2.49 billion 08,100
Bermuda Bermuda (United Kingdom) $4.50 billion 69,900
British Virgin Islands British Virgin Islands (United Kingdom) $0.9 billion 38,500
 Canada $1,300.0 billion 38,400 32.1
Cayman Islands Cayman Islands (United Kingdom) $2.25 billion 43,800
 Dominica $0.74 billion 10,200
Falkland Islands Falkland Islands (United Kingdom) $0.12 billion 35,400
 Grenada $1.16 billion 10,800
 Guyana $2.84 billion 03,800 43.2
 Jamaica $23.24 billion 08,200 45.5
Montserrat Montserrat (United Kingdom) $0.30 billion 03,400
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico (United States) $88.00 billion 17,100
 Saint Kitts and Nevis $0.75 billion 15,200
 Saint Lucia $1.75 billion 10,900
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines $1.55 billion 18,100
 Trinidad and Tobago $28.41 billion 23,100
Turks and Caicos Islands Turks and Caicos Islands (United Kingdom) $0.22 billion 11,500
 United States $14,260.0 billion 46,400 45.0
United States Virgin Islands United States Virgin Islands (United States) $1.577 billion 14,500

See also





  1. ^ This usage refers to those who reside within the geographical area of Anglo-America as opposed to those who are members of the Anglo-American ethnic group.
  2. ^ By the 16th century the term Anglo-Saxon came to refer to all things of the early English period, including language, culture, and people. While it remains the normal term for the latter two aspects, the language began to be called Old English towards the end of the 19th century, as a result of the increasingly strong anti-Germanic nationalism in English society of the 1890s and early 1900s. However many authors still also use the term Anglo-Saxon to refer to the language.
    Crystal, David (2003). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-53033-4.
  3. ^ a b "Anglo-America", vol. 1, Micropædia, Encyclopædia Britannica, 15th ed., Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 1990. ISBN 0-85229-511-1.
  4. ^ "North America" The Columbia Encyclopedia Archived February 6, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, 6th ed. 2001-5. New York: Columbia University Press.
  5. ^ mutur zikin. "Carte linguistique du Canada / Linguistic map of Canada". Retrieved 22 September 2015.
  6. ^ "2005–2009 Population and Housing Narrative Profile for Puerto Rico". U.S. Census Narrative Profile. U.S. Census. 2005–2009. Archived from the original on October 8, 2011. Retrieved May 19, 2011.
  7. ^ a b c CIA world factbook 2010
  8. ^
  9. ^ "The World Factbook". Retrieved 22 September 2015.
Afro-Anglo Americans

An Afro-Anglo American (also Afro-Anglo) is an Anglo-American person of partial African ancestry; the term may also refer to historical or cultural elements in Anglo-America thought to emanate from this community.


The Americas (also collectively called America; French: Amérique, Dutch: Amerika, Spanish and Portuguese: América) comprise the totality of the continents of North and South America. Together, they make up most of the land in Earth's western hemisphere and comprise the New World.

Along with their associated islands, they cover 8% of Earth's total surface area and 28.4% of its land area. The topography is dominated by the American Cordillera, a long chain of mountains that runs the length of the west coast. The flatter eastern side of the Americas is dominated by large river basins, such as the Amazon, St. Lawrence River / Great Lakes basin, Mississippi, and La Plata. Since the Americas extend 14,000 km (8,700 mi) from north to south, the climate and ecology vary widely, from the arctic tundra of Northern Canada, Greenland, and Alaska, to the tropical rain forests in Central America and South America.

Humans first settled the Americas from Asia between 42,000 and 17,000 years ago. A second migration of Na-Dene speakers followed later from Asia. The subsequent migration of the Inuit into the neoarctic around 3500 BCE completed what is generally regarded as the settlement by the indigenous peoples of the Americas.

The first known European settlement in the Americas was by the Norse explorer Leif Erikson. However, the colonization never became permanent and was later abandoned. The Spanish voyages of Christopher Columbus from 1492 to 1502 resulted in permanent contact with European (and subsequently, other Old World) powers, which led to the Columbian exchange and inaugurated a period of exploration, conquest, and colonization whose effects and consequences persist to the present.

