Angel

An angel is generally a supernatural being found in various religions and mythologies. Abrahamic religions often depict angels as benevolent celestial beings who act as intermediaries between God (or Heaven) and humanity.[1][2] Other roles of angels include protecting and guiding human beings, and carrying out tasks on behalf of God.[3] Abrahamic religions often organize angels into hierarchies, although such rankings may vary between sects in each religion. Such angels may receive specific names (such as Gabriel or Michael) or titles (such as seraph or archangel). People have also extended the use of the term "angel" to various notions of spirits or figures found in other religious traditions. The theological study of angels is known as "angelology". Angels expelled from Heaven are referred to as fallen angels as distinct from the heavenly host.

In fine art angels are usually depicted as having the shape of human beings of extraordinary beauty[4] but no gender (until the 19th century at least). They are often identified In Christian artwork with bird wings,[5] halos,[6] and light.

Guido Reni 031
The Archangel Michael wears a late Roman military cloak and cuirass in this 17th-century depiction by Guido Reni
The Wounded Angel - Hugo Simberg
The Wounded Angel, Hugo Simberg, 1903, voted Finland's "national painting" during 2006
Bernhard Plockhorst - Schutzengel
Schutzengel (English: "Guardian Angel") by Bernhard Plockhorst depicts a guardian angel watching over two children.
Stift Seitenstetten Marmorsaal Deckenfresko 01
The Harmony between Religion and Science, a ceiling fresco of the Marble Hall at Seitenstetten Abbey (Lower Austria) by Paul Troger, 1735
An allegory of poetry
An allegory of poetry by François Boucher

Etymology

The word angel arrives in modern English from Old English engel (with a hard g) and the Old French angele.[7] Both of these derive from Late Latin angelus (literally "messenger"), which in turn was borrowed from Late Greek ἄγγελος aggelos,[8] commonly transliterated by non-Greek speakers in its phonetic form ángelos. Additionally, per Dutch linguist R. S. P. Beekes, ángelos itself may be "an Oriental loan, like ἄγγαρος (ángaros, 'Persian mounted courier')."[9] Perhaps then, the word's earliest form is Mycenaean a-ke-ro, attested in Linear B syllabic script.[10][11]

The rendering of "ángelos" is the Septuagint's default translation of the Biblical Hebrew term mal’ākh, denoting simply "messenger" without connoting its nature. In the associations to follow in the Latin Vulgate, this meaning becomes bifurcated: when mal’ākh or ángelos is supposed to denote a human messenger, words like nuntius or legatus are applied. If the word refers to some supernatural being, the word angelus appears. Such differentiation has been taken over by later vernacular translations of the Bible, early Christian and Jewish exegetes and eventually modern scholars.[12]

Abrahamic religions

Judaism

Abraham-And-The-Three-Angels
Three angels hosted by Abraham, Ludovico Carracci (c. 1610-1612), Bologna, Pinacoteca Nazionale.
Tobias and the Angel - Filippino Lippi
Tobias and the Angel by Filippino Lippi, created between circa 1472 and circa 1482.

The Torah uses the (Hebrew) terms מלאך אלהים (mal'āk̠ 'ĕlōhîm; messenger of God), מלאך יהוה (mal'āk̠ YHWH; messenger of the Lord), בני אלהים (bənē 'ĕlōhîm; sons of God) and הקודשים (haqqôd̠əšîm; the holy ones) to refer to beings traditionally interpreted as angels. Later texts use other terms, such as העליונים (hā'elyônîm; the upper ones).

The term מלאך (mal'āk̠) is also used in other books of the Tanakh. Depending on the context, the Hebrew word may refer to a human messenger or to a supernatural messenger. A human messenger might be a prophet or priest, such as Malachi, "my messenger"; the Greek superscription in the Septuagint translation states the Book of Malachi was written "by the hand of his messenger" ἀγγέλου angélu. Examples of a supernatural messenger[13] are the "Malak YHWH," who is either a messenger from God,[14] an aspect of God (such as the Logos),[15] or God himself as the messenger (the "theophanic angel.")[13][16]

Scholar Michael D. Coogan notes that it is only in the late books that the terms "come to mean the benevolent semi-divine beings familiar from later mythology and art."[17] Daniel is the first biblical figure to refer to individual angels by name,[18] mentioning Gabriel (God's primary messenger) in Daniel 9:21 and Michael (the holy fighter) in Daniel 10:13. These angels are part of Daniel's apocalyptic visions and are an important part of all apocalyptic literature.[17][19]

In Daniel 7, Daniel receives a dream-vision from God. [...] As Daniel watches, the Ancient of Days takes his seat on the throne of heaven and sits in judgement in the midst of the heavenly court [...] an [angel] like a son of man approaches the Ancient One in the clouds of heaven and is given everlasting kingship.[20]

Coogan explains the development of this concept of angels: "In the postexilic period, with the development of explicit monotheism, these divine beings—the 'sons of God' who were members of the Divine Council—were in effect demoted to what are now known as 'angels', understood as beings created by God, but immortal and thus superior to humans."[17] This conception of angels is best understood in contrast to demons and is often thought to be "influenced by the ancient Persian religious tradition of Zoroastrianism, which viewed the world as a battleground between forces of good and forces of evil, between light and darkness."[17] One of these is hāšāṭān, a figure depicted in (among other places) the Book of Job.

Philo of Alexandria identifies the angel with the Logos inasmuch as the angel is the immaterial voice of God. The angel is something different from God himself, but is conceived as God's instrument.[21]

Four classes of ministering angels minister and utter praise before the Holy One, blessed be He: the first camp (led by) Michael on His right, the second camp (led by) Gabriel on His left, the third camp (led by) Uriel before Him, and the fourth camp (led by) Raphael behind Him; and the Shekhinah of the Holy One, blessed be He, is in the centre. He is sitting on a throne high and exalted[22]

In post-Biblical Judaism, certain angels took on particular significance and developed unique personalities and roles. Although these archangels were believed to rank among the heavenly host, no systematic hierarchy ever developed. Metatron is considered one of the highest of the angels in Merkabah and Kabbalist mysticism and often serves as a scribe; he is briefly mentioned in the Talmud[23] and figures prominently in Merkabah mystical texts. Michael, who serves as a warrior[24] and advocate for Israel (Daniel 10:13), is looked upon particularly fondly.[25] Gabriel is mentioned in the Book of Daniel (Daniel 8:15–17) and briefly in the Talmud,[26] as well as in many Merkabah mystical texts. There is no evidence in Judaism for the worship of angels, but there is evidence for the invocation and sometimes even conjuration of angels.[18]

According to Kabbalah, there are four worlds and our world is the last world: the world of action (Assiyah). Angels exist in the worlds above as a 'task' of God. They are an extension of God to produce effects in this world. After an angel has completed its task, it ceases to exist. The angel is in effect the task. This is derived from the book of Genesis when Abraham meets with three angels and Lot meets with two. The task of one of the angels was to inform Abraham of his coming child. The other two were to save Lot and to destroy Sodom and Gomorrah.[18]

Jewish philosopher Maimonides explained his view of angels in his Guide for the Perplexed II:4 and II

... This leads Aristotle in turn to the demonstrated fact that God, glory and majesty to Him, does not do things by direct contact. God burns things by means of fire; fire is moved by the motion of the sphere; the sphere is moved by means of a disembodied intellect, these intellects being the 'angels which are near to Him', through whose mediation the spheres move ... thus totally disembodied minds exist which emanate from God and are the intermediaries between God and all the bodies [objects] here in this world.

— Guide for the Perplexed II:4, Maimonides

Maimonides had a neo-Aristotelian interpretation of the Bible. Maimonides writes that to the wise man, one sees that what the Bible and Talmud refer to as "angels" are actually allusions to the various laws of nature; they are the principles by which the physical universe operates.

For all forces are angels! How blind, how perniciously blind are the naive?! If you told someone who purports to be a sage of Israel that the Deity sends an angel who enters a woman's womb and there forms an embryo, he would think this a miracle and accept it as a mark of the majesty and power of the Deity, despite the fact that he believes an angel to be a body of fire one third the size of the entire world. All this, he thinks, is possible for God. But if you tell him that God placed in the sperm the power of forming and demarcating these organs, and that this is the angel, or that all forms are produced by the Active Intellect; that here is the angel, the "vice-regent of the world" constantly mentioned by the sages, then he will recoil.– Guide for the Perplexed II:4

Da Forli - Music-Making Angel
One of Melozzo's musician (seraphim) angels from the Basilica dei Santi Apostoli, now in the sacristy of St. Peter's Basilica
Blake - angel of revelation
Angel of the Revelation by William Blake, between circa 1803 and circa 1805

Jewish angelic hierarchy

Greiffenhagen - The sons of God saw the Daughters of Men that they were fair
The sons of God saw the Daughters of Men that they were fair by Maurice Greiffenhagen

Maimonides, in his Yad ha-Chazakah: Yesodei ha-Torah, counts ten ranks of angels in the Jewish angelic hierarchy, beginning from the highest:

Rank Angel Notes
1 Chayot Ha Kodesh See Ezekiel 1,10
2 Ophanim See Ezekiel 1,10
3 Erelim See Isaiah 33:7
4 Hashmallim See Ezekiel 1:4
5 Seraphim See Isaiah 6
6 Malakim Messengers, angels
7 Elohim "Godly beings"
8 Bene Elohim "Sons of Godly beings"
9 Cherubim See Hagigah 13b
10 Ishim "manlike beings", see Genesis 18:2, Daniel 10:5

Individual angels

From the Jewish Encyclopedia, entry "Angelology".[18]

  • Michael (archangel) (translation: who is like God?), kindness of God, and stands up for the children of mankind
  • Gabriel (archangel) (translation: God is my strength), performs acts of justice and power

(Only these two angels are mentioned by name in the Hebrew Bible; the rest are from extra-biblical tradition.)

