The Anglican Use is an officially approved form of liturgy used by former members of the Anglican Communion who joined the Catholic Church while wishing to maintain the treasures of the Anglican tradition.
The Toronto parish of the Personal Ordinariate of the Chair of Saint Peter defines Anglican Use as "the liturgy of The Book of Divine Worship [...] formulated and authorized in response to Pope John Paul II's 1980 Pastoral Provision that allowed Episcopalian priests and laity in the United States to join the Catholic church while preserving elements proper to their Anglican tradition." It gives the name "Ordinariate Use" to the liturgy, since December 2015, of the personal ordinariates for former Anglicans, which is that contained in Divine Worship: The Missal and Divine Worship: Occasional Services. At a time when a specific liturgy for the personal ordinariates was still under preparation, the Anglican Use community in Indianopolis applied the term "Anglican Use" to the Book of Divine Worship liturgy that was then the interim liturgy of the North-American personal ordinariate. The Pasadena parish calls the present form "the Ordinariate Form" and adds that it is unofficially but popularly known as the "Anglican Use". The American National Catholic Register has also distinguished between "Anglican Use" and "Ordinariate Use". These sources are all associated with a geographical area where the Book of Divine Worship has been in use.
With the promulgation of Divine Worship: The Missal for use beginning 29 November 2015, the Book of Divine Worship began to be phased out.
What had been called the Anglican Use Society changed its name in 2016 to Anglicanorum Coetibus Society, echoing the incipit of Pope Benedict XVI's apostolic constitution authorizing the establishment of personal ordinariates for former Anglicans.
The personal parishes in the United States founded by former members of the Episcopal Church in the United States were first established in accordance with the Pastoral Provision granted by Pope John Paul II on 20 June 1980, which permitted the ordination as Catholic priests of married former clergy of the Episcopal Church for ministry either in such personal parishes or elsewhere in Catholic dioceses of the United States. They were referred to interchangeably as either "Anglican Use" or "Pastoral Provision" parishes, the former term referring to their Anglican liturgical patrimony and the latter referring to the canonical provision that established them as parishes with a distinct character.
On 9 December 2009, Pope Benedict XVI issued the apostolic constitution Anglicanorum coetibus, authorizing the establishment of personal ordinariates for former Anglicans. The first to be established was the Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of Walsingham for England and Wales in January 2011, followed by the Personal Ordinariate of the Chair of Saint Peter for the United States in January 2012 and the Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of the Southern Cross for Australia in June 2012. While Pastoral Provision parishes were part of the local geographical Latin Church dioceses, the ordinariates are distinct from the geographical dioceses and have an independent nationwide jurisdiction over their members.
After the establishment in 2012 of a personal ordinariate for former Anglicans in the United States, several Pastoral Provision parishes joined the ordinariate. Among them was St. Mary the Virgin Parish in Arlington, Texas, which in 1994 had become the first Episcopal parish in the United States to transfer corporately into the Catholic Church, being thus, in the words of Monsignor Jeffrey N. Steenson, the ordinariate's first Ordinary, "received into the Catholic Church under the Anglican Use". Others kept their separate identity and were known as Anglican-use parishes, but in 2017 the Holy See declared that it expected all such parishes to be integrated into the ordinariate.
The remote origins of the demand for such an arrangement has been ascribed to the Oxford Movement in nineteenth-century England. More immediately the demand arose because of developments in the Episcopal Church in the United States of America in the 1970s, which began to ordain women as priests and bishops, rejected traditional teaching on human sexuality, blessed homosexual unions and ordained those who were openly living in such unions.
In 1977, some of those who desired union with the Catholic Church contacted individual Catholic bishops, the Apostolic Delegate (Archbishop Jean Jadot) and the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith in Rome, to inquire about the possibility for married Anglican priests to be received into the Catholic Church and function as Catholic priests.