Diseases introduced from Europe and West Africa devastated the indigenous peoples, and the European powers colonized the Americas. Mass emigration from Europe, including large numbers of indentured servants, and importation of African slaves largely replaced the indigenous peoples.

Decolonization of the Americas began with the American Revolution in the 1770s and largely ended with the Spanish–American War in the late 1890s. Currently, almost all of the population of the Americas resides in independent countries; however, the legacy of the colonization and settlement by Europeans is that the Americas share many common cultural traits, most notably Christianity and the use of Indo-European languages: primarily Spanish, English, Portuguese, French, and to a lesser extent Dutch.

The Americas are home to over a billion inhabitants, two-thirds of which reside in the United States, Brazil, or Mexico. It is home to eight megacities (metropolitan areas with ten million inhabitants or more): New York City (23.9 million), Mexico City (21.2 million), São Paulo (21.2 million), Los Angeles (18.8 million), Buenos Aires (15.6 million), Rio de Janeiro (13.0 million), Bogotá (10.4 million), and Lima (10.1 million).

Americas (terminology)

The Americas, also known as America, are lands of the western hemisphere, composed of numerous entities and regions variably defined by geography, politics, and culture.

The Americas are recognised in the English-speaking world to comprise two separate continents: North America and South America. The Americas are also considered to comprise a single continent named America in parts of Europe, Latin America and some other areas.

Andrew Gamble

Andrew Michael Gamble (born 15 August 1947) is a British academic and author. He was Professor of Politics at the University of Cambridge and Fellow of Queens' College from 2007 to 2014. He was a member of the Department of Politics at the University of Sheffield (1973-2007), for many years as a Professor and rejoined the department in 2014.

A former pupil of Brighton College, he graduated from Cambridge University with a degree in economics, before gaining his MA in political theory from the University of Durham. He then returned to Cambridge for his doctorate in Social and Political Sciences.

While at Sheffield University, he was a founder, member and Director of the Political Economy Research Centre (PERC), Chairman of the Department of Politics (twice), and Pro-Vice Chancellor of the University. He received his Chair in Politics in 1986.

In 2005 he was awarded the Sir Isaiah Berlin Award for Lifetime Contribution to Political Studies by the PSA. His 2003 book, Between Europe and America, won the W.J.M. Mackenzie prize for the best book published in political science in 2003. He is co-editor (with the former Labour MP Tony Wright) of the academic journal The Political Quarterly, and he also sits on the editorial board of another academic journal, Representation. The main themes of his recent research have been asset-based welfare and 'Anglo-America'. His most recent book, an analysis of the politics of recession and capitalist crises, is entitled The Spectre at the Feast.


Anglo-Americans are people who are English-speaking inhabitants of Anglo-America. It typically refers to the nations and ethnic groups in the Americas that speak English as a native language who comprise the majority of people who speak English as a first language. This usage originated in the discussion of the history of English-speaking people of the United States and the Spanish-speaking people residing in the western United States during the Mexican–American War.

Big-game fishing

Big-game fishing, also known as offshore sportfishing, offshore gamefishing, or blue-water fishing is a form of recreational fishing, targeting large fish such as tuna and marlin which game fisherman regard as having "sporting qualities".

Blood sausage

Blood sausages, often called blood pudding in the United Kingdom (and sometimes black pudding, though this normally includes oats or barley) are sausages filled with blood that are cooked or dried and mixed with a filler until they are thick enough to solidify when cooled. Variants are found worldwide. Pig, cow, sheep, duck, and goat blood can be used, varying by country.

In Europe and the Americas, typical fillers include meat, fat, suet, bread, cornmeal, onion, chestnuts, barley, and oatmeal. On the Iberian Peninsula and in Asia, rice is often used instead of cereals.

In many languages, there is a general term such as blood sausage (American English) and blood pudding (British English) that is used for all sausages that are made from blood, whether or not they include non-animal material such as bread, cereal, and nuts. Sausages that include such material are often, in addition, referred to with more specific terms, for example, black pudding in English.