  • Jophiel (translation: Beauty of God), expelled Adam and Eve from the Garden of Eden holding a flaming sword and punishes those who transgress against God.
  • Raphael (archangel) (translation: It is God who heals), God's healing force
  • Uriel (archangel) (translation: God is my light), leads us to destiny
  • Samael (archangel) (translation: Venom of God), angel of death—see also Malach HaMavet (translation: the angel of death)
  • Sandalphon (archangel) (translation: bringing together), battles Samael and brings mankind together

Christianity

Later Christians inherited Jewish understandings of angels, which in turn may have been partly inherited from the Egyptians.[27] In the early stage, the Christian concept of an angel characterized the angel as a messenger of God. Later came identification of individual angelic messengers: Gabriel, Michael, Raphael, and Uriel.[28] Then, in the space of little more than two centuries (from the 3rd to the 5th) the image of angels took on definite characteristics both in theology and in art.[29]

According to St. Augustine, " 'Angel' is the name of their office, not of their nature. If you seek the name of their nature, it is 'spirit'; if you seek the name of their office, it is 'angel': from what they are, 'spirit', from what they do, 'angel'."[30] Basilian Father Thomas Rosica says, "Angels are very important, because they provide people with an articulation of the conviction that God is intimately involved in human life."[31]

By the late 4th century, the Church Fathers agreed that there were different categories of angels, with appropriate missions and activities assigned to them. There was, however, some disagreement regarding the nature of angels. Some argued that angels had physical bodies,[32] while some maintained that they were entirely spiritual. Some theologians had proposed that angels were not divine but on the level of immaterial beings subordinate to the Trinity. The resolution of this Trinitarian dispute included the development of doctrine about angels.[33]

The angels are represented throughout the Christian Bible as spiritual beings intermediate between God and men: "You have made him [man] a little less than the angels ..." (Psalms 8:4–5). Christians believe that angels are created beings, based on (Psalms 148:2–5; Colossians 1:16): "praise ye Him, all His angels: praise ye Him, all His hosts ... for He spoke and they were made. He commanded and they were created ...". The Forty Gospel Homilies by Pope Gregory I noted angels and archangels.[34] The Fourth Lateran Council (1215) declared that the angels were created beings. The Council's decree Firmiter credimus (issued against the Albigenses) declared both that angels were created and that men were created after them. The First Vatican Council (1869) repeated this declaration in Dei Filius, the "Dogmatic constitution on the Catholic faith".

Thomas Aquinas (13th century) relates angels to Aristotle's metaphysics in his Summa contra Gentiles,[35] Summa Theologica,[36] and in De substantiis separatis,[37] a treatise on angelology. Although angels have greater knowledge than men, they are not omniscient, as Matthew 24:36 points out.[38]

Interaction with angels

Gethsemane Carl Bloch
Kristus i Getsemane (1873), an angel comforting Jesus before his arrest in the Garden of Gethsemane, by Carl Heinrich Bloch (1834–1890).
Forget not to show love unto strangers: for thereby some have entertained angels unawares.—Hebrews 13:2

The New Testament includes many interactions and conversations between angels and humans. For instance, three separate cases of angelic interaction deal with the births of John the Baptist and Jesus Christ. In Luke 1:11, an angel appears to Zechariah to inform him that he will have a child despite his old age, thus proclaiming the birth of John the Baptist. In Luke 1:26 the Archangel Gabriel visits the Virgin Mary in the Annunciation to foretell the birth of Jesus Christ. Angels then proclaim the birth of Jesus in the Adoration of the shepherds in Luke 2:10.[39]

According to Matthew 4:11, after Jesus spent 40 days in the desert, "...the devil left him and, behold, angels came and ministered to him." In Luke 22:43 an angel comforts Jesus Christ during the Agony in the Garden.[40] In Matthew 28:5 an angel speaks at the empty tomb, following the Resurrection of Jesus and the rolling back of the stone by angels.[39]

In 1851 Pope Pius IX approved the Chaplet of Saint Michael based on the 1751 reported private revelation from archangel Michael to the Carmelite nun Antonia d'Astonac.[41] In a biography of Saint Gemma Galgani written by Venerable Germanus Ruoppolo, Galgani stated that she had spoken with her guardian angel.

Pope John Paul II emphasized the role of angels in Catholic teachings in his 1986 address titled "Angels Participate In History Of Salvation", in which he suggested that modern mentality should come to see the importance of angels.[42]

According to the Vatican's Congregation for Divine Worship and Discipline of the Sacraments, "The practice of assigning names to the Holy Angels should be discouraged, except in the cases of Gabriel, Raphael and Michael whose names are contained in Holy Scripture."[43]

The New Church

In the New Church, extensive information is provided concerning angels and the spiritual world in which they dwell from many years of spiritual experiences recounted in the writings of Emanuel Swedenborg. All angels are in human form with a spiritual body, and are not just minds without form.[44] There are different orders of angels according to the three heavens,[45] and each angel dwells in one of innumerable societies of angels. Such a society of angels can appear as one angel as a whole.[46]

All angels originate from the human race, and there is not one angel in heaven who first did not live in a material body.[47] Moreover, all children who die not only enter heaven but eventually become angels.[48] The life of angels is that of usefulness, and their functions are so many that they cannot be enumerated. However each angel will enter a service according to the use that they had performed in their earthly life.[49] Names of angels, such as Michael, Gabriel, and Raphael, signify a particular angelic function rather than an individual being.[50]

While living in one's body an individual has conjunction with heaven through the angels,[51] and with each person, there are at least two evil spirits and two angels.[52] Temptation or pains of conscience originates from a conflict between evil spirits and angels.[53] Due to man's sinful nature it is dangerous to have open direct communication with angels[54] and can only be seen when one's spiritual sight has been opened.[55] Thus from moment to moment angels attempt to lead each person to what is good tacitly using the person's own thoughts.[56]

Latter Day Saints

Engel Moroni Bern Tempel
Temple statue of the Angel Moroni, Bern, Switzerland

The Latter Day Saint movement views angels as the messengers of God. They are sent to mankind to deliver messages, minister to humanity, teach doctrines of salvation, call mankind to repentance, give priesthood keys, save individuals in perilous times, and guide humankind.[57]

Paradiso Illustration by Gustave Doré
The Divine Comedy, Paradise (Paradiso), illustration by Gustave Doré
Paradise (Paradiso)
The Divine Comedy, Paradise, illustration by Gustave Doré
Gustave Dore XIV
The Divine Comedy, Paradise, illustration by Gustave Doré

Latter Day Saints believe that angels either are the spirits of humans who are deceased or who have yet to be born, or are humans who have been resurrected or translated and have physical bodies of flesh and bones,[58] and accordingly Joseph Smith taught that "there are no angels who minister to this earth but those that do belong or have belonged to it."[59] As such, Latter Day Saints also believe that Adam, the first man, was and is now the archangel Michael,[60][61][62] and that Gabriel lived on the earth as Noah.[58] Likewise the Angel Moroni first lived in a pre-Columbian American civilization as the 5th-century prophet-warrior named Moroni.

Smith described his first angelic encounter in the following manner:[63]

While I was thus in the act of calling upon God, I discovered a light appearing in my room, which continued to increase until the room was lighter than at noonday, when immediately a personage appeared at my bedside, standing in the air, for his feet did not touch the floor.

He had on a loose robe of most exquisite whiteness. It was a whiteness beyond anything earthly I had ever seen; nor do I believe that any earthly thing could be made to appear so exceedingly white and brilliant ...

Not only was his robe exceedingly white, but his whole person was glorious beyond description, and his countenance truly like lightning. The room was exceedingly light, but not so very bright as immediately around his person. When I first looked upon him, I was afraid; but the fear soon left me.

