Angel Island (California)

Angel Island is an island in San Francisco Bay offering expansive 360° views of the San Francisco skyline, the Marin County Headlands and Mount Tamalpais. The entire island is included within Angel Island State Park and is administered by California State Parks. The island, a California Historical Landmark,[1] has been used for a variety of purposes, including military forts, a US Public Health Service Quarantine Station, and a US Bureau of Immigration inspection and detention facility. The Angel Island Immigration Station on the northeast corner of the island, where officials detained, inspected, and examined approximately one million immigrants, has been designated a National Historic Landmark.[2]

Angel Island
Angel island features
Angel Island
Angel Island is located in San Francisco Bay Area
Angel Island
Angel Island
Angel Island is located in California
Angel Island
Angel Island
Angel Island is located in the United States
Angel Island
Angel Island
LocationSan Francisco Bay
Coordinates37°52′N 122°26′W / 37.86°N 122.43°WCoordinates: 37°52′N 122°26′W / 37.86°N 122.43°W
Area1.2 sq mi (3.1 km2)
Highest elevation788.76 ft (240.414 m)
Highest pointMount Caroline Livermore
United States
CountyMarin County
City and County of San Francisco
Pop. density18.35 /km2 (47.53 /sq mi)
Reference no.529[1]


Port of Angel Island
Port of Angel Island

Angel Island is the second largest island in area of the San Francisco Bay (Alameda is the largest). On a clear day, Sonoma and Napa can be seen from the north side of the island; San Jose can be seen from the south side of the island. The highest point on the island, almost exactly at its center, is Mount Caroline Livermore, more commonly known as simply Mt Livermore, at a height of 788 feet (240 m). The island is almost entirely in the city of Tiburon, in Marin County, although, there is a small sliver (0.7%) at the eastern end of it (Fort McDowell) which extends into the territory of the City and County of San Francisco. The island is separated from the mainland of Marin County by Racoon Strait, the depth of the water approximately 90 feet. The United States Census Bureau reported a land area of 3.107 km² (1.2 sq mi) and a population of 57 people as of the 2000 census.[3]


Angel Island (40280)
Angel Island as seen from the Angel Island Ferry near Tiburon, California
Angel Island, SF
San Francisco skyline & Alcatraz from Angel Island

Until about ten thousand years ago, Angel Island was connected to the mainland; it was cut off by the rise in sea levels due to the end of the last ice age. From about two thousand years ago the island was a fishing and hunting site for Coast Miwok Native Americans. Similar evidence of Native American settlement is found on the nearby mainland of the Tiburon Peninsula upon Ring Mountain.[4] In 1775, the Spanish naval vessel San Carlos made the first European entry to the San Francisco Bay under the command of Juan de Ayala. Ayala anchored off Angel Island, and gave it its modern name (Isla de los Ángeles);[5] the bay where he anchored is now known as Ayala Cove.

In his book Two Years Before the Mast, published in 1840, Richard Henry Dana, Jr. mentions in chapter 26, that in 1834 his sailing ship collected wood from "a small island, about two leagues from the Yerba Buena anchorage, called by us 'Wood Island' and by the Mexicans 'Isla de los Ángeles' and was covered with trees to the waters edge."

Like much of the California coast, Angel Island was subsequently used for cattle ranching. In 1863, during the American Civil War, the U.S. Army was concerned about Confederate naval raiders attacking San Francisco. It decided to construct artillery batteries on Angel Island, first at Stuart (or Stewart) Point and then Point Knox. Col. René Edward De Russy was the Chief Engineer; James Terry Gardiner was the engineer tasked with designing and supervising the work.[6] The Army established a camp on the island (now known as Camp Reynolds or the West Garrison), and it subsequently became an infantry garrison during the US campaigns against Native American peoples in the West.[7]

Fort McDowell

Battery Ledyard Angel Island
Battery Ledyard, near Point Knox, was active between 1899 and 1915.