After the United States National Conference of Catholic Bishops and the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith had reacted favorably to the proposals that had been put before them, a formal request for union was presented in Rome on 3 November 1979 for acceptance into the Roman Catholic Church, for steps to be taken to eliminate any defects that might be found in their priestly orders, and that they be granted the oversight, direction, and governance of a Catholic bishop. They offered the allegiance of their whole hearts and minds and souls, and also "with that allegiance the Anglican patrimony that has been ours in so far as it is compatible with, acceptable to and an enhancement of Catholic teaching and worship".
The decision of the Holy See was officially communicated in a letter of 22 July 1980 from the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith to the president of the United States episcopal conference, who published it on 20 August 1980.
Though admittance of the Episcopalians in question to the Catholic Church was considered as reconciliation of individuals, the pastoral provision gave them a common group identity. After a period of being subject to the local Latin Church bishop, the bishop could set up personal parishes for them, with the use, within the group, of a form of liturgy that retained certain elements of the Anglican liturgy; and married Episcopalian priests could on a case-by-case basis be ordained as Catholic priests, but not as bishops.
An ecclesiastical delegate, a Catholic and preferably a bishop, was to be appointed to oversee the implementation of the decision and to deal with the Congregation.
In March 1981, Bishop Bernard Francis Law was appointed ecclesiastical delegate. He was replaced by the Archbishop of Newark, John J. Myers, in 2003 and Kevin W. Vann in 2011. William H. Stetson, a priest of the Prelature of Opus Dei, also served as secretary to the ecclesiastical delegate.
In 1983, the first Anglican Use parish, Our Lady of the Atonement, was established in San Antonio, Texas. Our Lady of Walsingham parish in Houston, Texas, followed the next year. Concern about ecumenical relations with the Episcopal Church prevented the Archbishop of Los Angeles from authorizing the establishment in his archdiocese of personal parishes of the kind envisaged, in spite of requests from two groups whose membership exceeded that of any of the groups for which personal parishes were set up in other dioceses. The petitioners were told that they could only be received as members of the existing ordinary Catholic parishes. Since 1983 over 100 former Anglicans have been ordained for priestly ministry in various Catholic dioceses of the United States.
On 9 December 2009, Pope Benedict XVI issued the Apostolic Constitution Anglicanorum coetibus, authorizing the establishment of personal ordinariates for former Anglicans. The first to be established was the Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of Walsingham for England and Wales in January 2011, followed by the Personal Ordinariate of the Chair of Saint Peter for the United States in January 2012 and the Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of the Southern Cross for Australia in June 2012. These "Anglican Use ordinariates" were a response to Anglicans outside the United States, and hence beyond the remit of the Pastoral Provision, but they also supplied some of the perceived needs of that previous provision.
Canonical differences between the Anglican Use parishes and the personal ordinariate are outlined in a study published in the 23 January 2012 issue of the National Catholic Reporter. Some of the Anglican Use parishes have joined the ordinariate, but some have not.
The Anglican Use is an authorized liturgical variant of the Roman Rite of the Latin Church. The Latin Church includes among its liturgical rites the widespread Roman Rite, the Ambrosian Rite of Milan, the Mozarabic Rite celebrated in the Cathedral of Toledo, the Braga Rite in some parts of northern Portugal, and specific uses of religious orders. The Catholic Church also includes several Eastern Catholic churches, which are alongside the Latin Church but not within it.
The Congregation for Divine Worship gave provisional approval for the Anglican Use liturgy, the Book of Divine Worship, in 1984, an approval rendered definitive in 1987. This book incorporates elements of the 1928 Book of Common Prayer, but the Eucharistic liturgy is from the 1979 Book, with the eucharistic prayers taken from the Roman Missal and the ancient Sarum Rite (with the modern English Words of Institution inserted in the latter). New texts were promulgated by the congregation on 22 June 2012, the feast of English saints Thomas More and John Fisher, namely the Order for Funerals and the Order for the Celebration of Holy Matrimony.