Most angelic visitations in the early Latter Day Saint movement were witnessed by Smith and Oliver Cowdery, who both said (prior to the establishment of the church in 1830) they had been visited by the prophet Moroni, John the Baptist, and the apostles Peter, James, and John. Later, after the dedication of the Kirtland Temple, Smith and Cowdery said they had been visited by Jesus, and subsequently by Moses, Elias, and Elijah.[64]

Others who said they received a visit by an angel include the other two of the Three Witnesses: David Whitmer and Martin Harris. Many other Latter Day Saints, both in the early and modern church, have said they had seen angels, although Smith posited that, except in extenuating circumstances such as the restoration, mortals teach mortals, spirits teach spirits, and resurrected beings teach other resurrected beings.[65]

Islam

Persian angel 1555
Depiction of an angel in Shia miniature (Persia, 1555)

Belief in angels is fundamental to Islam. The Quranic word for angel (Arabic: ملكmalak) derives either from Malaka, meaning "he controlled", due to their power to govern different affairs assigned to them,[66] or from the root either from ’-l-k, l-’-k or m-l-k with the broad meaning of a "messenger", just like its counterparts in Hebrew (malʾákh) and Greek (angelos). Unlike their Hebrew counterpart, the term is exclusively used for heavenly spirits of the divine world, but not for human messengers. The Quran refers to both angelic and human messengers as "rasul" instead.[67]

The Quran is the principal source for the Islamic concept of angels.[68] Some of them, such as Gabriel and Michael, are mentioned by name in the Quran, others are only referred to by their function. In hadith literature, angels are often assigned to only one specific phenomena.[69] Angels play a significant role in Mi'raj literature, where Muhammad encounters several angels during his journey through the heavens.[70] Further angels have often been featured in Islamic eschatology, Islamic theology and Islamic philosophy.[71] Duties assigned to angels include, for example, communicating revelations from God, glorifying God, recording every person's actions, and taking a person's soul at the time of death.

In Islam, just like in Judaism and Christianity, angels are often represented in anthropomorphic forms combined with supernatural images, such as wings, being of great size or wearing heavenly articles.[72] The Quran describes them as "messengers with wings—two, or three, or four (pairs): He [God] adds to Creation as He pleases..."[73] Common characteristics for angels are their missing needs for bodily desires, such as eating and drinking.[74] Their lack of affinity to material desires is also expressed by their creation from light: Angels of mercy are created from nur (cold light) in opposition to the angels of punishment created from nar (hot light).[75] Muslims do not generally share the perceptions of angelic pictorial depictions, such as those found in Western art.

Although believing in angels remain one of Six Articles of Faith in Islam, one can not find a dogmatic angelology in Islamic tradition. Despite this, scholars had discussed the role of angels from specific canonical events, such as the Mi'raj, and Quranic verses. Even if they are not in focus, they have been featured in folklore, philosophy debates and systematic theology. While in classical Islam, widespread notions were accepted as canonical, there is a tendecy in contemporary scholarship to reject much material about angels, like calling the Angel of Death by the name Azra'il.[76]

Ibn Sina, who drew upon the Neo-Platonistic emanation cosmology of Al-Farabi, developed an angelological hierarchy of Intellects, which are created by "the One". Therefore, the first creation by God was the supreme archangel followed by other archangels, who are identified with lower Intellects. From these Intellects again, emanated lower angels or "moving spheres", from which in turn, emanated other Intellects until it reaches the Intellect, which reigns over the souls. The tenth Intellect is responsible for bringing material forms into being and illuminating the minds.[77][78]

In Folk Islam, individual angels may be evoked in exorcism rites, whose names are engraved in talismans or amulets.[79]

Some modern scholars have emphasized a metaphorical reinterpretation of the concept of angels.[80]

Bahá'í Faith

In his Book of Certitude Bahá'u'lláh, founder of the Bahá'í Faith, describes angels as people who "have consumed, with the fire of the love of God, all human traits and limitations", and have "clothed themselves" with angelic attributes and have become "endowed with the attributes of the spiritual". 'Abdu'l-Bahá describes angels as the "confirmations of God and His celestial powers" and as "blessed beings who have severed all ties with this nether world" and "been released from the chains of self", and "revealers of God's abounding grace". The Bahá'í writings also refer to the Concourse on High, an angelic host, and the Maid of Heaven of Bahá'u'lláh's vision.[81]

Satanism

The Satanic Temple heavily promotes what it calls "literary Satanism", the idea of Satan and fallen angels as literary figures and metaphors. In particular, the novel Revolt of the Angels by Anatole France is seen as an example of this tradition. In it, a guardian angel by the name Arcade organizes a revolt against heaven after learning about science.

Zoroastrianism

In Zoroastrianism there are different angel-like figures. For example, each person has one guardian angel, called Fravashi. They patronize human beings and other creatures, and also manifest God's energy. The Amesha Spentas have often been regarded as angels, although there is no direct reference to them conveying messages,[82] but are rather emanations of Ahura Mazda ("Wise Lord", God); they initially appeared in an abstract fashion and then later became personalized, associated with diverse aspects of the divine creation.[83]

Neoplatonism

In the commentaries of Proclus (4th century, under Christian rule) on the Timaeus of Plato, Proclus uses the terminology of "angelic" (aggelikos) and "angel" (aggelos) in relation to metaphysical beings. According to Aristotle, just as there is a Prime Mover,[84] so, too, must there be spiritual secondary movers.[85]

Sikhism

The poetry of the holy scripture of the Sikhs – the Sri Guru Granth Sahib – figuratively mentions a messenger or angel of death, sometimes as Yam (ਜਮ – "Yam") and sometimes as Azrael (ਅਜਰਾਈਲੁ – "Ajraeel"):

ਜਮ ਜੰਦਾਰੁ ਨ ਲਗਈ ਇਉ ਭਉਜਲੁ ਤਰੈ ਤਰਾਸਿ
The Messenger of Death will not touch you; in this way, you shall cross over the terrifying world-ocean, carrying others across with you.
— Sri Guru Granth Sahib, Siree Raag, First Mehl, p. 22.[86]
ਅਜਰਾਈਲੁ ਯਾਰੁ ਬੰਦੇ ਜਿਸੁ ਤੇਰਾ ਆਧਾਰੁ
Azraa-eel, the Messenger of Death, is the friend of the human being who has Your support, Lord.
— Sri Guru Granth Sahib, Tilang, Fifth Mehl, Third House, p. 724.[87]

In a similar vein, the Sri Guru Granth Sahib talks of a figurative Chitar (ਚਿਤ੍ਰ) and Gupat (ਗੁਪਤੁ):

ਚਿਤ੍ਰ ਗੁਪਤੁ ਸਭ ਲਿਖਤੇ ਲੇਖਾ ॥
ਭਗਤ ਜਨਾ ਕਉ ਦ੍ਰਿਸਟਿ ਨ ਪੇਖਾ
Chitar and Gupat, the recording angels of the conscious and the unconscious, write the accounts of all mortal beings, / but they cannot even see the Lord's humble devotees.
— Sri Guru Granth Sahib, Aasaa, Fifth Mehl, Panch-Pada, p. 393.[88]

However, Sikhism has never had a literal system of angels, preferring guidance without explicit appeal to supernatural orders or beings.

Esotericism

Hermetic Qabalah

According to the Kabbalah as described by the Golden Dawn there are ten archangels, each commanding one of the choir of angels and corresponding to one of the Sephirot. It is similar to the Jewish angelic hierarchy.

Rank Choir of Angels Translation Archangel Sephirah
1 Hayot Ha Kodesh Holy Living Ones Metatron Keter
2 Ophanim Wheels Raziel Chokmah
3 Erelim Brave ones[89] Tzaphkiel Binah
4 Hashmallim Glowing ones, Amber ones[90] Tzadkiel Chesed
5 Seraphim Burning Ones Khamael Gevurah
6 Malakim Messengers, angels Raphael Tipheret
7 Elohim Godly Beings Uriel Netzach
8 Bene Elohim Sons of Elohim Michael Hod
9 Cherubim [91] Gabriel Yesod
10 Ishim Men (man-like beings, phonetically similar to "fires") Sandalphon Malkuth

Theosophy

In the teachings of the Theosophical Society, Devas are regarded as living either in the atmospheres of the planets of the solar system (Planetary Angels) or inside the Sun (Solar Angels) and they help to guide the operation of the processes of nature such as the process of evolution and the growth of plants; their appearance is reputedly like colored flames about the size of a human. It is believed by Theosophists that devas can be observed when the third eye is activated. Some (but not most) devas originally incarnated as human beings.[92]

It is believed by Theosophists that nature spirits, elementals (gnomes, undines, sylphs, and salamanders), and fairies can be also be observed when the third eye is activated.[93] It is maintained by Theosophists that these less evolutionarily developed beings have never been previously incarnated as humans; they are regarded as being on a separate line of spiritual evolution called the "deva evolution"; eventually, as their souls advance as they reincarnate, it is believed they will incarnate as devas.[94]

It is asserted by Theosophists that all of the above-mentioned beings possess etheric bodies that are composed of etheric matter, a type of matter finer and more pure that is composed of smaller particles than ordinary physical plane matter.[94]

Brahma Kumaris

The Brahma Kumaris uses the term "angel" to refer to a perfect, or complete state of the human being, which they believe can be attained through a connection with God.[95][96]

In art

Erzengel Michael und Gabriel
A 12th-century Eastern Orthodox icon of the Archangels Michael and Gabriel wearing the loros of the Imperial guards.

