Andrew Clark, FBA (born 1957) is a professor of philosophy and Chair in Logic and Metaphysics at the University of Edinburgh in Scotland. Before this, he was director of the Cognitive Science Program at Indiana University in Bloomington, Indiana and previously taught at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri and the University of Sussex in England. Clark is one of the founding members of the CONTACT collaborative research project whose aim is to investigate the role environment plays in shaping the nature of conscious experience. Clark's papers and books deal with the philosophy of mind and he is considered a leading scientist in mind extension. He has also written extensively on connectionism, robotics and the role and nature of mental representation.
|Alma mater||University of Stirling|
Washington University in St. Louis
Indiana University, Bloomington
University of Edinburgh
|Philosophy of mind|
Clark's work explores a number of disparate but interrelated themes. Many of these themes run against established wisdom in cognitive processing and representation. According to traditional computational accounts, the function of the mind is understood as the process of creating, storing and updating internal representations of the world, on the basis of which other processes and actions may take place. Representations are updated to correspond with an environment in accordance with the function, goal-state, or desire of the system in question at any given time. Thus, for example, learning a new route through a maze-like building would be mirrored in a change in the representation of that building. Action, on this view, is the outcome of a process which determines the best way to achieve the goal-state or desire, based on current representations. Such a determinative process may be the purview of a Cartesian "central executive" or a distributed process like homuncular decomposition.
In contrast to traditional models of cognition, which often posit the one-way flow of sensory information from the periphery towards more remote areas of the brain, Clark has suggested a two-way "cascade of cortical processing" underlying perception, action, and learning. The concept of predictive processing lies at the heart of this view, wherein top-down predictions attempt to correctly guess or "explain away" bottom-up sensory information in an iterative, hierarchical manner. Discrepancies between the expected signal and actual signal, in essence the "prediction error," travel upward to help refine the accuracy of future predictions. Interactions between forward flow of error (conveyed by "error units") and backward flow of prediction are dynamic, with attention playing a key role in weighting the relative influence of either at each level of the cascade (dopamine is mentioned as "one possible mechanism for encoding precision" with regard to error units). Action (or action-oriented predictive processing) also plays an important role in Clark's account as another means by which the brain can reduce prediction error by directly influencing the environment. To this, he adds that "personal, affective, and hedonic" factors would be implicated along with the minimization of prediction error, creating a more nuanced model for the relationship between action and perception.
According to Clark, the computational model, which forms the philosophical foundation of artificial intelligence, engenders several intractable problems. One of the more salient is an information bottleneck: if, in order to determine appropriate actions, it is the job of the mind to construct detailed inner representations of the external world, then, as the world is constantly changing, the demands on the mental system will almost certainly preclude any action taking place. For Clark, we need relatively little information about the world before we may act effectively upon it. We tend to be susceptible to "grand illusion", where our impressions of a richly detailed world obscures a reality of minimal environmental information and quick action. We needn't try to reconstruct the detail of this world, as it is able to serve as its own best model from which to extract information "just in time".
Clark's writings also focus on the concept of transhumanism, most prevalent in his work, Natural-Born Cyborgs which explores the progressing incorporation of human biology and technological implants. Through a series of contemporary technological studies and an evaluation of the cyborg figure in pop-culture, Clark maps out a perception of the cyborg as a reality. This is not necessarily to show what humanity is to become from biologically implanted technology, but rather to explore where humanity is now with said technology. In his own words, humans are "creatures whose minds are special precisely because they are tailor-made for multiple mergers and coalitions."  He elaborates this as he describes his body as an "electronic virgin" untouched by technology, but gradually over time technology will become intertwined with his biology. Whether that incorporation will be as mundane as the use of eyeglasses or something more advanced such as a new auditory prosthesis, he believes the merger of technology and biology is inevitable and present.