A new liturgy for use in all three personal ordinariates for former Anglicans that had been established from 2011 on was authorized in 2013 and came into use on 29 November 2015. The Book of Divine Worship had been based closely on the United States Episcopal Church liturgy, which had developed in ways different from that of Anglican churches in England and Australia, making it unsuitable for imposing on all personal ordinariates for former Anglicans. Its Order of Mass drew elements also from the original Book of Common Prayer, from different later versions of it, from the Tridentine Mass and from the Roman Rite as revised after the Second Vatican Council.
Those personal-ordinariate communities that had provisionally been using the 1984-approved Book of Divine Worship adopted this new liturgy at the end of 2013. The Holy See's 'Anglicanae Traditiones Commission' that developed the updated form of Anglican patrimonial liturgy used the Book of Divine Worship as its "lead" source. In the new liturgical books for the personal ordinariates, the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith and the Congregation for Divine Worship retained the generic title, "Divine Worship", for the entire liturgical provision for the personal ordinariates, dropping the "Book of" naming convention in favour of "Divine Worship: The Missal".
Divine Worship: The Missal, the missal containing the complete expression of the Divine Worship Mass liturgy, began to be used on 29 November 2015, and as of 1 January 2016 the Book of Divine Worship was no longer authorized for use in public worship. As a result, even the Pastoral Provision parishes at that time still remaining outside the ordinariates adopted Divine Worship: The Missal instead of the Book of Divine Worship.
The new missal is "a pastoral variation of the Roman Rite for the members of the Personal Ordinariates in the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada and the United States. [...] This is not an Anglican liturgy separate and distinct from the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church. This is not an Anglican Use Rite. It does not reflect Anglican Eucharistic theology. It is not a Protestant service dressed up as a Catholic Mass. It is the Catholic Mass of the Western Rite, filtered through the Anglican experience, corrected and expressed in an Anglican voice."
In the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church, Lutheranism, Methodism and Anglicanism, an altar or sanctus bell is typically a small hand-held bell or set of bells. The primary reason for the use of such bells is to create a joyful noise to the Lord as a way to give thanks for the miracle taking place atop the altar. An ancillary function of the bells is to focus the attention of those attending the Mass that a supernatural event is taking place on the altar. Such bells are also commonly referred to as the Mass bell, sacring bell, Sacryn bell, saints' bell, sance-bell, or sanctus bell (or "bells", when there are two or more). and are kept on the credence table or some other convenient location within the sanctuary.Anglican Church in America
The Anglican Church in America (ACA) is a Continuing Anglican church body and the United States' branch of the Traditional Anglican Communion (TAC). The ACA is separate from the Episcopal Church and is not a member of the Anglican Communion. It comprises 5 dioceses and around 5,200 members.
The Anglican Church in America was created in 1991 following extensive negotiations between the Anglican Catholic Church (ACC) and the American Episcopal Church (AEC). The effort was aimed at overcoming disunity in the Continuing Anglican movement. This was only partially successful. Most ACC parishes declined to enter the new ACA, resulting in a continuing existence for the ACC, while the remainder of its parishes and some of its bishops joined the AEC in forming the new church. In 1995, some parishes which had formerly been part of the AEC, primarily in the eastern states and the Pacific Northwest, withdrew from the ACA and formed the Anglican Province of America under the leadership of Bishop Walter Grundorf.
The Traditional Anglican Communion had been seeking unity with the Roman Catholic Church while still retaining aspects of its Anglican heritage. In 2007, in Portsmouth, England, all TAC bishops present accepted the ministry of the Bishop of Rome and the Cathechism of the Catholic Church and requested a means of establishing full communion. The petition was signed on the altar. The Vatican has a record of making some accommodations for Anglicans. In 1980, the Pastoral Provision was issued which allowed the creation of the Anglican Use and the establishment of Anglican Use parishes within dioceses of the United States. These parishes were initially composed of former members of the Episcopal Church.