According to mainstream Christian theology, angels are wholly spiritual beings and therefore do not eat, excrete or have sex, and have no gender. Although their different roles, such as warriors for some archangels, may suggest a human gender, Christian artists were careful not to given them specific gender attributes, at least until the 19th century, when some acquire breasts for example.[97]

In an address during a General Audience of 6 August 1986, entitled "Angels participate in the history of salvation", Pope John Paul II explained that "[T]he angels have no 'body' (even if, in particular circumstances, they reveal themselves under visible forms because of their mission for the good of people)."[42] Christian art perhaps reflects the descriptions in Revelation 4:6–8 of the Four Living Creatures (Greek: τὰ τέσσαρα ζῷα) and the descriptions in the Hebrew Bible of cherubim and seraphim (the chayot in Ezekiel's Merkabah vision and the Seraphim of Isaiah). However, while cherubim and seraphim have wings in the Bible, no angel is mentioned as having wings.[98] The earliest known Christian image of an angel—in the Cubicolo dell'Annunziazione in the Catacomb of Priscilla (mid-3rd century)—is without wings. In that same period, representations of angels on sarcophagi, lamps and reliquaries also show them without wings,[99] as for example the angel in the Sacrifice of Isaac scene in the Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus (although the side view of the Sarcophagus shows winged angelic figures).

The earliest known representation of angels with wings is on the "Prince's Sarcophagus", attributed to the time of Theodosius I (379–395), discovered at Sarigüzel, near Istanbul, in the 1930s.[100] From that period on, Christian art has represented angels mostly with wings, as in the cycle of mosaics in the Basilica of Saint Mary Major (432–440).[101] Four- and six-winged angels, drawn from the higher grades of angels (especially cherubim and seraphim) and often showing only their faces and wings, are derived from Persian art and are usually shown only in heavenly contexts, as opposed to performing tasks on earth. They often appear in the pendentives of church domes or semi-domes. Prior to the Judeo-Christian tradition, in the Greek world the goddess Nike and the gods Eros and Thanatos were also depicted in human-like form with wings.

Saint John Chrysostom explained the significance of angels' wings:

They manifest a nature's sublimity. That is why Gabriel is represented with wings. Not that angels have wings, but that you may know that they leave the heights and the most elevated dwelling to approach human nature. Accordingly, the wings attributed to these powers have no other meaning than to indicate the sublimity of their nature.[102]

Angels are typically depicted in Mormon art as having no wings based on a quote from Joseph Smith ("An angel of God never has wings").[103]

In terms of their clothing, angels, especially the Archangel Michael, were depicted as military-style agents of God and came to be shown wearing Late Antique military uniform. This uniform could be the normal military dress, with a tunic to about the knees, an armour breastplate and pteruges, but was often the specific dress of the bodyguard of the Byzantine Emperor, with a long tunic and the loros, the long gold and jewelled pallium restricted to the Imperial family and their closest guards.

The basic military dress was shown in Western art into the Baroque period and beyond (see Reni picture above), and up to the present day in Eastern Orthodox icons. Other angels came to be conventionally depicted in long robes, and in the later Middle Ages they often wear the vestments of a deacon, a cope over a dalmatic. This costume was used especially for Gabriel in Annunciation scenes—for example the Annunciation in Washington by Jan van Eyck.

Ezekiel's vision
The extraordinary-looking Cherubim (immediately to the left of Ezekiel) and Ophanim (the nested-wheels) appear in the chariot vision of Ezekiel.

Some types of angels are described as possessing more unusual or frightening attributes, such as the fiery bodies of the Seraphim, and the wheel-like structures of the Ophanim.