In the later 19th century, the army designated the entire island as "Fort McDowell" and developed further facilities there, including what is now called the East Garrison or Fort McDowell. A quarantine station was opened in Ayala Cove (which at the time was known as Hospital Cove) in 1891. During the Spanish–American War the island served as a discharge depot for returning troops. It continued to serve as a transit station throughout the first half of the 20th century, with troops engaged in World War I embarking and returning there. At the end of World War I the disembarkation center was commanded by William P. Burnham, who had commanded the 82nd Division in France during the war.

In 1938, hearings concerning charges of membership in the Communist political party against labor leader Harry Bridges were held on Angel Island before Dean James Landis of Harvard Law School. After eleven weeks of testimony that filled nearly 8,500 pages, Landis found in favor of Bridges. The very true decision was accepted by the United States Department of Labor and Bridges was freed.[8]

During World War II the need for troops in the Pacific far exceeded prior needs. The facilities on Angel Island were expanded and further processing was done at Fort Mason in San Francisco. Prior to the war the infrastructure had been expanded, including building the Army ferry USAT General Frank M. Coxe, which transported troops to and from Angel Island on a regular schedule. Fort McDowell was used as a detention station for Japanese, German and Italian immigrant residents of Hawaii arrested as potential fifth columnists (despite a lack of supporting evidence or access to due process).[9] These internees were later transferred to inland Department of Justice and Army camps. Japanese and German prisoners of war were also held on the island, supplanting immigration needs, which were curtailed during the war years.

The army decommissioned the military post in 1947. In 1954 a Nike missile station was installed on the island.[10] The missile magazines were constructed above Point Blunt on the island's southeast corner, and the top of Mount Ida (now Mount Caroline Livermore) was flattened to make way for a helipad and the associated radar and tracking station (IFC). The missiles were removed in 1962, when the military left the island. The missile launch pad still exists, but the station atop Mount Caroline Livermore was reverted to its original contours in 2006.[11]

Government building on Angel Island

Quarantine Station

The Bubonic plague posed such a threat to the U.S. that Angel island opened as a quarantine station in 1891 to screen Asian passengers and their baggage prior to landing on U.S. soil.[12] The construction of this federally funded quarantine station was completed in 1890 at a cost of approximately $98,000.[13] The compound contained many separate buildings including detention barracks, disinfection facilities, convalescence quarters, and an isolation hospital that was known as the "leper's house".[13] Even with the new construction, the facilities were lacking in cleanliness, staffing and adequate space.[14]

In response to the death of Wong Chut King, a Chinese immigrant who worked in a rat-infested lumberyard in Chinatown, the San Francisco Health Board quickly quarantined the local area to neutralize possible disease-causing agents.[12] Persons suspected of having any contact with this sickness were sent to isolation facilities.[12]

In response to more deaths, tissue samples were sent to Angel Island for testing to determine if they harbored Yersinia pestis, the bacteria responsible for spreading the bubonic plague. At this time, the plague was difficult to diagnose due to other diseases, which could mask the presence of plague.[12] Bacteriologist Joseph Kinyoun, who was stationed at Angel Island in 1899, believed that the plague would spread throughout San Francisco's Chinatown after Y. pestis was confirmed from one of the deaths.[12] The samples were discovered by Frank Wilson, an assistant city health officer, and Wilfred Kellog, another bacteriologist.[12]

Immigration station

Camp reynolds ai
Camp Reynolds (West Garrison) on Angel Island.

The construction of the Angel Island immigration station began in 1905 but was not used until 1910.[15] This zone was known as China Cove. It was built for controlling Chinese entry into the United States.[16] From 1910 to 1940, Angel Island served as an immigration station processing immigrants from 84 different countries, approximately one million being Chinese immigrants.[16] The purpose of the immigration station was to investigate Chinese who had been denied entry from the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882. Immigrants had to prove that they had husbands or fathers who were U.S. citizens in order not to be deported.[17]