The Vatican answered the requests of various Anglican groups for full communion by issuing the apostolic constitution Anglicanorum Coetibus, thus opening the possibility of corporate reunion with Rome for some Anglicans. On March 3, 2010, in Orlando, Florida, the eight members of the House of Bishops of the ACA voted unanimously to accept the Pope's proposal by formally petitioning the Vatican for a personal ordinariate in the United States. The ACA petition to establish an ordinariate in the United States urged it be established "as soon as possible" and indicated that they were establishing an interim governing council.In September 2010, however, the bishop of the ACA Diocese of the West, Daren K. Williams, announced that the bishops were divided on the matter and that parishes had left the church since the earlier news broke that union with the Roman Catholic Church was anticipated by the bishops. He also stated that talks between the ACA and the Anglican Province of America concerning a possible intercommunion agreement between the two were planned. That agreement was finalized in September, 2011. As of 2016, a reconciliation committee with bishops and priests from the ACA and the APA, under the leadership of Bishop George Langberg, is working on ways to unite the two churches.
On February 5, 2011, the chancellor of the Anglican Church in America issued a statement on behalf of the bishops of the ACA announcing that the church would remain a Continuing Anglican church. The statement also reported that one diocesan bishop who favored acceptance of the Pope's proposal had submitted his resignation and that approximately fifteen parishes were expected to leave the ACA with him.Brian R. Marsh is president of the ACA House of Bishops and George Langberg is vice-president.Anglican–Roman Catholic dialogue
Anglican–Roman Catholic dialogue is the historical communication between the Anglican Communion and the Roman Catholic Church, through their ecumenical relations. These were notably shaped subsequent to the Second Vatican Council (1962–1965).Armenian Rite
The Armenian Rite is an independent liturgy used by both the Armenian Apostolic and Armenian Catholic Churches. It is also the rite used by a significant number of Eastern Catholic Christians in Georgia.Book of Divine Worship
The Book of Divine Worship (BDW) was an adaptation of the American Book of Common Prayer (BCP) by the Roman Catholic Church. It was used primarily by former members of the Episcopal Church within Anglican Use parishes of the Pastoral Provision and the Personal Ordinariates. It has been replaced by a new book to be used worldwide, titled Divine Worship: The Missal.Catholic Church and Islam
Relations between the Catholic Church and Islam deals with the current attitude of the Catholic Church towards Islam and Muslims, as well as the attitude of Islam towards the Catholic Church and Catholics, and notable changes in the relationship since 20th century.Catholic charities
Catholic charities refer to a number of Catholic charitable organisations.
Catholic spiritual teaching includes spreading the Gospel while Catholic social teaching emphasises support for the sick, the poor and the afflicted through the corporal and spiritual works of mercy. The Catholic Church is the largest non-governmental provider of education and medical services in the world.Some charitable organisations are listed below.Hail Mary
The Hail Mary (Latin: Ave Maria) is a traditional Catholic prayer asking for the intercession of the Blessed Virgin Mary, the mother of Jesus. In Roman Catholicism, the prayer forms the basis of the Rosary and the Angelus prayers. In the Oriental Orthodox Churches, Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches, a similar prayer is used in formal liturgies, both in Greek and in translations. It is also used by many other groups within the Catholic tradition of Christianity including Anglicans, Independent Catholics, and Old Catholics.
Largely based on two phrases in the Gospel of Luke, the prayer takes different forms in various traditions. It has often been set to music.Latin liturgical rites
Latin liturgical rites, or Western liturgical rites, are Latin tradition Catholic liturgical rites employed by the Latin Church, the largest particular church sui iuris of the Catholic Church, that originated in Europe where the Latin language once dominated. Its language is now known as Ecclesiastical Latin. The most used rite is the Roman Rite.