Clark is perhaps most well known for his defense of the extended mind hypothesis. According to Clark, the dynamic loops through which mind and world interact are not merely instrumental; the cycle of activity that runs from brain through body and world and back again is what constitutes cognition. The mind, on this account, is not restricted to the biological organism but extends into that organism's environment. An example is carrying out a mathematical task. One person may complete the task solely in their head, while another completes the task with the assistance of paper and pencil. By Clark's parity principle, there is no reason to count these means as different so long as the results are the same. The process of cognition in the second case involves paper and pencil, so the conception of mind appropriate to the person involved must include these items.
Clark concedes that, in practice, the criterion of "equal efficiency" required by the parity principle is seldom met. He nonetheless proposes that the boundary of "skin and skull" is arbitrary and cognitively meaningless. If, in the example above, the paper and pencil used by the second person becomes a virtual paper-and-pencil visible on a monitor and controlled by a silicon chip implanted in the head, the similarity between the two situations becomes clearer.
Clark foresees the development of cognitive prosthetics, or "electronic brain enhancements" ("EBEs"), as only the next logical step in the human mind's natural integration with technology. Clark's research interests also include wetwiring and other human-electronic integration experiments, as well as technological advances in immediate human communication and their utilization in society.
To further illustrate extended cognition, Clark uses two anecdotal examples: Inga and Otto, the latter being a patient of Alzheimer's disease. Both desire to visit a museum and must remember the address. For Inga, this is a matter of simple memory recall and accessing her belief in where she remembers the given location of the museum. Due to his condition, Otto relies on the use of written records in a notebook in order to recall his memory, as the disease makes it difficult for him to have a finite belief on the museum's location without it. This notebook in a way becomes his livelihood, functioning as a memory bank to accommodate his condition. As Clark puts it, "his notebook plays the role usually played by a biological memory" effectively becoming a part of his extended mind. The goal of describing the thought processes of Inga and Otto is to show multiple variations of extended cognition and how it functions differently among individuals depending on their mental biology. Clark claims the key aspect that unites the cognitive process of the two individuals is that each has the initial belief on where the museum is located. Although the way the verification of belief differs in practice between the two, they are still able to come up with a solution on the museum's location despite one using a source of external storage. In a later work, Clark addresses any potential criticism on the process of Otto's system of belief by stating that Otto's impulse to consult his notebook is a similar process to that of Inga consulting her recalled memory. Clark also elaborates on the importance of environment when using extended cognition. He believes that the way one formalizes "beliefs" is, "constituted partly by features of the environment" if they are playing the desired role of "driving cognitive processes.”  This summarizes his belief that the mind, in fact, can extend to the surrounding environment.
Although the comparisons between Otto and Inga may seem distant when judging the power of extended cognition, Clark attempts to gap a more similar comparison between the two by claiming that if Otto were to lose his notebook it would be the same as Inga losing a thought from her consciousness. He also suggests the concept of Otto's notebook being an extension of himself, having it take on a more material role suggesting that it may be equal to the way one treats a physical appendage to their body. The notebook in a way becomes a "fragile biological limb or organ" one that Otto may feel to protect from harm's way.
Supporters of extended cognition have used Clark's comparison between Inga and Otto as a champion analogy to support the theory of the internal mind extending into the environment. In an article on the argument of extended cognition, Erik Myin makes note of this group, "a close causal coupling between persons and environments," such as Otto and his notebook, "can license the conclusion that the mind spreads into the environment." His also writes that some followers use Clark's argument of, "external elements" playing a role that could be seen as, "cognitive if played by something internal to a person." A good reference to this would be how Otto's notebook is used for cognitive verification.
The Extended Mind has been met with criticism from scholars challenging extended cognition. The claim is that Clark's theories lack a differentiation of biological memory and external storage of thought. This is mainly addressed to the cognitive comparison between Otto and Inga, and how their thought processes are viewed as equal an engagement of extended thought given Otto's condition. When he uses his notepad, it is necessary reliance, as these records will help him to remember his thoughts. However, there is an argument questioning if this follows Clark's description of extended cognition as it requires a running cycle of cognitive connectivity that returns to the body.