The immigration station at Angel Island was predominantly used to inspect, disinfect, and detain Chinese, Japanese, and other Asian immigrants who sailed across the Pacific Ocean.[14] In addition to standard medical examinations, Chinese immigrants were inspected for parasitic diseases, and the tests for intestinal parasites required a stool specimen.[14] Immigrants described the examination and disinfection process as brutal, humiliating, and indecent.[12] Passengers who were found to be sick were sent to the hospital on the island until they could pass a medical examination and an immigration hearing.[13] Investigation processes determined the length of time an immigrant would stay at the station[18] and Chinese immigrants could be detained for a period as short as two weeks to as long as two years.[19] A person's racial identity and social class determined the intensity of the examination imposed, resulting in fewer white Europeans and American citizens being subjected to the inspections.[14]

A fire destroyed the administration building in 1940, and subsequent immigration processing took place in San Francisco. On November fifth of 1940, the last gathering of around 200 immigrants, including around 150 Chinese, were exchanged from Angel Island to brief quarters in San Francisco.[16]

In 1964, the Chinese American community successfully lobbied the State of California to designate the immigration station as a State Landmark. Today, the Angel Island Immigration Station is a federally designated National Historic Landmark. It was renovated by the California State Parks, which re-opened February 16, 2009. Docent tours for school groups can be made by appointment.

Angel Island State Park

Angel Island Tiburon Belvedere aerial
Aerial view of Angel Island (center), near the Tiburon Peninsula (lower left), including Belvedere, with Richmond, Albany, Berkeley, Emeryville (left to right at top) in the background

In 1955, the State Park Commission authorized California State Parks to purchase 38 acres (15 ha) around Ayala Cove, marking the birth of Angel Island State Park. Additional acreage was purchased four years later, in 1959. The last federal Department of Defense personnel withdrew in 1962, turning over the entire island as a state park in December of the same year.

There is one active United States Coast Guard lighthouse on the island at Point Blunt. The lighthouse at Point Stuart has been disestablished.


The island's native plant communities include coastal grassland and coastal scrub, mostly on the island's south- and west-facing slopes and ridge tops, and evergreen woodland – predominantly of Coast Live Oak (Quercus agrifolia), bay (Umbellularia californica), toyon (Heteromeles arbutifolia), and madrone (Arbutus menziesii), with California Hazelnut (Corylus cornuta) and Western Sword Fern (Polystichum munitum) in the understory – on the eastern and northern portions of the island sheltered from the westerly winds from the Golden Gate.[20]

It is thought that the Coast Miwoks used regular fires to expand the grassland and shrublands at the expense of the woodlands. The grasslands and shrublands provided edible seeds and bulbs, and supported larger numbers of deer and small game.[20]

The Angel Island Mole, Scapanus latimanus insularis, is a subspecies of Broad-footed mole endemic to Angel Island.[21]

The military had planted 24 acres of Bluegum Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) on the island for windbreaks, beautification, timber, and erosion control. By the mid-1980s, the area covered by eucalyptus had expanded to 86 acres. In the 1980s, California State Parks undertook environmental studies to remove most of the Eucalyptus from the island, in order to restore native flora and reduce fire danger. The proposal generated controversy and received much local media coverage, and was approved to begin in 1990. Eucalyptus were removed from 80 acres between 1990 and 1997, and nursery-grown native plants were planted in the cleared areas. Six acres of historically significant eucalyptus trees were retained.[22]

As elsewhere in California, intensive cattle grazing in the 19th Century allowed annual grasses introduced from Southern Europe to replace the native perennial grasses.[20] Ongoing removal of non-native plants, including French broom (Genista monspessulana), Italian thistle (Carduus pycnocephalus) and Ice plant (Carpobrotus edulis), continues in an effort to restore the original evergreen woodland, perennial grassland, and coastal scrub plant communities.[22]

In addition to the eucalyptus, plantings from the military period of Monterey Pine (Pinus radiata), Cork Oak (Quercus suber), Australian Blackwood (Acacia melanoxylon), Canary Island Date Palm (Phoenix canariensis), Century Plant (Agave americana), Japanese Redwood (Cryptomeria japonica), Incense Cedar (Calocedrus decurrens), Deodar Cedar (Cedrus deodara), Coast Redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), Giant Sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum), Norfolk Island Pine (Araucaria heterophylla), Monkey puzzle tree (Araucaria araucana) and others can be found in and around the former military bases and immigration station.[20]