Chinatowns in Latin America

Chinatowns in Latin America (Spanish: barrios chinos, singular barrio chino / Portuguese: bairros chineses, singular bairro chinês) developed with the rise of Chinese immigration in the 19th century to various countries in Latin America as contract laborers (i.e., indentured servants) in agricultural and fishing industries. Most came from Guangdong Province. Since the 1970s, the new arrivals have typically hailed from Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan. Latin American Chinatowns may include the descendants of original migrants — often of mixed Chinese and Latino parentage — and more recent immigrants from East Asia. Most Asian Latin Americans are of Cantonese and Hakka origin.

Estimates widely vary on the number of Chinese Descendants in Latin America but it is at least

1.4 million and likely much greater than this.

Unlike the Chinatowns of Anglo America and Europe, pure-blood ethnic Chinese were relatively few in number but now increasing rapidly due to generally lower levels of Chinese immigration to some parts of Latin America. Residents of Latin American Chinatowns tend to be multilingual. Latin America's Chinatowns include those of Mexico City, Havana, Buenos Aires, and Lima. Some of these Chinatowns mainly serve as tourist attractions and not as true, living ethnic communities. The Chinatown of Havana, Cuba's is largely multi-generation Spanish-speaking Chinese Cuban whereas the Chinatown of the Belgrano district of Buenos Aires, Argentina consists of many first-generation Holo- and Mandarin-speaking immigrants from Taiwan.

Politically, several nations of Latin America recognize the government of the Republic of China in Taiwan. A Chinese arch was presented as a gift to the Barrio Chino of Panama City, following the visit of Panama by the then Taiwanese President Lee Teng-hui. After the major official visit by the Cuban Revolution's Fidel Castro to the People's Republic of China in 1995, materials were given for the new Chinese arch on Calle Dragone in Havana's Barrio Chino.

Commonwealth Caribbean

The term Commonwealth Caribbean is used to refer to the independent English-speaking countries of the Caribbean region. Upon a country's full independence from the United Kingdom, Anglo Caribbean or Commonwealth Caribbean traditionally becomes the preferred sub-regional term as a replacement to British West Indies.

Education in Mexico

Education in Mexico has a long history. The Royal and Pontifical University of Mexico was founded by royal decree in 1551, a few months after the National University of San Marcos in Lima. By comparison, Harvard College, the oldest in Anglo-America, was founded in 1636. Education in Mexico was until the twentieth century was largely confined to urban elite males and under the auspices of the Roman Catholic Church in Mexico.

The Mexican state has been directly involved in education since the nineteenth century, promoting secular education. Control of education was a source of ongoing conflict between the Mexican state and the Roman Catholic Church, which since the colonial era had exclusive charge of education. The mid nineteenth-century Liberal Reform separated church and state, which had a direct impact on education. President Benito Juárez sought the expansion of public schools. During the lengthy tenure of president Porfirio Díaz, the expansion of education became a priority under a cabinet-level post held by Justo Sierra; Sierra also served President Francisco I. Madero in the early years of the Mexican Revolution.

The 1917 Constitution strengthened the Mexican state's power in education, undermining the power of the Roman Catholic Church to shape the educational development of Mexicans. During presidency of Álvaro Obregón in the early 1920s, his Minister of Public Education José Vasconcelos implemented a massive expansion of access to public, secular education and expanded access to secular schooling in rural areas. This work was built on and expanded in the administration of Plutarco Elías Calles by Moisés Sáenz. In the 1930s, the Mexican government under Lázaro Cárdenas mandated socialist education in Mexico and there was considerable push back from the Roman Catholic Church as an institution. Socialist education was repealed during the 1940s, with the administration of Manuel Ávila Camacho. A number of private universities have opened since the mid-twentieth century. The Mexican Teachers' Union (SNTE), founded in the late 1940s, has had tremendous national political power. The Mexican federal government has undertaken reforms to improve education in Mexico, which have been resisted by the SNTE.

Education in Mexico is currently regulated by the Secretariat of Public Education (Spanish: Secretaría de Educación Pública) (SEP). Education standards are set by this Ministry at all levels except in "autonomous" universities chartered by the government (e.g., Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México). Accreditation of private schools is accomplished by a mandatory approval and registration with this institution. Religious instruction is prohibited in public schools; however, religious associations are free to maintain private schools, which receive no public funds.

In the same fashion as other education systems, education has identifiable stages: Primary School, Junior High School (or Secondary School), High School, Higher education, and Postgraduate education.