In a critique of Clark's Supersizing the Mind, Lawrence Shapiro and Shannon Spaulding, of The University of Wisconsin-Madison, touch upon this criticism from scholars who challenge extended cognition. They describe the argument against Clark being that "...cognitive routines involving biological memory and those involving external stores of information are importantly different." Essentially they are claiming that the way someone stores memory externally is separate from their biological cognition. For example, if Inga were to use a notepad, it would function as an extension of her compression as her thought process would follow Clark's description of dynamic loops that return to the mind in a cycle. However, when Otto uses the notepad has a way to retain his memory, whatever thoughts he records will not follow back and will become disconnected from his biological mind. In this respect, parts of Otto's mind would essentially "exist outside his brain," meaning that the comparison between Inga and Otto may not be reliant as they appear to function differently in Clark's own theory.
This criticism of Otto and Inga is addressed by Clark himself in Supersizing the Mind:
“[the] claim was not that the processes in Otto and Inga are identical, or even similar, in terms of their detailed implementation. It is simply that, with respect to the role that the long-term encodings play in guiding current response, both modes of storage can be seen as supporting dispositional beliefs. It is the way the information is poised to guide reasoning … and behavior that counts. (p. 96)” 
He argues that extended cognition was never meant to be a universal "fine-grained similarity" between all minds. He believes that such a "fine-grained similarity" is not necessary when analyzing extended consciousness, suggesting it differs depending on an individual's behavior and their given environment.
Books by Andy Clark:
Clark is also on the editorial boards of the following journals:
Andrew (Andy) Clark is a Professor of Population Genetics in the Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics at Cornell University. He is the current head of the Graduate Computation Biology field. He is also the Meinig Family Investigator in the Life Sciences and co-director of Cornell's Center for Comparative and Population Genomics. Prior to joining Cornell in 2002 he was a professor at [Penn State University]. He currently has his own lab which researches drosophila and population genetics at Cornell University and is a member of a working group for the National Human Genome Research Institute. He is also the co-author of Principles of Population Genetics, Mechanisms of Molecular Evolution, and Evolution at the Molecular Level.Andy Clark (footballer)
Andrew Clark (7 October 1879 – 10 August 1940) was a Scottish professional football left back who played for in the Football League for Leeds City and Stoke.Andy Clark (musician)
Simon Andrew Clark is an English keyboard and synthesizer player best known for working alongside guitarist Bill Nelson in art rock band Be-Bop Deluxe and their synthpop offshoot Red Noise.
One of his earlier involvements in music was as member of a progressive rock band from Sheffield, Yorkshire, called Mother's Pride.His original involvement with Be Bop Deluxe was as keyboardist for the band's live concerts in 1975. He couldn't work for them in the recording of their second album Futurama, because he was still maintaining contractual relationship with Mother's Pride. Shortly after, he joined, recording with them the next three studio albums, Sunburst Finish (1976), Modern Music (1977) and Drastic Plastic (1978), as well as the live album, Live! In The Air Age, before their disbandment. He was the only full-time member of the band to survive into Nelson's post-Be-Bop Deluxe project Red Noise. He was known as Andrew rather than Simon because Be-Bop Deluxe drummer Simon Fox insisted that two Simons in the band would cause confusion.After his involvement with Bill Nelson, Clark played on David Bowie's Scary Monsters (And Super Creeps) album (1980), notably its hit single "Ashes to Ashes", The dB's' Stands for Decibels (1981) and Repercussion (1982), Peter Gabriel's So (1986), contributing to "Big Time" and "Don't Give Up", two tracks which likewise became hit singles, and Tears For Fears' The Seeds Of Love (1989).Being There (disambiguation)
Being There is a 1979 film directed by Hal Ashby.