The Latin rites were for many centuries no less numerous than the liturgical rites of the Eastern autonomous particular Churches. Their number is now much reduced. In the aftermath of the Council of Trent, in 1568 and 1570 Pope Pius V suppressed the Breviaries and Missals that could not be shown to have an antiquity of at least two centuries (see Tridentine Mass and Roman Missal). Many local rites that remained legitimate even after this decree were abandoned voluntarily, especially in the 19th century. In the second half of the 20th century, most of the religious orders that had a distinct liturgical rite chose to adopt in its place the Roman Rite as revised in accordance with the decrees of the Second Vatican Council (see Mass of Paul VI). A few such liturgical rites persist today for the celebration of Mass, since 1965-1970 in revised forms, but the distinct liturgical rites for celebrating the other sacraments have been almost completely abandoned.List of Catholic cathedrals in the United States
The following is a list of the Catholic cathedrals in the United States. The Catholic Church in the United States comprises ecclesiastical territories called dioceses led by prelate bishops. Each bishop is assigned to a cathedral from which he is pastor to the people of his diocese. Some dioceses also have a co-cathedral or a pro-cathedral. This is a complete list of the 195 cathedrals of the Latin Church (Roman Rite) and the 20 cathedrals of the Eastern Catholic Churches in the United States.List of Catholic dioceses in the United States
This list of the Catholic dioceses and archdioceses of the United States which includes both the dioceses of the Latin Church, which employ the Latin liturgical rites, and various other dioceses, primarily the eparchies of the Eastern Catholic Churches, which employ various Eastern Christian rites, and which are in full communion with the Pope in Rome. The Roman Catholic Archdiocese for the Military Services, USA is not a metropolitan diocese. The Personal Ordinariate of the Chair of Saint Peter was established on January 1, 2012 for former Anglicans who join the Catholic Church.
The Catholic Church in the United States has a total of 197 particular churches — consisting of 32 territorial archdioceses, 145 territorial dioceses, the Archdiocese for the Military Services, USA (serving members of the US Armed Forces and Diplomatic Corps, and those in facilities of the Veterans Administration and their dependents), and the Personal Ordinariate of the Chair of Saint Peter (serving Catholics who were formerly Anglicans) within the Roman Rite; and two archeparchies and 16 eparchies in the Eastern Catholic Churches — in the 50 United States and the US Virgin Islands.
There are several other dioceses whose territories cover the Nation's unincorporated territories. Puerto Rico has one ecclesiastical province comprising an archdiocese and five dioceses, which together form the Puerto Rican Episcopal Conference, which is separate from the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. The dioceses that encompass American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, and Guam are part of the Episcopal Conference of the Pacific.Lists of Catholics
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with approximately 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide, as of 2016.Order of the Most Holy Annunciation
The Order of the Most Holy Annunciation (Latin: Ordo SS. Annuntiationis), also known as the Turchine or Blue Nuns, is a Roman Catholic religious order of contemplative nuns formed in honour of the mystery of the Incarnation of Christ at Genoa, in Italy, by the Blessed Maria Vittoria De Fornari Strata.
Pope Clement VIII approved the religious order on 5 August 1604, placing it under the Rule of Saint Augustine.
At present, the order has monasteries in Brazil, France, Italy, the Philippines, Portugal, Romania, and Spain.Pastoral Provision
The "Pastoral Provision", in the context of the Catholic Church in the United States, refers to a set of practices and norms by which bishops are authorized to provide spiritual care for Roman Catholics coming from the Anglican tradition, by establishing parishes for them and ordaining priests from among them. The Pastoral Provision still provides a way for individuals to become priest in territorial dioceses, even though Anglicanorum Coetibus was declared which led to the establishment of Personal Ordinariates, another mechanism for former Anglicans to join the Catholic Church.The provision was authorized by Pope John Paul II in 1980 and announced in 1981, in response to requests from former United States Episcopalians and members of the Continuing Anglican movement.
It allows diocesan bishops to establish personal parishes for former Anglicans, which use liturgical forms that keeps some elements of the Anglican liturgy. Such liturgies are known as Anglican Use forms of the Roman Rite, and include the Book of Divine Worship and Divine Worship: The Missal.