See also

Middle and Eastern Asia

References

  1. ^ The Free Dictionary [1] retrieved 1 September 2012
  2. ^ "Angels in Christianity." Religion Facts. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Dec. 2014
  3. ^ [2]Augustine of Hippo's Enarrationes in Psalmos, 103, I, 15, augustinus.it (in Latin)
  4. ^ "ANGELOLOGY - JewishEncyclopedia.com". jewishencyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2 May 2016.
  5. ^ Proverbio(2007), pp. 90–95; compare review in La Civiltà Cattolica, 3795–3796 (2–16 August 2008), pp. 327–328.
  6. ^ Didron, Vol 2, pp.68–71.
  7. ^ "angel – Definition of angel in English by Oxford Dictionaries". Oxford Dictionaries – English.
  8. ^ Strong, James. "Strong's Greek". Biblehub.com. Retrieved 4 October 2017. Transliteration: aggelos Phonetic Spelling: (ang'-el-os)
  9. ^ Beekes, R. S. P., Etymological Dictionary of Greek, Brill, 2009, p. 9.
  10. ^ palaeolexicon.com; a-ke-ro, Palaeolexicon (Word study tool of ancient languages)
  11. ^ "Mycenaean (Linear b) – English Glossary" (PDF). Retrieved 30 July 2012.
  12. ^ Kosior, Wojciech. "The Angel in the Hebrew Bible from the Statistic and Hermeneutic Perspectives. Some Remarks on the Interpolation Theory". "The Polish Journal of Biblical Research", Vol. 12, No. 1 (23), pp. 55–70. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
  13. ^ a b ""מַלְאָךְ," Francis Brown, S.R. Driver, and Charles A. Briggs, eds.: A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament, p. 521". Archive.org. Retrieved 30 July 2012.
  14. ^ Pope, Hugh. "Angels." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 1. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. accessed 20 October 2010
  15. ^ Frederick Copleston, A History of Philosophy, Volume 1, Continuum, 2003, p. 460.
  16. ^ Baker, Louis Goldberg. Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology: Angel of the Lord "The functions of the angel of the Lord in the Old Testament prefigure the reconciling ministry of Jesus. In the New Testament, there is no mention of the angel of the Lord; the Messiah himself is this person."
  17. ^ a b c d Coogan, Michael D. (2009). A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament. Oxford University Press.
  18. ^ a b c d "Angelology". The Jewish Encyclopedia. Retrieved 30 July 2012.
  19. ^ Dunn, James D. G. (15 July 2010). Did the First Christians Worship Jesus?: The New Testament Evidence. Westminster John Knox Press. p. 67. ISBN 978-1-61164-070-0. God sends an angel to communicate with prophets, and an interpreter angel appears regularly in apocalyptic visions and as companion in heavenly journeys. One of the most fascinating features of several ancient stories is the appearance of what can be called theophanic angels; that is, angels who not only bring a message from God, but who represent God in personal terms, or who even may be said to embody God.
  20. ^ Chilton, Bruce D. (2002). "(The) Son of (The) Man, and Jesus". In Craig A. Evans (ed.). Authenticating the Words of Jesus. BRILL. p. 276. ISBN 0-391-04163-0. As described in the book of Daniel, “one like a son of man" is clearly identified as the messianic and angelic redeemer of Israel, a truly heavenly redeemer known to Israel as the archangel Michael.
  21. ^ Copleston, Frederick Charles (2003). A history of philosophy, Volume 1. Continuum International Publishing Group, p. 460. ISBN 0-8264-6895-0
  22. ^ Friedlander, Gerald. Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer Varda Books
  23. ^ Sanhedrin 38b and Avodah Zerah 3b.
  24. ^ Aleksander R. Michalak, Angels as Warriors in Late Second Temple Jewish Literature, Tuebingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2012.
  25. ^ Hannah Darrell D., Michael and Christ: Michael Traditions and Angel Christology in Early Christianity, Tuebingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1999
  26. ^ cf. Sanhedrin 95b
  27. ^ Margaretha, Evans, Annette Henrietta (1 March 2007). "The development of Jewish ideas of angels : Egyptian and Hellenistic connections, ca. 600 BCE to ca. 200 CE".
  28. ^ Barker, Margaret (2004). An Extraordinary Gathering of Angels, M Q Publications.
  29. ^ "LA FIGURA DELL'ANGELO NELLA CIVILTA' PALEOCRISTIANA – PROVERBIO CECILIA – TAU – Libro". 27 December 2008. Archived from the original on 27 December 2008. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  30. ^ Augustine, En. in Ps. 103, 1, 15: PL 37, 1348
  31. ^ "A ZENIT DAILY DISPATCH". www.ewtn.com.
  32. ^ Ludlow, Morwenna (2012). Brakke, David (ed.). "Demons, Evil, and Liminality in Cappadocian Theology" (PDF). Journal of Early Christian Studies. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. 20 (2): 179–211 [183]. doi:10.1353/earl.2012.0014. ISSN 1067-6341. Retrieved 11 November 2012.
  33. ^ Proverbio(2007), pp. 29–38; cf. summary in Libreria Hoepli and review in La Civiltà Cattolica, 3795–3796 (2–16 August 2008), pp. 327–328.
  34. ^ Pope Gregory I; David Hurst (OSB.) (1990). "Homily 34". Forty Gospel Homilies. Cistercian Publications. p. 287. ISBN 978-0-87907-623-8. You should be aware that the word “angel” denotes a function rather than a nature. Those holy spirits of heaven have indeed always been spirits. They can only be called angels when they deliver some message. Moreover, those who deliver messages of lesser importance are called angels; and those who proclaim messages of supreme importance are called archangels. And so it was that not merely an angel but the archangel Gabriel was sent to the Virgin Mary.
  35. ^ Thomas Aquinas. "46". Summa contra Gentiles. 2.
  36. ^ Thomas Aquinas. Summa Theologica. Treatise on Angels. Newadvent.org.
  37. ^ Aquinas, Thomas. De substantiis separatis. Josephkenny.joyeurs.com. Archived from the original on 12 December 2010.
  38. ^ "BibleGateway, Matthew 24:36". Biblegateway.com. Retrieved 30 July 2012.
  39. ^ a b "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Angels". www.newadvent.org.
  40. ^ "BibleGateway, Luke 22:43". Biblegateway.com. Retrieved 30 July 2012.
  41. ^ Ann Ball, 2003 Encyclopedia of Catholic Devotions and Practices ISBN 0-87973-910-X page 123
  42. ^ a b "Angels Participate In History Of Salvation". Vatican.va. 6 August 1986. Archived from the original on 20 October 2012. Retrieved 30 July 2012.
  43. ^ Congregation for Divine Worship and Discipline of the Sacraments, "Directory on Popular Piety and the Liturgy", §217
  44. ^ Swedenborg, Emanuel. Heaven and Hell, 1758. Rotch Edition (revised). New York: Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1907, in The Divine Revelation of the New Jerusalem (2012), n. 74.
  45. ^ Arcana Coelestia, n. 459.
  46. ^ Heaven and Hell, n. 51–53.
  47. ^ Heaven and Hell, n. 311
  48. ^ Heaven and Hell, n. 416
  49. ^ Heaven and Hell, n. 387–393.
  50. ^ Swedenborg, Emanuel. Heavenly Arcana (or Arcana Coelestia), 1749–58 (AC). Rotch Edition (revised). New York: Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1907, in The Divine Revelation of the New Jerusalem (2012), n. 8192.3.
  51. ^ Heaven and Hell, n. 291–298.
  52. ^ Arcana Coelestia, n. 50, 697, 968.
  53. ^ Arcana Coelestia, n. 227.
  54. ^ Arcana Coelestia, n. 784.2.
  55. ^ Heaven and Hell, n. 76.
  56. ^ Arcana Coelestia, n. 5992.3.
  57. ^ "God's messengers, those individuals whom he sends (often from his personal presence in the eternal worlds), to deliver his messages (Luke 1:11–38); to minister to his children (Acts 10:1–8, Acts 10:30–32); to teach them the doctrines of salvation (Mosiah 3); to call them to repentance (Moro. 7:31); to give them priesthood and keys (D.&C. 13; 128:20–21); to save them in perilous circumstances (Nehemiah 3:29–31; Daniel 6:22); to guide them in the performance of his work (Genesis 24:7); to gather his elect in the last days (Matthew 24:31); to perform all needful things relative to his work (Moro. 7:29–33)—such messengers are called angels.".
  58. ^ a b "LDS Bible Dictionary-Angels". Scriptures.lds.org. 21 February 2012. Retrieved 30 July 2012.
  59. ^ Doctrine and Covenants 130:4–5.
  60. ^ http://www.lds.org/manual/gospel-principles/chapter-6-the-fall-of-adam-and-eve "Chapter 6: The Fall of Adam and Eve," Gospel Principles (Salt Lake City, Utah: LDS Church, 2011) pp. 26–30.
  61. ^ "D&C 107:24". Scriptures.lds.org. 21 February 2012. Retrieved 30 July 2012.
  62. ^ Mark E. Petersen, "Adam, the Archangel", Ensign, November 1980.
  63. ^ "Joseph Smith–History 1:30–33". Scriptures.lds.org. 21 February 2012. Retrieved 30 July 2012.
  64. ^ "D&C 110". Scriptures.lds.org. 21 February 2012. Retrieved 30 July 2012.
  65. ^ Robert J. Matthews, "The Fulness of Times", Ensign, December 1989.
  66. ^ Syed Anwer Ali Qurʼan, the Fundamental Law of Human Life: Surat ul-Faateha to Surat-ul-Baqarah (sections 1–21) Syed Publications 1984 University of Virginia Digitalized 22. Okt. 2010 p. 121
  67. ^ S.R. Burge Journal of Qur'anic Studies The Angels in Sūrat al-Malāʾika: Exegeses of Q. 35:1 Sep 2011. vol. 10, No. 1 : pp. 50–70
  68. ^ Stephen Burge Angels in Islam: Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti's al-Haba'ik fi akhbar al-mala'ik Routledge 2015 ISBN 978-1-136-50473-0 p. 23
  69. ^ Stephen Burge Angels in Islam: Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti's al-Haba'ik fi akhbar al-mala'ik Routledge 2015 ISBN 978-1-136-50473-0 p. 79
  70. ^ Stephen Burge Angels in Islam: Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti's al-Haba'ik fi akhbar al-mala'ik Routledge 2015 ISBN 978-1-136-50473-0 p. 29
  71. ^ Stephen Burge Angels in Islam: Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti's al-Haba'ik fi akhbar al-mala'ik Routledge 2015 ISBN 978-1-136-50473-0 p. 22
  72. ^ Stephen Burge Angels in Islam: Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti's al-Haba'ik fi akhbar al-mala'ik Routledge 2015 ISBN 978-1-136-50473-0 pp. 97-99
  73. ^
    • Quran 35:1
    • Esposito (2002b, pp. 26–28)
    • W. Madelung. "Malā'ika". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online.
    • Gisela Webb. "Angel". Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an Online.
  74. ^ Cenap Çakmak Islam: A Worldwide Encyclopedia [4 volumes] ABC-CLIO, 18.05.2017 ISBN 9781610692175 p. 140
  75. ^ Jane Dammen McAuliffe Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān Volume 3 Georgetown University, Washington DC p. 45
  76. ^ Stephen Burge Angels in Islam: Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti's al-Haba'ik fi akhbar al-mala'ik 2015 ISBN 978-1-136-50473-0 part 1.1 and 1.2.
  77. ^ Abdullah Saeed Islamic Thought: An Introduction Routledge 2006 ISBN 9781134225651 p. 101
  78. ^ Mark Verman The Books of Contemplation: Medieval Jewish Mystical Sources SUNY Press 1992 ISBN 9780791407196 p. 129
  79. ^ Patrick Hughes, Thomas Patrick Hughes Dictionary of Islam Asian Educational Services 1995 ISBN 978-8-120-60672-2 page 73
  80. ^ Guessoum, Nidhal (2010). Islam's Quantum Question: Reconciling Muslim Tradition and Modern Science. I.B. Tauris. ISBN 978-0-85773-075-6.
  81. ^ Smith, Peter (2000). "angels". A concise encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. pp. 38–39. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.
  82. ^ Lewis, James R., Oliver, Evelyn Dorothy, Sisung Kelle S. (Editor) (1996), Angels A to Z, Entry: Zoroastrianism, pp. 425–427, Visible Ink Press, ISBN 0-7876-0652-9
  83. ^ Darmesteter, James (1880)(translator), The Zend Avesta, Part I: Sacred Books of the East, Vol. 4, pp. lx–lxxii, Oxford University Press, 1880, at sacred-texts.com
  84. ^ Aristotle. Metaphysics. 1072a ff.
  85. ^ Aristotle. Metaphysics. 1073a13 ff.
  86. ^ "Sri Granth: Sri Guru Granth Sahib". srigranth.org. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
  87. ^ "Sri Granth: Sri Guru Granth Sahib". srigranth.org. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
  88. ^ "Sri Granth: Sri Guru Granth Sahib". srigranth.org. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
  89. ^ "Strong's Hebrew: 691. אֶרְאֵל (erel) – perhaps a hero". biblesuite.com.
  90. ^ "Strong's Hebrew: 2830. חַשְׁמַל (chashmal) – perhaps amber". biblesuite.com.
  91. ^ "Strong's Hebrew: 3742. כְּרוּב (kerub) – probably an order of angelic beings". biblesuite.com.
  92. ^ Hodson, Geoffrey, Kingdom of the Gods ISBN 0-7661-8134-0—Has color pictures of what Devas supposedly look like when observed by the third eye—their appearance is reputedly like colored flames about the size of a human. Paintings of some of the devas claimed to have been seen by Hodson from his book Kingdom of the Gods:
  93. ^ "Eskild Tjalve's paintings of devas, nature spirits, elementals and fairies:". Web.archive.org. 21 November 2002. Archived from the original on 21 November 2002. Retrieved 30 July 2012.
  94. ^ a b Powell, A.E. The Solar System London:1930 The Theosophical Publishing House (A Complete Outline of the Theosophical Scheme of Evolution) See "Lifewave" chart (refer to index)
  95. ^ Basava Journal, Volume 19. Basava Samiti, 1994 (Bangalore, India).
  96. ^ Peace & purity: the story of the Brahma Kumaris : a spiritual revolution By Liz Hodgkinson
  97. ^ "Because angels are purely spiritual creatures without bodies, there is no sexual difference between them. There are no male or female angels; they are not distinguished by gender.", p. 10, "Catholic Questions, Wise Answers", Ed. Michael J. Daley, St. Anthony Messenger Press, 2001, ISBN 0867163984, 9780867163988. See also Catholic Answers, which gives the standard, unchanged, Catholic position.
  98. ^ "Angel", The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia James Orr, editor, 1915 edition.
  99. ^ Proverbio (2007), pp. 81–89; cf. review in La Civiltà Cattolica, 3795–3796 (2–16 August 2008), pp. 327–328.
  100. ^ Proverbio (2007) p. 66.
  101. ^ Proverbio (2007), pp. 90–95
  102. ^ Proverbio (2007) p. 34.
  103. ^ "History of the Church, 3:392". Institute.lds.org. Retrieved 30 July 2012.