Being There may also refer to:
Being There (novel), a 1971 novel by Jerzy Kosinski on which Ashby's film is based
Being There (book), a 2017 book by Erica Komisar about motherhood
Being There (Wilco album), a 1996 rock album by Wilco
Being There (Tord Gustavsen album), a 2006 jazz album by Tord Gustavsen
Being There: Putting Brain, Body and World Together Again, a 1997 book by philosophy professor Andy Clark
Being there or DaseinBill Nelson's Red Noise
Bill Nelson's Red Noise, or more simply Red Noise, was Bill Nelson's umbrella term for what effectively became a British new wave band, formed by Bill Nelson (lead vocals, guitar), his brother Ian (saxophone), Andy Clark (keyboards) and Rick Ford (bass), around 1978, briefly employing Dave Mattacks (drums) before adding Steve Peer (drums).Brodie family
The Brodie family are a fictional family from the BBC One Scotland soap opera River City, that appeared on-screen from 2010 onwards.C. L. Barnhouse Company
The C. L. Barnhouse Company is an American music publishing firm. It was founded in 1886 by Charles Lloyd Barnhouse. It has been headquartered in Oskaloosa, Iowa since 1891.
Known today as a major publisher of educational instrumental (band) works, the C. L. Barnhouse catalog includes many historical publications of the classic concert band era by composers C. L. Barnhouse, Russell Alexander, Karl L. King, Fred Jewell, and J. J. Richards. There are some Jazz Ensemble composers, most notably Paul Clark, Lenny Stack, Larry Neeck, Howard Rowe, Rob Vuono Jr., and Larry Barton. Its popular current composers include James Swearingen, David Shaffer, Ed Huckeby, Rob Romeyn and Steven Reineke.
The company is managed by CEO Andy Clark and COO Andrew Glover.David Bunce
David Bunce (born 1950) is a British independent music producer, born in London, England. He was a member of the Epic Records signed group Upp, which included Jeff Beck, Andy Clark and Jim Copley. The group's albums, Upp (1975), and This Way Upp (1976), were both produced by, and featured Jeff Beck. More recently, under the name Zak Starstosky, Bunce is currently a member of the UK based blues/rock band Driving Sideways, releasing two albums, In the Beginning (1997) and Live at The Casino Ballroom in 1999. As of 2007, he is teaching the guitar to students and producing music for films, advertising, and television.As of 2018 he is performing an acoustic solo act.Drastic Plastic
Drastic Plastic is the last album by art rock band Be-Bop Deluxe, released in February 1978.Extended mind thesis
The extended mind thesis (EMT) says that an agent's mind and cognitive processes are neither skull-bound nor even body-bound, but extend into the agent's world. The EMT proposes that some objects in the external environment are utilized by the mind in such a way that the objects can be seen as extensions of the mind itself. Specifically, the mind is seen to encompass every level of the cognitive process, which will often include the use of environmental aids. As Andy Clark and David Chalmers put it in "The Extended Mind" (1998): "Where does the mind stop and the rest of the world begin? ... We propose to pursue ... an active externalism, based on the active role of the environment in driving cognitive processes." The question is raised as to the division point between the mind and the environment.Externalism
Externalism is a group of positions in the philosophy of mind which argues that the conscious mind is not only the result of what is going on inside the nervous system (or the brain), but also what occurs or exists outside the subject. It is contrasted with internalism which holds that the mind emerges from neural activity alone. Externalism is a belief that the mind is not just the brain or functions of the brain.
There are different versions of externalism based on different beliefs about what the mind is taken to be. Externalism stresses factors external to the nervous system. At one extreme, the mind could possibly depend on external factors. At the opposite extreme, the mind necessarily depends on external factors. The extreme view of externalism argues either that the mind is constituted by or identical with processes partially or totally external to the nervous system.
Another important criterion in externalist theory is to which aspect of the mind is addressed. Some externalists focus on cognitive aspects of the mind – such as Andy Clark and David Chalmers, Shaun Gallagher and many others – while others engage either the phenomenal aspect of the mind or the conscious mind itself. Several philosophers consider the conscious phenomenal content and activity, such as William Lycan, Alex Byrne or Francois Tonneau; Teed Rockwell or Riccardo Manzotti.Larissa MacFarquhar
Larissa MacFarquhar is an American writer known for her profiles in The New Yorker.