Mule Deer (Odocoileus hemionus) were reintroduced to the island by the army in 1915 for hunting. In the absence of predators, the deer population expanded and overgrazed the island. The deer population is now managed annually by California State Parks and the Department of Fish and Game.[23]

In 2002, the summit of Mount Caroline Livermore, which had been flattened in the 1950s to build the Nike missile radar and tracking installation, was re-contoured to resemble its original appearance, and increased 16 feet in height as a result. The access road up the west side of the mountain was removed, and replaced with a winding trail up the east side.[24]

2008 fire

Wildfire on Angel Island com
The fire at about 7 a.m. on October 13, 2008
Helicopter fighting fire on Angel Island
A helicopter, faintly visible amid smoke near center of image, drops water on the wildfire in the morning on October 13, 2008.
Tiburon Fire Department fireboat fights a fire on Angel Island, near San Francisco, 2008-10-13
Fireboat Liberty deploys her watercannon on an otherwise inaccessible shoreline fire, on October 12, 2008.[25]

On October 12, 2008 at approximately 9 p.m. PDT, a fire visible from all around the San Francisco Bay broke out on the island that spread to an estimated 100 acres (40 ha) within an hour.[26] By 8 a.m. the next morning, the fire had scorched 250 acres (100 ha) — a third of the island — and was 20 percent contained.

Firefighters run around from the mainland and helicopters dropped water and fire retardants to protect the historical buildings and extinguish the fire that was fully contained by October 14, 2008 at approximately 7 p.m.[27] 380 of the island's 740 acres (300 ha) were burned in the fire.[28] With the exception of one abandoned water tank, no structures were lost in the fire.[29]

Firefighting efforts were coordinated from the USCGC Sockeye.[30]

In portions of the evergreen woodlands, the fire burned through quickly, consuming the understory, but leaving the trees mostly undamaged.[29] The fire burned several stands of Monterey Pine (Pinus radiata) originally planted by the U.S. Army, which will be restored to native evergreen woodlands.[23]

Prior fires include one in 2005 that burned 25 acres (10 ha), and a smaller 2–3-acre blaze in 2004.[29]


Access to the island is by private boat or public ferry from San Francisco, Tiburon or Vallejo. The Angel Island-Tiburon Ferry operates daily from Tiburon to the island. During the off-season (October–March), all ferries run a reduced schedule. All fares include park admission. The California State Park Annual Day Use Pass can be used to pay day use dock fees for private boats, but it is not accepted from visitors coming via the public ferries.

Bicycles can be brought on the ferry or rented seasonally on land and used on the island's main roads. Electric scooters and Segways can also be rented. Due to the terrain, roller skates, roller blades, skateboards, kick scooters, and personal Segway scooters are prohibited.

Dogs (except service dogs) are not allowed.

Wood fires are prohibited. Charcoal fires are allowed, but charcoal is not available for purchase on the island.

There are 11 environmental campsites, including an ADA site, 9 numbered sites (each site accommodating up to 8 people), and a kayak-accessible group site (holds up to 20 people).

Night travel on the island is prohibited in some areas for reasons of park security and public safety.

Metal detectors, while allowed, are not recommended, because digging or disturbing the soil or ground in the park is prohibited.



Angel Island is served by PG&E via two 12 kV undersea cables which cross Raccoon Strait from Tiburon.[31] As of mid-2015, peak electrical load is approximately 100 kW.[31] One cable is out of service and the other is deteriorating.[31] Instead of replacing the cables, PG&E is investigating using the island for a Distributed Energy Resources microgrid pilot project.[31]