Further reading

  • Bamberger, Bernard Jacob, (15 March 2006). Fallen Angels: Soldiers of Satan's Realm. Jewish Publication Society of America. ISBN 0-8276-0797-0
  • Barker, Margaret (2004). An Extraordinary Gathering of Angels, M Q Publications. ISBN 9781840726800
  • Wikisource Bennett, William Henry (1911), "Angel" , in Chisholm, Hugh (ed.), Encyclopædia Britannica, 2 (11th ed.), Cambridge University Press, pp. 4–6
  • Briggs, Constance Victoria, 1997. The Encyclopedia of Angels : An A-to-Z Guide with Nearly 4,000 Entries. Plume. ISBN 0-452-27921-6.
  • Bunson, Matthew, (1996). Angels A to Z: A Who's Who of the Heavenly Host. Three Rivers Press. ISBN 0-517-88537-9.
  • Cheyne, James Kelly (ed.) (1899). Angel. Encyclopædia Biblica. New York, Macmillan.
  • Cruz, Joan Carroll, OCDS, 1999. Angels and Devils. TAN Books and Publishers, Inc. ISBN 0-89555-638-3
  • Davidson, A. B. (1898). "Angel". In James Hastings (ed.). A Dictionary of the Bible. I. pp. 93–97.
  • Davidson, Gustav. A Dictionary of Angels: Including the Fallen Angels. Free Press. ISBN 0-02-907052-X
  • Driver, Samuel Rolles (Ed.) (1901) The book of Daniel. Cambridge UP.
  • Graham, Billy, 1994. Angels: God's Secret Agents. W Pub Group; Minibook edition. ISBN 0-8499-5074-0
  • Guiley, Rosemary, 1996. Encyclopedia of Angels. ISBN 0-8160-2988-1
  • Jastrow, Marcus, 1996, A dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Bavli and Yerushalmi, and the Midrashic literature compiled by Marcus Jastrow, PhD., Litt.D. with and index of Scriptural quotatons, Vol 1 & 2, The Judaica Press, New York
  • Kainz, Howard P., "Active and Passive Potency" in Thomistic Angelology Martinus Nijhoff. ISBN 90-247-1295-5
  • Kreeft, Peter J. 1995. Angels and Demons: What Do We Really Know About Them? Ignatius Press. ISBN 0-89870-550-9
  • Leducq, M. H. (1853). "On the Origin and Primitive Meaning of the French word Ange". Proceedings of the Philological Society. 6 (132).
  • Lewis, James R. (1995). Angels A to Z. Visible Ink Press. ISBN 0-7876-0652-9
  • Melville, Francis, 2001. The Book of Angels: Turn to Your Angels for Guidance, Comfort, and Inspiration. Barron's Educational Series; 1st edition. ISBN 0-7641-5403-6
  • Michalak, Aleksander R. (2012), Angels as Warriors in Late Second Temple Jewish Literature.Mohr Siebeck. ISBN 978-3-16-151739-6.
  • Muehlberger, Ellen (2013). Angels in Late Ancient Christianity. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0199931934
  • Oosterzee, Johannes Jacobus van. Christian dogmatics: a text-book for academical instruction and private study. Trans. John Watson Watson and Maurice J. Evans. (1874) New York, Scribner, Armstrong.
  • Proverbio, Cecilia (2007). La figura dell'angelo nella civiltà paleocristiana (in Italian). Assisi, Italy: Editrice Tau. ISBN 88-87472-69-6.
  • Ronner, John, 1993. Know Your Angels: The Angel Almanac With Biographies of 100 Prominent Angels in Legend & Folklore-And Much More! Mamre Press. ISBN 0-932945-40-6.
  • Smith, George Adam (1898) The book of the twelve prophets, commonly called the minor. London, Hodder and Stoughton.
  • Wikisource Smith, William Robertson (1878), "Angel" , in Baynes, T.S. (ed.), Encyclopædia Britannica, 2 (9th ed.), New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, p. 26–28
  • Swedenborg E. Heaven and its Wonders and Hell From Things Heard and Seen (Swedenborg Foundation 1946), ISBN 0-554-62056-1 (Detailed information on angels and their life in heaven)
  • Swedenborg, E. Wisdom's Delight in Marriage ("Conjugial") Love: Followed by Insanity's Pleasure in Promiscuous Love (Swedenborg Foundation 1979 ISBN 0-87785-054-2) (Extensive review of angelic marriage)
  • von Heijne, Camilla, 2010. The Messenger of the Lord in Early Jewish Interpretations of Genesis. BZAW 412. De Gruyter, Berlin/New York, ISBN 978-3-11-022684-3
  • von Heijne, Camilla, 2015 "Angels" pp. 20–24 in The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Theology, vol. 1. Oxford University Press, New York. ISBN 978-0-19-023994-7

External links

Angel (1999 TV series)

Angel is an American television series, a spin-off from the television series Buffy the Vampire Slayer. The series was created by Buffy's creator, Joss Whedon, in collaboration with David Greenwalt. It aired on The WB from October 5, 1999, to May 19, 2004, consisting of five seasons and 110 episodes. Like Buffy, it was produced by Whedon's production company, Mutant Enemy.

The show details the ongoing trials of Angel, a vampire whose human soul was restored to him by gypsies as a punishment for the murder of one of their own. After more than a century of murder and the torture of innocents, Angel's restored soul torments him with guilt and remorse. Angel moves to Los Angeles, California, after it's clear that his doomed relationship with Buffy, the vampire slayer, cannot continue. During the first four seasons of the show, he works as a private detective in L.A, where he and a variety of associates work to "help the helpless", restoring the faith and saving the souls of those who have lost their way. Typically, this involves doing battle with evil demons or humans allied to them, primarily related to Wolfram & Hart, a law firm supported by occult practices which is an extension of otherworldly demonic forces, which Angel takes over in the final season. He must also battle his own demonic nature.

Angel investor

An angel investor (also known as a business angel, informal investor, angel funder, private investor, or seed investor) is an affluent individual who provides capital for a business start-up, usually in exchange for convertible debt or ownership equity. Angel investors usually give support to start-ups at the initial moments (where risks of the start-ups failing are relatively high) and when most investors are not prepared to back them. A small but increasing number of angel investors invest online through equity crowdfunding or organize themselves into angel groups or angel networks to share investment capital, as well as to provide advice to their portfolio companies. In the last 50 years the number of angel investors has greatly increased.

Archangel

An archangel is an angel of high rank. The word "archangel" itself is usually associated with the Abrahamic religions, but beings that are very similar to archangels are found in a number of religious traditions.

The English word archangel is derived from the Greek ἀρχάγγελος (arch- + angel, literally "chief angel" or "angel of origin"). It appears only twice in the New Testament in the phrase "with the voice of the archangel, and with the trumpet call of God" (1 Thessalonians 4:16) and in relation to 'the archangel Michael' (Jude 9). The corresponding but different Hebrew word in the Hebrew Scripture (Old Testament) is found in two places as in "Michael, one of the chief princes" (Dan 10:13) and in "Michael, the great prince" (Dan 12:1).

Azrael

Azrael (; Biblical Hebrew: עֲזַרְאֵל‎‎ ʿázarʾēl) is an angel in the Abrahamic religions. He is often identified with the Angel of Destruction and Renewal of the Hebrew Bible.The Hebrew name translates to "Angel of God", "Help from God", or "One Whom God Helps". Azrael is the spelling of the Chambers Dictionary.

In Islamic tradition, Azrael is identified with the Quranic Malak al-Mawt (ملك الموت) "angel of death" which corresponds with Hebrew term malach ha-maweth in Rabbinic Literature. The Arabic language adapts the name as ʿAzrāʾīl (عزرائيل). He is responsible for transporting the souls of the deceased after death.