She has written profiles on Barack Obama, Derek Parfit, Hilary Mantel, Robert Gottlieb, Richard Posner, Chelsea Manning and Aaron Swartz, among others. Her 2015 book Strangers Drowning: Impossible Idealism, Drastic Choices, and the Urge to Help explores the motivations of people who take altruism to extremes. She is married to the writer Philip Gourevitch.Sam Gopal
Sam Gopal (also called Sam Gopal's Dream) were an underground British psychedelic rock band. The band was named after its founder, Sam Gopal, born in Malaysia. From the age of seven, he played tabla, a northern Indian percussion instrument, which replaced drums in the band.The first line-up was Sam Gopal on tabla, Mick Hutchinson on guitar, Pete Sears on bass guitar and keys, and later towards the end, Andy Clark on organ and vocals. On 28 April 1967, the band performed at The 14 Hour Technicolor Dream, a UK Underground event organised by the International Times at Alexandra Palace. Other performing bands included Pink Floyd, The Pretty Things, Savoy Brown, The Crazy World of Arthur Brown, Soft Machine and The Move. Sam Gopal's Dream played at the UFO Club (their first show), The Electric Garden in Covent Garden (later to become Middle Earth), The Roundhouse, and Happening 44. They later played the Christmas on Earth Show at Olympia in London with Traffic, Jimi Hendrix and Pink Floyd. Jimi Hendrix later sat in with the original Sam Gopal's Dream at London's Speakeasy Club. Andy Clark later joined on organ and keyboards and they soon changed their name to Vamp with the addition of Viv Prince on drums, and released a single called, "Floatin" on Atlantic. After the original Sam Gopal Dream band broke up in 1968, Sears went on to session work and formed his own band Giant, while Hutchinson and Clark recorded three albums as 'Clark-Hutchinson'.
Sam formed a new line-up which included vocalist-guitarist 'Ian Willis' (better known as Lemmy), Roger D'Elia and Phil Duke. The album Escalator was recorded in late 1968 and released in March 1969. Lemmy went on to be the bassist of Hawkwind and, in 1975, the founder, singer and bassist of Motörhead. Roger D’Elia (who was grandson of the actress Mary Clare) later turned up in a mid-1970s band called Glider, which included Twink (ex-The Fairies), Andy Colquhoun and Chas McKay. A further line-up of the band featured Alan Mark, Mox Gowland, Mickey Waller (also known as Mickey Finn) and Freddie Gandy (ex-The Fairies).Sam Gopal self released another album Father Mucker in 1999 (GPS CD 001, Munchen, Germany). Songs from that album were recorded in 1990 (many with Andy Clark) but not mixed and overdubed until 1999, in which year he recorded one more song for the album. Sam Gopal have another six albums recorded with professional musicians and mastered but they are still unreleased. On Father Mucker Sam Gopal showed on expanded tablas how blues can be played on tablas. Father Mucker, musically and production-wise, is much better than Escalator, according to some critics and fans, which is not strange because Lemmy said he wrote Escalator in one night.Simon Clark
Simon Clark may refer to:
Simon Clark (novelist) (born 1958), English horror novel writer
Simon Clark (broadcaster) (born 1960), British television sports presenter and correspondent
Simon Clark (Australian footballer) (born 1967), Australian rules footballer for Richmond
Simon Clark (English footballer) (born 1967), English former professional footballer and manager
Andy Clark (musician) (born 1944) or Simon Andrew Clark, an English keyboard and synthesizer player
Simon Clark (Science communicator/PhD in Atmospheric Physics) (born 1990), English YouTuber making videos about all things scienceSunburst Finish (album)
Sunburst Finish is the third studio album by art rock band Be-Bop Deluxe, released in February 1976. It was recorded in Abbey Road Studios, London.The album contains what would become one of their few forays into chart success; the February 1976 single "Ships in the Night", which reached number 23 in the UK Singles Charts.