See also


  1. ^ a b "Angel Island". Office of Historic Preservation, California State Parks. Retrieved 2012-10-09.
  2. ^ The National Register of Historic Places (16 August 2007). "Celebrating Asian Heritage". National Park Service. Archived from the original on 8 June 2010. Retrieved 11 June 2010.
  3. ^ "Detailed Tables: Block Group 3, Census Tract 1242, Marin County; and Block 1068, Block Group 1, Census Tract 179.02, San Francisco County". American FactFinder. United States Census Bureau. 2000. Missing or empty |url= (help)
  4. ^ C. Michael Hogan (2008). "Ring Mountain - Carving in United States in The West". The Megalithic Portal. Archived from the original on 10 June 2011. Retrieved 11 June 2010.
  5. ^ William Bright; Erwin Gustav Gudde (30 November 1998). 1500 California place names: their origin and meaning. University of California Press. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-520-21271-8. Archived from the original on 28 June 2011. Retrieved 20 January 2012.
  6. ^ Personal Letter of James T. Gardiner to his mother, San Francisco, November 7, 1863, New York State Library
  7. ^ John Soennichsen (13 January 2008). "Historic California Posts: Fort McDowell (Camp Reynolds, Post of Angel Island)". The California State Military Museum. Archived from the original on 13 June 2010. Retrieved 11 June 2010.
  8. ^ Justin O'Brien (13 November 2014). The Triumph, Tragedy and Lost Legacy of James M Landis: A Life on Fire. Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 84–. ISBN 978-1-78225-439-3.
  9. ^ "Fort McDowell/Angel Island" Archived 2015-04-25 at the Wayback Machine Densho Encyclopedia (accessed 13 Jun 2014)
  10. ^ Archived 2009-05-18 at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ Hanrahan, Michael, 2009. A Visitor's Guide to Angel Island State Park. p. 37. Way Out There Press.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g Risse. G., (2012). Plague, fear, and politics in San Francisco's Chinatown. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press
  13. ^ a b c Lucaccini, Luigi. "The Public Health Service on Angel Island". Public Health Reports. 111 (January/February 1996): 92–94.
  14. ^ a b c d Markel, Howard; Stern, Alexandra (1999). "Which face? Whose nation?: Immigration, public health, and the construction of disease at America's ports and borders, 1891-1928". The American Behavioral Scientist. 42 (9): 1314–1331. doi:10.1177/00027649921954921.
  15. ^ "Immigration Station". California Department of Parks and Recreation. Archived from the original on 2017-10-23.
  16. ^ a b c "United States Immigration Station (USIS) « Angel Island Conservancy". Archived from the original on 2014-09-16.
  17. ^ "Immigrant Journeys of Chinese Americans". Angel Island. Archived from the original on 2018-01-26.
  18. ^ "Immigration Station". California Department of Parks and Rec. Archived from the original on 2017-10-23.
  19. ^ "Immigration Station". California State Parks and Rec. Archived from the original on 2011-09-07.
  20. ^ a b c d Wheeler, Thomas. "Historic Landscapes of the Angel Island Coastal Fortifications". California Department of Parks and Recreation. Accessed 9 September 2013 Angel Island Landscapes Archived 2016-03-03 at the Wayback Machine
  21. ^ Collins, Paul W. "Angel Island mole, Scapanus latimanus insularis" in Bolster, B.C. (ed.) Terrestrial Mammal Species of Special Concern in California, 1998. Accessed 8 September 2013. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-12-20. Retrieved 2013-11-11.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  22. ^ a b Boyd, David, 1997. "Eucalyptus Removal on Angel Island". California Exotic Pest Plant Council 1997 Symposium Proceedings
  23. ^ a b California State Parks, 2012. Angel Island State Park Interpretation Master Plan. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2013-12-17. Retrieved 2013-11-11.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  24. ^ "Mount Livermore." Angel Island Conservancy. Accessed 8 September 2013 Mount Livermore – Angel Island Conservancy Archived 2016-02-15 at the Wayback Machine
  25. ^ "Angel Island Fires". Dvidshub. 2008-10-13. Archived from the original on 2016-01-30. Retrieved 2016-01-30. A fireboat from the Tiburon Fire Department attempts to extinguish fires here Oct. 13, 2008.
  26. ^ Adam Jackson (13 October 2008). "Angel Island San Francisco on Fire! (links)". Adam and Laura Go West. Archived from the original on October 16, 2008. Retrieved 11 June 2010.
  27. ^ Demian Bulwa; Kevin Fagan; Jim Doyle (14 October 2008). "Wildfire transforms Angel Island". The San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on January 5, 2009. Retrieved 11 June 2010.
  28. ^ Mark Prado (15 October 2008). "Burned Angel Island to reopen Monday; public will have limited access". The Marin Independent Journal. Archived from the original on 2 October 2013. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
  29. ^ a b c Mark Prado; Jennifer Upshaw (13 October 2008). "All-out attack as firefighters work to save Angel Island". The Marin Independent Journal. Archived from the original on 22 March 2012. Retrieved 11 June 2010.
  30. ^ "Angel Island Fires". Dvidshub. 2008-10-13. Archived from the original on 2016-01-30. Retrieved 2016-01-29.
  31. ^ a b c d "Pacific Gas and Electric Company Electrical Distribution Resources Plan". California Public Utilities Commission. 1 July 2015. Archived from the original on 6 March 2016. Retrieved 5 March 2016.