Criss Angel

Christopher Nicholas Sarantakos (Greek: Χριστόφορος Νικόλαος Σαραντάκος; born December 19, 1967), known by the stage name Criss Angel, is an American magician, illusionist and musician. Angel began his career in New York City, before moving his base of operations to the Las Vegas Valley. He is known for starring in the television and stage show Criss Angel Mindfreak and his previous live performance illusion show Criss Angel Believe in collaboration with Cirque du Soleil at the Luxor casino in Las Vegas. The show generated $150 million in tourist revenue to Las Vegas in 2010, but has since been replaced by Mindfreak LIVE on 11 May 2016 (the show is partly produced by Cirque, however the directive rights are entirely with Criss Angel). He also starred in the television series Criss Angel BeLIEve on Spike TV, the reality-competition television show Phenomenon on NBC, and the 2014 stage show Criss Angel Magicjam.

Angel has been on primetime television for more hours than any other magician in history, between his television series and various specials on cable and network television. He also holds multiple world-records made during his magic performances, and was named Magician of the Decade in 2009 and Magician of the Century in 2010 by the International Magicians Society. In addition to his career as an illusionist, Angel was the lead singer for his industrial band Angeldust, which released five albums between 1998 and 2003. He also authored the book Mindfreak: Secret Revelations.

Death (personification)

Death, due to its prominent place in human culture, is frequently imagined as a personified force, also known as the Grim Reaper. In some mythologies, the Grim Reaper causes the victim's death by coming to collect that person. In turn, people in some stories try to hold on to life by avoiding Death's visit, or by fending Death off with bribery or tricks. Other beliefs hold that the Spectre of Death is only a psychopomp, serving to sever the last ties between the soul and the body, and to guide the deceased to the afterlife, without having any control over when or how the victim dies. Death is most often personified in male form, although in certain cultures Death is perceived as female (for instance, Marzanna in Slavic mythology, Dhumavati in Hinduism, or La Catrina in Mexico).

Fallen angel

In Abrahamic religions, fallen angels are angels who were expelled from heaven. The literal term "fallen angel" appears neither in the Bible nor in other Abrahamic scriptures, but is used of angels who were cast out of heaven, or angels who sinned. Such angels often tempt humans to sin.

The idea of fallen angels derived from the Book of Enoch, a Jewish pseudepigraph, or the assumption that the "sons of God" (בני האלהים) mentioned in Genesis 6:1–4 are angels. In the period immediately preceding the composition of the New Testament, some sects of Judaism, as well as many Christian Church Fathers, identified the "sons of God" of Genesis 6:1–4 as fallen angels. Rabbinic Judaism and Christian authorities after the third century rejected the Enochian writings and the notion of an illicit union between angels and women producing giants. Christian doctrine states that the sins of fallen angels start before the beginning of human history. Accordingly, fallen angels became identified with angels who were led by Satan in rebellion against God and equated with demons. However, during the intertestamental period, demons were not thought of as the fallen angels themselves, but as the surviving souls of their monstrous offspring. According to this interpretation, fallen angels have intercourse with human women, giving existence to the Biblical giants. To purge the world of these creatures, God sends the Great Deluge and their bodies are destroyed. However, their spiritual parts survive, henceforth roaming the earth as demons.

Although sometimes denied by some scholars, many classical Islam scholars accepted the existence of fallen angels. Evidence for the motif of fallen angels can be traced back to reports attributed to some of the companions of Muhammad, such as Ibn Abbas (619-687) and Abdullah ibn Masud (594-653). At the same time, some Islamic scholars opposed the assumption of fallen angels by stressing out the piety of angels supported by verses of Quran, such as 16:49 and 66:6. One of the first opponents of fallen angels was the early and influential Islamic ascete Hasan of Basra (642-728). To support the doctrine of infallible angels, he pointed at verses which stressed the piety of angels, while simultaneously reinterpreting verses which might imply acknowledgement of fallen angels. For that reason, he read the term mala'ikah (angels) in reference to Harut and Marut in 2:102 as malikayn (kings), depicting them as ordinary men and not as angels and Iblis as a jinn. Disagreement is apparent even among scholars who accepted the possibility of fallen angels, mostly regarding the precise degree of angelic fallibility; according to a common assertion, only the messengers among angels are impeccable.Academic scholars have discussed whether or not the Quranic jinn are identical to the Biblical fallen angels. Although the different types of spirits in the Quran are sometimes hard to distinguish, the jinn in Islamic traditions seem to differ in their major characteristics from fallen angels.

Gabriel

Gabriel (; Hebrew: גַּבְרִיאֵל‎, lit. 'Gavri'el "God is my strength"', Ancient Greek: Γαβριήλ, lit. 'Gabriel', Coptic: Ⲅⲁⲃⲣⲓⲏⲗ, Aramaic: ܓܒܪܝܝܠ‎, Arabic: جبريل, Jibrīl or جبرائيل Jibrāʾīl), in the Abrahamic religions, is an archangel. He was first described in the Hebrew Bible and was subsequently developed by other traditions.

In the Hebrew Bible, Gabriel appears to the prophet Daniel, to explain his visions (Daniel 8:15–26, 9:21–27). Gabriel the archangel is also a character in other ancient Jewish writings such as the Book of Enoch. Alongside archangel Michael, Gabriel is described as the guardian angel of Israel, defending this people against the angels of the other nations.In the Gospel of Luke, there is the story of the Annunciation, where the angel Gabriel appears to Zechariah and the Virgin Mary, foretelling the births of John the Baptist and Jesus, respectively (Luke 1:11–38). In many Christian traditions including Anglican, Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic, Gabriel is also referred to as a saint.In Islam, Gabriel is an archangel whom God sent with revelation to various prophets, including Muhammad. The first five verses of the 96th chapter of the Quran, the Clot, is believed by Muslims to have been the first verses revealed by Gabriel to Muhammad.

In the Latter Day Saint movement, the angel Gabriel is the same individual as the prophet Noah in his mortal ministry.

In Yazidism, Gabriel is one of the Seven Mysteries, the Heptad to which God entrusted the world and sometimes identified with Melek Taus.

Gwen Stefani

Gwen Renée Stefani (; born October 3, 1969) is an American singer, songwriter, actress, and record producer. She is a co-founder and the lead vocalist of the band No Doubt, whose singles include "Just a Girl" and "Don't Speak" from their 1995 breakthrough studio album Tragic Kingdom, as well as "Hey Baby" and "It's My Life" from later albums.

During the band's hiatus, Stefani embarked on a solo pop career in 2004 by releasing her debut studio album Love. Angel. Music. Baby. Inspired by pop music from the 1980s, the album was a critical and commercial success. It spawned three singles: "What You Waiting For?", "Rich Girl", and "Hollaback Girl". The last reached number one on the Billboard Hot 100 chart while also becoming the first US download to sell one million copies. In 2006, Stefani released her second studio album The Sweet Escape. The album produced the singles "Wind It Up" and "The Sweet Escape". Her third solo album, This Is What the Truth Feels Like (2016), was her first solo album to reach number one on the Billboard 200 chart.

Stefani has won three Grammy Awards. As a solo artist she has received an American Music Award, Brit Award, World Music Award, and two Billboard Music Awards. In 2003, she debuted her clothing line L.A.M.B. and expanded her collection with the 2005 Harajuku Lovers line, inspired by Japanese culture and fashion. During this time Stefani performed and made public appearances with four back-up dancers known as the Harajuku Girls. She was married to British musician Gavin Rossdale from 2002 to 2016 and they have three sons. Billboard magazine ranked Stefani the 54th most successful artist and 37th most successful Hot 100 artist of the 2000–09-decade. VH1 ranked her 13th on their "100 Greatest Women in Music" list in 2012. Including her work with No Doubt, Stefani has sold more than 30 million albums worldwide.

Lucifer

Lucifer ( LEW-si-fər; "light-bringer") is a Latin name for the planet Venus as the morning star in the ancient Roman era, and is often used for mythological and religious figures associated with the planet. Due to the unique movements and discontinuous appearances of Venus in the sky, mythology surrounding these figures often involved a fall from the heavens to earth or the underworld. Interpretations of a similar term in the Hebrew Bible, translated in the King James Version as "Lucifer", led to a Christian tradition of applying the name Lucifer and its associated stories of a fall from heaven to Satan. Most modern scholarship regards these interpretations as questionable, and translates the term in the relevant Bible passage (Isaiah 14:12) as "morning star" or "shining one" rather than as a proper name, "Lucifer".As a name for the devil, the more common meaning in English, "Lucifer" is the rendering of the Hebrew word הֵילֵל‎ (transliteration: hêylêl; pronunciation: hay-lale) in Isaiah (Isaiah 14:12) given in the King James Version of the Bible. The translators of this version took the word from the Latin Vulgate, which translated הֵילֵל by the Latin word lucifer (uncapitalized), meaning "the morning star, the planet Venus", or, as an adjective, "light-bringing".As a name for the morning star, "Lucifer" is a proper name and is capitalized in English. In Greco-Roman civilization the morning star was often personified and considered a god and in some versions considered a son of Aurora (the Dawn).