Keyboardist Andy Clark, who had served as a temporary member during Be-Bop Deluxe's 1975 Futurama tour, joined the band as a full member for this album. He remained until the band was dissolved by Bill Nelson in 1978 and would be the only member of Be-Bop Deluxe apart from Bill Nelson to become part of Bill Nelson's Red Noise.The Extended Mind
"The Extended Mind" by Andy Clark and David Chalmers (1998) is a seminal work in the field of extended cognition. In this paper, Clark and Chalmers present the idea of active externalism (similar to semantic or "content" externalism), in which objects within the environment function as a part of the mind. They argue that it is arbitrary to say that the mind is contained only within the boundaries of the skull. The separation between the mind, the body, and the environment is seen as an unprincipled distinction. Because external objects play a significant role in aiding cognitive processes, the mind and the environment act as a "coupled system". This coupled system can be seen as a complete cognitive system of its own. In this manner, the mind is extended into the external world. The main criterion that Clark and Chalmers list for classifying the use of external objects during cognitive tasks as a part of an extended cognitive system is that the external objects must function with the same purpose as the internal processes.
In "The Extended Mind", a thought experiment is presented to further illustrate the environment's role in connection to the mind. The fictional characters Otto and Inga are both travelling to a museum simultaneously. Otto has Alzheimer's disease, and has written all of his directions down in a notebook to serve the function of his memory. Inga is able to recall the internal directions within her memory. In a traditional sense, Inga can be thought to have had a belief as to the location of the museum before consulting her memory. In the same manner, Otto can be said to have held a belief of the location of the museum before consulting his notebook. The argument is that the only difference existing in these two cases is that Inga's memory is being internally processed by the brain, while Otto's memory is being served by the notebook. In other words, Otto's mind has been extended to include the notebook as the source of his memory. The notebook qualifies as such because it is constantly and immediately accessible to Otto, and it is automatically endorsed by him.
Going further, the authors ask and answer their own question about the role of enculturation:
"And what about socially-extended cognition? Could my mental states be partly constituted by the states of other thinkers? We see no reason why not, in principle."They bring up the recurrent theme of the role of language:
"The major burden of the coupling between agents is carried by language ... Indeed, it is not implausible that the explosion of intellectual development in recent evolutionary time is due as much to this linguistically-enabled extension of cognition as to any independent development in our inner cognitive resources."Upp (band)
Upp was a British rock-jazz fusion band, active in the 1970s. The group was originally going to be called 3 UPP, and consisted of Stephen Amazing (bass guitar), Andy Clark (keyboards) and Jim Copley (drums). David Bunce (guitar) joined on guitar for the second album.
Stephen Amazing, aka Steve Fields prior to his career in Clark Hutchinson in his teenage years, used to play bass guitar in a band called 'The Kinetics', and also, at times, in another band called 'The Abstracts'. Some photographs showing Fields in the Kinetics can be seen at Bill Chewter's Facebook page at .
Jim Copley has spoken of the genesis of the band; "Three months of rehearsing almost everyday, Jeff Beck came down to the studio to play with David Bowie who was doing his Hammersmith Odeon farewell concert in 1973. Jeff was with a friend of my dad’s and he heard the band through the wall and we were doing James Brown and very funky stuff. He kicked the door open and he came in and we stopped 'cause it was Jeff Beck and he said 'please carry on, I love it, I love it!’. The band was heavily influenced by other acts like Otis Redding, Sly & The Family Stone, Stevie Wonder and Donny Hathaway.The group were signed to CBS in 1974 and the debut album, Upp, was released in 1975. Jeff Beck produced and also played guitars on this LP, although there was no mention of him playing in the liner notes. Upp released its next album a year later, titled This way Upp. Beck again produced this album and played guitar solos on "Dance Your Troubles Away" and "Don't Want Nothing to Change." This album was recorded at CBS Studios, London.
The group backed Beck on the 1970s BBC One special Five Faces of Guitar, which also featured Julian Bream. They played two songs, which were "Get Down in the Dirt" and Beck's arrangement of The Beatles' song "She's a Woman", with an interview about Beck's instrumentation as an intermission between the two.
A BBC radio recording was broadcast on BBC Radio 1 circa 1976.
The group's track "Give It to You" contains one of the popular breakbeats of all time, and is featured in the Ultimate Breaks and Beats series.Wabash Avenue (film)
Wabash Avenue is a 1950 Technicolor American musical film directed by Henry Koster and starring Betty Grable. The film was a remake of Grable's earlier hit 1943 film Coney Island.