Further reading

Angel island.jpeg
A marker
  • Freedman, Russell (2013). Angel Island: Gateway to Gold Mountain. Boston (MA): Clarion Books. ISBN 978-0-547-90378-1.
  • Lai, Him Mark; Lim, Genny; Yung, Judy (1980). Island: Poetry and History of Chinese Immigrants on Angel Island, 1910-1940. Seattle: University of Washington. ISBN 978-0-295-97109-4.
  • Soennichsen, John (2005). Miwoks to Missiles. Tiburon, California: Angel Island Association. ISBN 978-0-9667352-2-2.

External links

Angel Island

Angel Island may refer to:

Angel Island (California), historic site of the United States Immigration Station, Angel Island, and part of Angel Island State Park, in San Francisco Bay, California

Angel Island (novel), by Inez Haynes Gillmore

Angel Island (play), by Bernadine Angus

Angel Island (Sonic the Hedgehog), a fictional location in the Sonic video game series

Charles Brady King

Charles Brady King (February 2, 1868 – June 22, 1957) was an American engineer and entrepreneur remembered as an automotive pioneer, artist, etcher, musician, poet, architect, mystic, industrialist and inventor.King was the first person in Detroit to design, build and drive a self-propelled automobile – 3 months before Henry Ford built his automobile. The Detroit Journal of March 7, 1896, reports that King drove his motor-powered vehicle down Woodward Avenue – being the first person in Detroit to build and drive such a vehicle.

The Journal also reports King made and sold the first complete automobile in Detroit.

Ellis Island

Ellis Island, in Upper New York Bay, was the gateway for over 12 million immigrants to the U.S. as the United States' busiest immigrant inspection station for over 60 years from 1892 until 1954. Ellis Island was opened January 1, 1892. The island was greatly expanded with land reclamation between 1892 and 1934. Before that, the much smaller original island was the site of Fort Gibson and later a naval magazine. The island was made part of the Statue of Liberty National Monument in 1965 and has hosted a museum of immigration since 1990 through 1995.

It was long considered part of New York, but a 1998 United States Supreme Court decision found that most of the island is in New Jersey. The south side of the island, home to the Ellis Island Immigrant Hospital, is closed to the general public although there are tours of the hospital itself.

Fort McDowell

Fort McDowell may refer to:

Fort McDowell, Angel Island, California

Fort McDowell, Arizona, (also known as Camp McDowell), a community that started as a US Army fort established in 1865 on the upper Salt River in Maricopa County, Arizona

Fort McDowell Yavapai Nation of the Yavapai people, near Fountain Hills, Arizona

Fort Reynolds

Fort Reynolds can refer to the following:

Fort Reynolds (California) or Camp Reynolds on Angel Island, California, USA

Fort Reynolds (Colorado) near Avondale, Colorado, USA

Fort Reynolds (Virginia) in Arlington County, Virginia, USA

Immigration detention on United States military bases

The United States government has detained or interned immigrants on military bases on several occasions, including as part of internment of Japanese Americans, of Italian Americans and of German Americans during World War II. In the 2010s, military bases have been used to house unaccompanied asylum seekers from Central America.

