Anemurium

Anemurium (Ancient Greek: Ἀνεμούριον, romanizedAnemourion), also called Animurium,[1] is an ancient city whose ruins, now called Eski Anamur or Anemuryum, are close to the modern Turkish city of Anamur. It was in the Roman province of Cilicia, later Isauria, and was situated near a high promontory (Cape Anamur) that marks the southernmost point of Asia Minor, only 64 km from Cyprus. In medieval times, it was called Stallimur.[2][3]

Anemurium path

History

Anemurium was already in existence in the Hellenistic period. In AD 52, it was besieged by native inhabitants of the area, and was under threat from a similar quarter in 382. Coins from its mint survive from the time of Antiochus IV of Commagene (38–72) to Valerian (253–259).[2] In 260, it was captured by the Sasanians, an event that sent Anemurium into decline for many decades,[4] but it continued to be prosperous until the mid-7th century when it was more or less completely abandoned, probably because the Arab occupation of Cyprus made the coast unsafe.[2]

Bishopric

Iacobus, bishop of Anemurium, took part in the Council of Chalcedon in 451. Euphronius was a signatory of the letter by which the bishops of the Roman province of Isauria, to which Anemurium belonged, protested to Byzantine Emperor Leo I the Thracian in 458 about the killing of Proterius of Alexandria. Ioannes was deposed by the Emperor Justin I in 518 for supporting the views of Severus of Antioch. Mamas was at the Trullan Council of 692.[5][6]

No longer a residential bishopric, Anemurium is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.[7]

Remains

Odeon Anamurium

The ruins of Anemurium were mentioned by Francis Beaufort, an English naval captain who explored the south coast of Turkey in 1811-12 and who published his discoveries in Karamania. Excavations were directed by Elizabeth Alfoldi, University of Toronto (1965–1970), and subsequently James Russell, University of British Columbia, along with Hector Williams and his wife Caroline.[4]

The upper city or acropolis occupies the actual cape, and is described in the Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites as protected on three sides by steep cliffs and on the landward side by a wall with towers and zigzag reentrants. These fortifications and the building inside were constructed in medieval times, in part utilizing Hellenistic elements. The lower town to the north of the citadel extended for at least 1500 m to an area now covered with sand dunes and with a width of 400 m between the eastern seawall and an aqueduct on the west.[2]

Turkey, Anamur - Anemurion 01

The discovered remains include a large theatre, a small covered odeon or bouleuterion, three large public baths and one small one, decorated with mosaic floors (some converted to industrial use in late antiquity), four early Christian churches (some with mosaic floors, mostly geometric, and donors' inscriptions),[8] and an exedra possibly of a civil basilica (law court).[2][4]

Outside, there is an extensive necropolis of some 350 sepulchral monuments dating from the 1st to the early 4th century. Some included several rooms, a second storey, and even an inner courtyard. Some were decorated with mosaics and wall paintings, including one (BI16) representing the four seasons and a dining couple.[2][4]

Nearby Mamure Castle, built by the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (Little Armenia) on the foundations of a Roman castle, fell into Turkish hands in 1221.

References

  1. ^ Lund University. Digital Atlas of the Roman Empire.
  2. ^ a b c d e f "The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites, AACHEN, see AQUAE GRANNI, ANEMURIUM (Eski Anamur) later ISAURIA Rough Cilicia, Turkey". www.perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved 2017-12-09.
  3. ^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Anemurium". www.newadvent.org. Retrieved 2017-12-09.
  4. ^ a b c d University of British Columbia Archaeology Magazine
  5. ^ Michel Lequien, Oriens christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus, Paris 1740, Vol. II, coll. 1015-1018
  6. ^ Siméon Pétridès, v. Anemurium, in Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie ecclésiastiques, vol. II, Paris 1914, coll. 1828-1829
  7. ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 833
  8. ^ Edwards, Robert W., "Anamur" (2016). The Eerdmans Encyclopedia of Early Christian Art and Archaeology, ed., Paul Corby Finney. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 55–56. ISBN 978-0-8028-9016-0.

Coordinates: 36°01′27.37″N 32°48′09.36″E / 36.0242694°N 32.8026000°E

External links

Anamur

Anamur is a town and district of the province of Mersin, on the Mediterranean coast of southern Turkey, between Antalya and the city of Mersin.