The provision also enables bishops to ordain married former clergy as diocesan priests, when the Holy See grants a dispensation from the usual rule requiring Latin Rite Catholic priests to be celibate (i.e., unmarried).Since 1981, over 100 ordinations have taken place under the Pastoral Provision, and several personal parishes were established within dioceses. Starting in 2012, most of those parishes were transferred from their dioceses to a new nationwide jurisdiction, the Personal Ordinariate of the Chair of Saint Peter.
In 2017 the Vatican ordered that all parishes within the Pastoral Provision enter into the North American Ordinariate. As of late 2017, only one chaplaincy in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Boston established under the Pastoral Provision remains in diocesan jurisdiction, after the parish in San Antonio was transferred to the Ordinariate. It is expected that the Boston congregation will eventually be transferred also. The Pastoral Provision remains in force for married former Anglican clergy petitioning for orders in any diocese that is not the Personal Ordinariate of the Chair of St. Peter.Personal ordinariate
A personal ordinariate, sometimes called a "personal ordinariate for former Anglicans" or more informally an "Anglican ordinariate", is a canonical structure within the Catholic Church established in accordance with the apostolic constitution Anglicanorum coetibus of 4 November 2009 and its complementary norms. The ordinariates were established in order to enable "groups of Anglicans" to join the Catholic Church while preserving elements of their liturgical and spiritual patrimony. They are juridically equivalent to a diocese, "a particular church in which and from which exists the one and unique Catholic Church", but may be erected in the same territory as other dioceses "by reason of the rite of the faithful or some similar reason".Three ordinariates were established between 2011 and 2012:
Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of Walsingham (England and Wales, Scotland)
Personal Ordinariate of the Chair of Saint Peter (United States, Canada)
Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of the Southern Cross (Australia, Japan)Pontifical High Mass
In the context of the Tridentine Mass of the Roman Catholic Church, a Pontifical High Mass, also called Solemn Pontifical Mass, is a Solemn or High Mass celebrated by a bishop using certain prescribed ceremonies. The term is also used among Anglo-Catholic Anglicans. Although in modern English the word "pontifical" is almost exclusively associated with the Pope, any bishop may be properly called a pontiff. Thus, the celebrant of a Pontifical High Mass may be any bishop, and not just a pope.Rochet
A rochet is a white vestment generally worn by a Roman Catholic or Anglican bishop in choir dress. It is unknown in the Eastern churches. The rochet in its Roman form is similar to a surplice, except that the sleeves are narrower. In its Anglican form it is a descendent of the traditional albs worn by deacons and priests. In the Roman Catholic tradition, the rochet comes below the knee and its sleeves and hem are sometimes made of lace; in the Anglican tradition, the rochet comes down almost to the hem of the cassock and its sleeves are gathered at the wrist.
The word stems from the Latin rochettum (from the late Latin roccus, connected with the Old High German roch, roc and the A.S. rocc; Dutch koorhemd, rochet, French rochet, German Rochett, Chorkleid, Italian rocchetto, Spanish roquete), means an ecclesiastical vestment.Sexagesima
Sexagesima , or, in full, Sexagesima Sunday, is the name for the second Sunday before Ash Wednesday in the pre-1970 Roman Rite liturgical calendar of the Catholic Church, and also in that of some Protestant denominations, particularly those with Anglican and Lutheran origins.Superior (hierarchy)
In a hierarchy or tree structure of any kind, a superior is an individual or position at a higher level in the hierarchy than another (a "subordinate" or "inferior"), and thus closer to the apex. In business, superiors are people who are supervisors and in the military, superiors are people who are higher in the chain of command (superior officer). Superiors are given, sometimes supreme, authority over others under their command. When an order is given, one must follow that order and obey it or punishment may be issued.
Personal ordinariates for former Anglicans
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