Internment of Japanese Americans

The internment of Japanese Americans in the United States during World War II was the forced relocation and incarceration in concentration camps in the western interior of the country of between 110,000 and 120,000 people of Japanese ancestry, most of whom lived on the Pacific coast. Sixty-two percent of the internees were United States citizens. These actions were ordered by President Franklin D. Roosevelt shortly after Imperial Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor.Of 127,000 Japanese Americans living in the continental United States at the time of the Pearl Harbor attack, 112,000 resided on the West Coast. About 80,000 were Nisei (literal translation: "second generation"; American-born Japanese with U.S. citizenship) and Sansei ("third generation"; the children of Nisei). The rest were Issei ("first generation") immigrants born in Japan who were ineligible for U.S. citizenship under U.S. law.Japanese Americans were incarcerated based on local population concentrations and regional politics. More than 110,000 Japanese Americans in the mainland U.S., who mostly lived on the West Coast, were forced into interior camps. However, in Hawaii, where 150,000-plus Japanese Americans composed over one-third of the population, only 1,200 to 1,800 were also interned. The internment is considered to have resulted more from racism than from any security risk posed by Japanese Americans. Those who were as little as 1/16 Japanese, orphaned infants, and anyone with—in the words of the architect behind the internment program, Colonel Karl Bendetsen—"one drop of Japanese blood" were placed in the internment camps.Roosevelt authorized the deportation and incarceration with Executive Order 9066, issued on February 19, 1942, which allowed regional military commanders to designate "military areas" from which "any or all persons may be excluded." This authority was used to declare that all people of Japanese ancestry were excluded from the West Coast, including all of California and parts of Oregon, Washington, and Arizona, except for those in government camps. Approximately 5,000 Japanese Americans relocated outside the exclusion zone before March 1942, while some 5,500 community leaders had been arrested immediately after the Pearl Harbor attack and thus were already in custody. The majority of nearly 130,000 Japanese Americans living in the U.S. mainland were forcibly relocated from their West Coast homes during the spring of 1942.The United States Census Bureau assisted the internment efforts by spying and providing confidential neighborhood information on Japanese Americans. The Bureau denied its role for decades, but it became public in 2007. In 1944, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the removal by ruling against Fred Korematsu's appeal for violating an exclusion order. The Court limited its decision to the validity of the exclusion orders, avoiding the issue of the incarceration of U.S. citizens without due process.In 1980, under mounting pressure from the Japanese American Citizens League and redress organizations, President Jimmy Carter opened an investigation to determine whether the decision to put Japanese Americans into concentration camps had been justified by the government. He appointed the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians (CWRIC) to investigate the camps. The Commission's report, titled Personal Justice Denied, found little evidence of Japanese disloyalty at the time and concluded that the incarceration had been the product of racism. It recommended that the government pay reparations to the internees. In 1988, President Ronald Reagan signed into law the Civil Liberties Act of 1988 which apologized for the internment on behalf of the U.S. government and authorized a payment of $20,000 (equivalent to $42,000 in 2018) to each camp survivor. The legislation admitted that government actions were based on "race prejudice, war hysteria, and a failure of political leadership." The U.S. government eventually disbursed more than $1.6 billion (equivalent to $3,390,000,000 in 2018) in reparations to 82,219 Japanese Americans who had been interned and their heirs.

List of World War II prisoner-of-war camps in the United States

In the United States at the end of World War II, there were prisoner-of-war camps, including 175 Branch Camps serving 511 Area Camps containing over 425,000 prisoners of war (mostly German). The camps were located all over the US but were mostly in the South because of the higher expense of heating the barracks in other areas. Eventually, every state (with the exceptions of Nevada, North Dakota, and Vermont) had at least one POW camp. Some of the camps had to be designated "segregation camps" and used to separate the Nazi "true believers" from the rest of the prisoners, whom they terrorized and even killed for being friendly with their American captors.At its peak in May 1945, a total of 425,871 POWs were held in the US. This included 371,683 Germans, 50,273 Italians, and 3,915 Japanese.