Anamur is Anatolia's southernmost point, a coastal resort famous for its bananas and peanuts.

Ariassus

Ariassus or Ariassos (Ancient Greek: Άριασσός) was a town in Pisidia, Asia Minor built on a steep hillside about 50 kilometres inland from Attaleia (modern Antalya).

Arsinoe (Cilicia)

Arsinoe (Ancient Greek: Ἀρσινόη) was a city on the coast of ancient Cilicia between Anemurium and Kelenderis; the site is near the modern city of Bozyazı, Mersin Province, Turkey. Strabo mentions Arsinoe as having a port. In the 19th century, William Martin Leake placed it at or near the ruined modern castle, called Softa Kalesi (Sokhta Kálesi), just west of Bozyazı, below which is a port, such as Strabo describes at Arsinoe, and a peninsula on the east side of the harbor covered with ruins. This modern site is east of Anemurium, and west of, and near to, Kızil Burnu (Cape Kizliman). The city was founded by Ptolemy Philadelphus and named for Arsinoe II of Egypt, his sister and wife.

The site of Arsinoe is located near modern an archaeological site named Maraş Harabeleri about 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) east of Bozyazı in Anatolia.

Caloe

Caloe was a town in the Roman province of Asia. It is mentioned as Kaloe or Keloue in 3rd-century inscriptions, as Kalose in Hierocles's Synecdemos (660), and as Kalloe, Kaloe, and Kolone in Parthey's Notitiæ episcopatuum, in which it figures from the 6th to the 12fth or 13th century.

Cape Anamur

Cape Anamur is a headland on the Mediterranean sea coast of Mersin Province, Turkey.

Cape Anamur is the southernmost point of Anatolian peninsula at 36°01′17″N 32°48′07″E. The ancient city Anemurium lies on the hills to the north of the cape. The town Ören is to the north and the ilçe (district center) modern Anamur is to the north east. Turkish highway D.400 which runs along the cost is about 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) to the north. The distance from the cape to Anamur is about 7 kilometres (4.3 mi).

Cape Kormakitis

Cape Kormakitis (Greek: Ακρωτήριο Κορμακίτη, Akrotírio Kormakíti, Turkish: Koruçam Burnu), anciently known as Crommyon or Krommyon (Ancient Greek: Κρομμύων ἄκρα, romanized: Krommyon akra or Κρομμύου ἄκρα) and also Crommyacum or Krommyakon (Κρομμυακόν) is a promontory on the north-western coast of the Mediterranean island of Cyprus, located in the self-proclaimed republic of Northern Cyprus. Named after the nearby Maronite village of the same name, the cape marks the northernmost extent of Morphou Bay. The nearest coastal town to Cape Kormakitis is Kyrenia. Anciently, it was opposite to Anemurium in Cilicia on what is now the Turkish mainland.

Cestrus

Cestrus was a city in the Roman province of Isauria, in Asia Minor. Its placing within Isauria is given by Hierocles, Georgius Cyprius, and Parthey's (Notitiae episcopatuum). While recognizing what the ancient sources said, Lequien supposed that the town, whose site has not been identified, took its name from the River Cestros and was thus in Pamphylia. Following Lequien's hypothesis, the 19th-century annual publication Gerarchia cattolica identified the town with "Ak-Sou", which Sophrone Pétridès called an odd mistake, since this is the name of the River Cestros, not of a city.

Clitae (tribe)

The Clitae were a Cilician people who are mentioned by Tacitus as subjects of a Cappadocian Archelaus, in the time of Tiberius. This Archelaus appears to have been a king of Cilicia Trachea, certainly not the last king of Cappadocia, Archelaus of Cappadocia, for he was dead before the time to which Tacitus refers in the passage cited above. The Clitae refused to submit to the regulations of the Roman census, and to pay taxes, and retired to the heights of the Taurus Mountains. There they successfully resisted the king, until M. Trebellius was sent by Vitellius, the governor of Syria, who blockaded them in their hill forts, Cadra and Davara, and compelled them to surrender. In the reign of Claudius the Clitae again fortified themselves on the mountains, under a leader Trosobores, whence they descended to the coast and the towns, plundering the cultivators, townspeople, shipmasters, and merchants. They besieged the town of Anemurium, a place probably near the promontory, from which and the other circumstances we collect that the Clitae were a nation in Cilicia Trachea. At last Antiochus IV of Commagene, who was king of this coast, by pleasing the common sort and cajoling the leader, succeeded in putting Trosobores and a few of the chiefs to death, and pacified the rest by his mild measures.