Fourth Reich

The Fourth Reich (German: Viertes Reich) is a hypothetical future German Reich that is the successor to the Third Reich (1933–1945).

Geography of North America

North America is the third largest continent, and is also a portion of the second largest supercontinent if North and South America are combined into the Americas and Africa, Europe, and Asia are considered to be part of one supercontinent called Afro-Eurasia.

With an estimated population of 380 million and an area of 21,346,000 km² (824,714 mi²), the northernmost of the two continents of the Western Hemisphere is bounded by the Pacific Ocean on the west; the Atlantic Ocean on the east; the Caribbean Sea, Atlantic and Pacific oceans, and South America on the south; and the Arctic Ocean on the north.

The northern half of North America is sparsely populated and covered mostly by Canada, except for the northeastern portion, which is occupied by Greenland, and the northwestern portion, which is occupied by Alaska, the largest state of the U.S. The central and southern portions of the continent are represented by the United States, Mexico, and numerous smaller states primarily in Central America and in the Caribbean.

The continent is delimited on the southeast by most geographers at the Darién watershed along the Colombia-Panama border, placing all of Panama within North America. Alternatively, a less common view would end North America at the man-made Panama Canal. Islands generally associated with North America include Greenland, the world's largest island, and archipelagos and islands in the Caribbean. The terminology of the Americas is complex, but "Anglo-America" can describe Canada and the U.S., while "Latin America" comprises Mexico and the countries of Central America and the Caribbean, as well as the entire continent of South America.

Natural features of North America include the northern portion of the American Cordillera, represented by the geologically new Rocky Mountains in the west; and the considerably older Appalachian Mountains to the east. The north hosts an abundance of glacial lakes formed during the last glacial period, including the Great Lakes. North America's major continental divide is the Great Divide, which runs north and south down through Rocky Mountains. The major watersheds all drain to the east: The Mississippi/Missouri and Rio Grande into the Gulf of Mexico, and St. Lawrence into the Atlantic.

Climate is determined to a large extent by the latitude, ranging from Arctic cold in the north to tropical heat in the south. The western half of North America tends to have milder and wetter climate than other areas with equivalent latitude, although there are steppes (known as "prairies") in the central and western portions, and deserts in the Southwestern United States of Arizona, Colorado, California, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, Oklahoma, and Texas; along with the Mexican states of Baja California, Baja California Sur, Sonora, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas.


Glebe (also known as church furlong, rectory manor or parson's close(s)) is an area of land within an ecclesiastical parish used to support a parish priest. The land may be owned by the church, or its profits may be reserved to the church.

Joseph Lacalle

José María Lacalle García, known in Anglo America as Joseph M. Lacalle (November 17, 1859 - June 11, 1937) was a clarinetist, composer, conductor and music critic. He is best known for composing the song "Amapola". His surname is misspelled LaCalle in some sources.

National Geographic Global Networks

National Geographic Global Networks, formerly National Geographic Channels Worldwide and National Geographic Channels International, is a business unit within National Geographic Partners (a joint venture between The Walt Disney Company and the National Geographic Society) that oversees the National Geographic-branded television channels: National Geographic, Nat Geo Kids, Nat Geo Music, Nat Geo People and Nat Geo Wild. The unit itself was a joint operation between 21st Century Fox (21CF) and the Society, but it was later integrated into the new joint venture National Geographic Partners which they formed in 2015. In March 2019, 21CF's share in National Geographic Partners was assumed by The Walt Disney Company, following Disney's acquisition of most 21CF businesses.

In October 2016, it was announced that the National Geographic Channel, the flagship documentary channel, would drop the word "Channel" from its name.

North America

North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea.

North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers (9,540,000 square miles), about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface.

North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, and the fourth by population after Asia, Africa, and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 579 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7.5% of the world's population, if nearby islands (most notably the Caribbean) are included.

North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge approximately 40,000 to 17,000 years ago. The so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago (the beginning of the Archaic or Meso-Indian period). The Classic stage spans roughly the 6th to 13th centuries. The Pre-Columbian era ended in 1492, with the beginning of the transatlantic migrations—the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery and the Early Modern period. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants.