Luis Antonio Argüello

Luis Antonio Argüello (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈlwis anˈtonjo aɾˈɣweʎo]; June 21, 1784 – March 27, 1830) was the first Californio (native-born) governor of Alta California (thirteenth in all), and the first to take office under Mexican rule. He was the only governor to serve under the First Mexican Empire (of 1821-1823) and also served as acting governor under the subsequent provisional government, which preceded the First Mexican Republic (of 1824–1864).

Mount Livermore

Mount Livermore may refer to:

Mount Caroline Livermore on Angel Island (California)

Mount Livermore (Texas) in the Davis Mountains of Texas

Livermore Peak (Maine)

Mount Livermore (New Hampshire)

Proxy marriage

A proxy wedding or proxy marriage is a wedding in which one or both of the individuals being united are not physically present, usually being represented instead by other persons. If both partners are absent a double proxy wedding occurs.

Marriage by proxy is usually resorted to either when a couple wish to marry but one or both partners cannot attend for reasons such as military service, imprisonment, or travel restrictions; or when a couple lives in a jurisdiction in which they cannot legally marry.

Proxy weddings are not recognized as legally binding in most jurisdictions: both parties must be present. Under the English common law, if a proxy marriage is valid by the law of the place where the marriage was celebrated (the lex loci celebrationis) then it will be recognised in England.

Punjabi Americans

Punjabi Americans, are Americans whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in the Punjab, a region in northern South Asia in India and Pakistan. There are over 250,000 Punjabi Americans, many of whom were Sikhs who first settled in California's Central Valley to do agricultural work.

Raccoon Strait

The Raccoon Strait is a waterway of the San Francisco Bay between Angel Island and the Tiburon Peninsula, mainland Marin County, California. During the ice ages, when sea levels were considerably lower and San Francisco Bay was a grassy valley, the combined Sacramento-San Joaquin river flowed through what is now Raccoon Strait before flowing through the canyon at the Golden Gate.

Sikhism in the United States

Sikhism is a religion originating from South Asia (predominantly from the Punjab region of modern-day India and Pakistan) which was introduced into the United States during the 19th century. In 2007, there were estimated to be between 250,000 and 500,000 Sikhs living in the United States, with largest populations living on the East and West Coasts, together with additional populations in Detroit, Chicago, and Austin. The United States also has a number of non-Punjabi converts to Sikhism.Sikh men are typically identifiable by their unshorn beards and turbans (head coverings), articles of their faith. Following the 9/11 terrorist attacks, and subsequent other terrorism related activities by Islamic groups, Sikhs have often been mistaken as Muslims or Arabs, and have been subject to several hate crimes, including murders. Sikh temples have also been targets of violence due to being mistaken for mosques. A 2012 shooting at a Sikh temple in Oak Creek, Wisconsin garnered national and international attention, with then President Obama ordering flags to be half-staffed at all federal buildings.

USS Omaha (1869)

The first USS Omaha was laid down in 1867 by the Philadelphia Navy Yard as Astoria; launched 10 June 1869; she was renamed Omaha on 10 August 1869; and commissioned 12 September 1872, Captain John C. Febiger in command.

Winfield Scott (chaplain)

Winfield Scott (February 26, 1837 – October 19, 1910) was an American Baptist minister, military officer, and politician. Shortly after graduating from seminary and taking his first job as a pastor, he left his church to lead a company during the American Civil War. Injuries sustained on the battlefield eventually led to his discharge from the military. Following the war, Scott moved to Kansas where he grew one church and established several others. He continued in ministerial and evangelical efforts in Colorado and California before becoming an U.S. Army chaplain. After retiring from the army, Scott moved to the Salt River Valley where he founded and was active in the early promotion of Scottsdale, Arizona. Despite being an ordained minister, Scott preferred the style "Chaplain, U.S.A." to "Reverend".

ZAP (motor company)

ZAP is an American electric vehicle company that designs, produces and markets vehicles including automobiles, motorcycles, bicycles, scooters, personal watercraft, hovercraft, ATVs, neighborhood electric vehicles and commercial vehicles. The name stands for Zero Air Pollution. The company headquarters are located in Santa Rosa, California.

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