Cotenna

Cotenna was a city in the Roman province of Pamphylia I in Asia Minor. It corresponds to modern Gödene, near Konya, Turkey.

Lyrbe

Lyrbe (spelled Lyrba in the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia; Ancient Greek: Λύρβη) was a city and episcopal see in the Roman province of Pamphylia Prima and is now a titular see.

Mersin Province

The Mersin Province (Turkish: Mersin ili) is a province in southern Turkey, on the Mediterranean coast between Antalya and Adana. The provincial capital is the city of Mersin and the other major town is Tarsus, birthplace of St Paul. The province is part of Çukurova, a geographical, economical and cultural region, that covers the provinces of Mersin, Adana, Osmaniye and Hatay.

Nephelis

Nephelis (Ancient Greek: Νεφελίς) was a small town of ancient Cilicia, situated, according to Ptolemy, between Antioch and Anemurium; but if, as some suppose, it be the same place as the Zephelium or Zephelion (Ζεφέλιον) mentioned in the Stadiasmus Maris Magni, it ought to be looked for between Selinus and Celenderis. Near the place was a promontory of the same name, where, according to Livy, the fleet of Antiochus the Great was stationed, when, after reducing the towns of Cilicia as far as Selinus, he was engaged in the siege of Coracesium, and where he received the ambassadors of the Rhodians.

Its site is tentatively located near Kicikköy, Muzkent, in Asiatic Turkey.

Platanus (Cilicia)

Platanus or Platanous (Ancient Greek: Πλατανοῦς) was a town on the coast of Cilicia Aspera, west of Anemurium. The Stadiasmus Maris Magni places Platanus 350 stadia from Anemurium, which is most likely incorrect. William Smith posited a distance of 150 stadia.

Platanus is tentatively located near modern Melleç İskelesi, in Asiatic Turkey.

Rygmanoi

Rygmanoi was a town on the coast of ancient Cilicia, east of Anemurium at the mouth of the Orymagdos River.Platanus is tentatively located near the mouth of the modern Anamur Çay in Asiatic Turkey.

Stratonicea (Lydia)

Stratonicea – (Greek: Στρατoνικεια, or Στρατονίκεια) also transliterated as Stratoniceia and Stratonikeia, earlier Indi, and later for a time Hadrianapolis – was an ancient city in the valley of the Caicus river, between Germe and Acrasus, in Lydia, Anatolia; its site is currently near the village of Siledik, in the district of Kırkağaç, Manisa Province, in the Aegean Region of Turkey.

Tower of Gömeç

The Tower of Gömeç (Gömeç Kalesi) is a Roman watch tower in Rough Cilicia in southern Turkey.

Windy Point

Windy Point may refer to:

Australia

Windy Point, Adelaide in the Adelaide suburb of BelairCanada

Windy Point, Alberta near Bighorn Dam located in Sheep River Provincial ParkNew Zealand

Windy Point, Te Kuha, South Island, New ZealandTurkeyAnamur, mutated from the Greek Anemurium, meaning windy pointU.S.A.

Arizona:

Windy Point, Arizona near Mount Lemmon

California:

Windy Point, Sierra Nevada near North Palisade in the Sierra Nevada range

Windy Point, San Bernardino

Windy Point, Morgan Territory

Windy Point, Los Gatos near the Lexington Reservoir

Colorado:

Windy Point, El Paso County, part of Pikes Peak

Windy Point, Conejos County, near Cumbres Pass on the Cumbres and Toltec Scenic Railroad

Illinois:

Windy Point Office Park in Schaumburg

Maryland:

Windy Point, Maryland, a campsite in the Rodney Scout Reservation

Oregon:

Windy Point, Oregon on the Tualatin River

Washington:

Windy Point, Puget Sound on the Kitsap PeninsulaOtherWindy Point Tunnel mentioned in the ruling gradient article

Ören, Mersin

Ören is a town in Mersin Province, Turkey.

Üçayaklı ruins

The Üçayaklı ruins are in Mersin Province, Turkey.

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