Owing to the European colonization of the Americas, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, and their culture commonly reflects Western traditions.

Northern America

Northern America is the northernmost region of North America. The boundaries may be drawn slightly differently. In one definition, it lies directly north of Middle America (Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central America). Northern America's land frontier with the rest of North America then coincides with the Mexico–United States border. Geopolitically, according to the United Nations' scheme of geographic regions and subregions, Northern America consists of Bermuda, Canada, Greenland, Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, and the United States of America (excluding Hawaii, Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands and other minor US territories).

Social justice

Social justice is a concept of fair and just relations between the individual and society. This is measured by the explicit and tacit terms for the distribution of wealth, opportunities for personal activity, and social privileges. In Western as well as in older Asian cultures, the concept of social justice has often referred to the process of ensuring that individuals fulfill their societal roles and receive what was their due from society. In the current global grassroots movements for social justice, the emphasis has been on the breaking of barriers for social mobility, the creation of safety nets and economic justice.Social justice assigns rights and duties in the institutions of society, which enables people to receive the basic benefits and burdens of cooperation. The relevant institutions often include taxation, social insurance, public health, public school, public services, labor law and regulation of markets, to ensure fair distribution of wealth, and equal opportunity.Interpretations that relate justice to a reciprocal relationship to society are mediated by differences in cultural traditions, some of which emphasize the individual responsibility toward society and others the equilibrium between access to power and its responsible use. Hence, social justice is invoked today while reinterpreting historical figures such as Bartolomé de las Casas, in philosophical debates about differences among human beings, in efforts for gender, racial and social equality, for advocating justice for migrants, prisoners, the environment, and the physically and developmentally disabled.While the concept of social justice can be traced through the theology of Augustine of Hippo and the philosophy of Thomas Paine, the term "social justice" became used explicitly in the 1780s. A Jesuit priest named Luigi Taparelli is typically credited with coining the term, and it spread during the revolutions of 1848 with the work of Antonio Rosmini-Serbati. However, recent research has proved that the use of the expression "social justice" is older (even before the 19th century). For example, in Anglo-America, the term appears in The Federalist Papers, No. 7:

"We have observed the disposition to retaliation excited in Connecticut in consequence of the enormities perpetrated by the Legislature of Rhode Island; and we reasonably infer that, in similar cases, under other circumstances, a war, not of parchment, but of the sword, would chastise such atrocious breaches of moral obligation and social justice."

In the late industrial revolution, progressive American legal scholars began to use the term more, particularly Louis Brandeis and Roscoe Pound. From the early 20th century it was also embedded in international law and institutions; the preamble to establish the International Labour Organization recalled that "universal and lasting peace can be established only if it is based upon social justice." In the later 20th century, social justice was made central to the philosophy of the social contract, primarily by John Rawls in A Theory of Justice (1971). In 1993, the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action treats social justice as a purpose of human rights education.Some authors such as Friedrich Hayek criticize the concept of social justice, arguing the lack of objective, accepted moral standard; and that while there is a legal definition of what is just and equitable "there is no test of what is socially unjust", and further that social justice is often used for the reallocation of resources based on an arbitrary standard which may in fact be inequitable or unjust.

Theodore W. Allen

Theodore William "Ted" Allen (August 23, 1919 – January 19, 2005) was an American intellectual, writer, and activist, best known for his pioneering writings since the 1960s on "white skin privilege" and the "invention" of the white race, particularly his seminal Class Struggle and the Origin of Racial Slavery: The Invention of the White Race, published as a pamphlet in 1975, and published the next year in expanded form. He stressed that the white race was invented as "a ruling class social control formation."An independent, working-class scholar, Allen did research for the next quarter century to expand and document his ideas, particularly on the relation of white supremacy to the working class. He published a two-volume work, The Invention of the White Race (1994 and 1997): "The Invention of the White Race," Vol. 1: "Racial Oppression and Social Control" (1994, 2012) and "The Invention of the White Race," Vol. 2: "The Origin of Racial Oppression in Anglo-America" (1997, 2012); which explored racial oppression as a system of social control (in Volume 1) and the origin of racial oppression in Anglo-America (in Volume 2). It was republished by Verso Books in a new expanded edition in November 2012.

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