Michael (archangel)

Michael (Hebrew pronunciation: [mixaˈʔel]; Hebrew: מִיכָאֵל‎, romanized: Mîkhā'ēl, lit. 'Who is like God?'; Greek: Μιχαήλ, romanized: Mikhaḗl; Latin: Michahel; Coptic: ⲙⲓⲭⲁⲏⲗ; Arabic: ميخائيل ، مِيكَالَ ، ميكائيل‎, romanized: Mīkā'īl, Mīkāl or Mīkhā'īl, lit. 'Man Ka El? = من كإيل/كإله/كالله؟') is an archangel in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. In Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican, and Lutheran systems of faith, he is called "Saint Michael the Archangel" and "Saint Michael". In the Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Orthodox religions, he is called "Saint Michael the Taxiarch".Michael is mentioned three times in the Book of Daniel. The idea that Michael was the advocate of the Jews became so prevalent that, in spite of the rabbinical prohibition against appealing to angels as intermediaries between God and his people, Michael came to occupy a certain place in the Jewish liturgy.

In the New Testament Michael leads God's armies against Satan's forces in the Book of Revelation, where during the war in heaven he defeats Satan. In the Epistle of Jude Michael is specifically referred to as "the archangel Michael". Catholic sanctuaries to Michael appeared in the 4th century, when he was first seen as a healing angel, and then over time as a protector and the leader of the army of God against the forces of evil.

Miguel Ángel Félix Gallardo

Miguel Ángel Félix Gallardo (born January 8, 1946), commonly referred to by his alias El Padrino ("The Godfather"), is a convicted Mexican drug lord who formed the Guadalajara Cartel in the 1980s, and controlled almost all of the drug trafficking in Mexico and the corridors along the Mexico–United States border.

Félix Gallardo was arrested for the murder of Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) agent Enrique "Kiki" Camarena, who was tortured to death on one of Félix Gallardo's ranches. Félix Gallardo was serving his 37-year sentence at the Altiplano maximum-security prison but was transferred to a medium-security facility in 2014, due to his declining health.

Oprah Winfrey

Oprah Gail Winfrey (born Orpah, January 29, 1954) is an American media executive, actress, talk show host, television producer and philanthropist. She is best known for her talk show The Oprah Winfrey Show, which was the highest-rated television program of its kind in history and was nationally syndicated from 1986 to 2011 in Chicago. Dubbed the "Queen of All Media", she was the richest African American of the 20th century and North America's first black multi-billionaire, and has been ranked the greatest black philanthropist in American history. She has also been sometimes ranked as the most influential woman in the world.Winfrey was born into poverty in rural Mississippi to a teenage single mother and later raised in inner-city Milwaukee. She has stated that she was molested during her childhood and early teens and became pregnant at 14; her son was born prematurely and died in infancy. Winfrey was then sent to live with the man she calls her father, Vernon Winfrey, a barber in Tennessee, and landed a job in radio while still in high school. By 19, she was a co-anchor for the local evening news. Winfrey's often emotional, extemporaneous delivery eventually led to her transfer to the daytime talk show arena, and after boosting a third-rated local Chicago talk show to first place, she launched her own production company and became internationally syndicated.

Credited with creating a more intimate confessional form of media communication, Winfrey popularized and revolutionized the tabloid talk show genre pioneered by Phil Donahue. Through this medium, Winfrey broke 20th-century taboos and allowed LGBT people to enter the mainstream through television appearances. In 1994, she was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame.By the mid-1990s, Winfrey had reinvented her show with a focus on literature, self-improvement, mindfulness and spirituality. Though she was criticized for unleashing a confession culture, promoting controversial self-help ideas, and having an emotion-centered approach, she has also been praised for overcoming adversity to become a benefactor to others. Winfrey had also emerged as a political force in the 2008 presidential race, delivering about one million votes to Barack Obama in the razor close 2008 Democratic primary. In 2013, Winfrey was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Obama and honorary doctorate degrees from Duke and Harvard. In 2008, she formed her own network, Oprah Winfrey Network (OWN).

Raphael (archangel)

Raphael (; Hebrew: רָפָאֵל, translit. Rāfāʾēl, lit. 'It is God who heals', 'God Heals', 'God, Please Heal'; Ancient Greek: Ραφαήλ, Coptic: ⲣⲁⲫⲁⲏⲗ, Arabic: رفائيل‎ or إسرافيل) is an archangel responsible for healing in the traditions of most Abrahamic religions. Not all branches of these religions consider the identification of Raphael to be canonical.

In Christianity, Raphael is generally associated with an unnamed angel mentioned in the Gospel of John, who stirs the water at the healing pool of Bethesda. Raphael is also an angel in Mormonism, as he is briefly mentioned in the Doctrine and Covenants. Raphael is also mentioned in the Book of Tobit, which is accepted as canonical by Catholics, Orthodox, and some Anglicans. Raphael is a venerated angel within the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican, and Lutheran traditions, and he is often given the title "Saint Raphael".

In Islam, Raphael is the fourth major angel; and in the Muslim tradition, he is known as Isrāfīl. Though unnamed in the Quran, hadith identifies Israfil with the angel of Quran 6:73. Within Islamic eschatology, Israfil is traditionally attributed to a trumpet, which is poised at his lips, and when God so commands he shall be ready to announce the Day of Resurrection.

Rent (musical)

Rent is a rock musical with music, lyrics, and book by Jonathan Larson, loosely based on Giacomo Puccini's opera La Bohème. It tells the story of a group of impoverished young artists struggling to survive and create a life in Lower Manhattan's East Village in the thriving days of Bohemian Alphabet City, under the shadow of HIV/AIDS.

The musical was first seen in a workshop production at New York Theatre Workshop in 1993. This same Off-Broadway theatre was also the musical's initial home following its official 1996 opening. The show's creator, Jonathan Larson, died suddenly of an aortic dissection, believed to have been caused by undiagnosed Marfan syndrome, the night before the Off-Broadway premiere. The musical moved to Broadway's larger Nederlander Theatre on April 29, 1996.On Broadway, Rent gained critical acclaim and won several awards. The Broadway production closed on September 7, 2008, after a 12-year run of 5,123 performances. On February 14, 2016, the musical Wicked surpassed Rent's number of performances with a 2pm matinee, pushing Rent from the tenth- to eleventh-longest-running Broadway show. The production grossed over $280 million.The success of the show led to several national tours and numerous foreign productions. In 2005, it was adapted into a motion picture featuring most of the original cast members.

Touched by an Angel

Touched by an Angel is an American supernatural drama television series that premiered on CBS on September 21, 1994, and ran for 211 episodes and nine seasons until its conclusion on April 27, 2003. Created by John Masius and executive produced by Martha Williamson, the series stars Roma Downey, as an angel named Monica, and Della Reese, as her supervisor Tess. Throughout the series, Monica is tasked with bringing guidance and messages from God to various people who are at a crossroads in their lives. From Season Three onward, they are frequently joined by Andrew (John Dye), the angel of death (who first appeared as a recurring character in season two). The series went into syndication in 1998, and has been shown on Ion Television (formerly PAX-TV), Hallmark Channel, CBS Drama, Up, Disney Channel UK, Me-TV and Start TV.

Warren Worthington III

Warren Kenneth Worthington III, originally known as Angel and later as Archangel, is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics and is a founding member of the X-Men. Created by writer Stan Lee and artist Jack Kirby, the character first appeared in The X-Men #1 (September 1963).

Angel is a member of a subspecies of humans known as mutants, who are born with superhuman abilities. The character originally possesses a pair of large feathered wings extending from his back, enabling him to fly. He is the heir of the Worthington family fortune, and this privileged background results in Warren being stereotyped as self-absorbed and unable to deal with hardships during his early years with the X-Men. This personality was ultimately replaced with a more introspective and brooding personality in the late 1980s, when the character was changed into the darker "Archangel" persona. While Angel's wings were originally feathered, his transition to Archangel resulted in metallic wings and newfound powers.

As one of the original X-Men, Archangel has had a frequent presence in X-Men-related comic books throughout the years and also appeared occasionally in X-Men animated series and video games. Ben Foster played the role of Angel in the 2006 film X-Men: The Last Stand and Ben Hardy portrayed a younger version in the 2016 film X-Men: Apocalypse.

Ángel Di María

Ángel Fabian Di María (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈaŋxel di maˈɾi.a]; born 14 February 1988) is an Argentine professional footballer who plays for Paris Saint-Germain and the Argentina national team. He can play as either a winger or attacking midfielder.

After beginning his career with Rosario Central, Di María moved to Europe in 2007 to play for Benfica, earning a €25 million move to Real Madrid three years later. He played a major role in the club's 2011–12 La Liga triumph. After winning the UEFA Champions League with Real Madrid, he signed for Manchester United in 2014 for a British record £59.7 million, but joined PSG a year later for around £44 million.

A full international for Argentina since 2008, Di María has earned over 90 caps for his country. He scored the goal that won the country gold at the 2008 Olympics, and has also represented them at three FIFA World Cups and three Copa América tournaments, reaching the final of the 2014 World Cup, the 2015 Copa América, and the Copa América Centenario.

Angels in Abrahamic religions
Judaism
Christianity
Islam
First Sphere
Second Sphere
Third Sphere

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.