An android is a robot or other artificial being designed to resemble a human, and often made from a flesh-like material. Historically, androids were completely within the domain of science fiction and frequently seen in film and television, but recent advances in robot technology now allow the design of functional and realistic humanoid robots.
The word was coined from the Greek root ἀνδρ- andr-, "man" (male, as opposed to ἀνθρωπ- anthrōp-, human being) and the suffix -oid, "having the form or likeness of". In Greek, however, ανδροειδής is an adjective. While the term "android" is used in reference to human-looking robots in general, a robot with a female appearance can also be referred to as a "gynoid".
The Oxford English Dictionary traces the earliest use (as "Androides") to Ephraim Chambers' 1728 Cyclopaedia, in reference to an automaton that St. Albertus Magnus allegedly created. The term "android" appears in US patents as early as 1863 in reference to miniature human-like toy automatons. The term android was used in a more modern sense by the French author Auguste Villiers de l'Isle-Adam in his work Tomorrow's Eve (1886). This story features an artificial humanlike robot named Hadaly. As said by the officer in the story, "In this age of Realien advancement, who knows what goes on in the mind of those responsible for these mechanical dolls." The term made an impact into English pulp science fiction starting from Jack Williamson's The Cometeers (1936) and the distinction between mechanical robots and fleshy androids was popularized by Edmond Hamilton's Captain Future (1940–1944).
Although Karel Čapek's robots in R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots) (1921)—the play that introduced the word robot to the world—were organic artificial humans, the word "robot" has come to primarily refer to mechanical humans, animals, and other beings. The term "android" can mean either one of these, while a cyborg ("cybernetic organism" or "bionic man") would be a creature that is a combination of organic and mechanical parts.
The term "droid", popularized by George Lucas in the original Star Wars film and now used widely within science fiction, originated as an abridgment of "android", but has been used by Lucas and others to mean any robot, including distinctly non-human form machines like R2-D2. The word "android" was used in Star Trek: The Original Series episode "What Are Little Girls Made Of?" The abbreviation "andy", coined as a pejorative by writer Philip K. Dick in his novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?, has seen some further usage, such as within the TV series Total Recall 2070.
Authors have used the term android in more diverse ways than robot or cyborg. In some fictional works, the difference between a robot and android is only their appearance, with androids being made to look like humans on the outside but with robot-like internal mechanics. In other stories, authors have used the word "android" to mean a wholly organic, yet artificial, creation. Other fictional depictions of androids fall somewhere in between.
Eric G. Wilson, who defines androids as a "synthetic human being", distinguishes between three types of androids, based on their body's composition:
Although human morphology is not necessarily the ideal form for working robots, the fascination in developing robots that can mimic it can be found historically in the assimilation of two concepts: simulacra (devices that exhibit likeness) and automata (devices that have independence).
Several projects aiming to create androids that look, and, to a certain degree, speak or act like a human being have been launched or are underway.
Japanese robotics have been leading the field since the 1970s. Waseda University initiated the WABOT project in 1967, and in 1972 completed the WABOT-1, the first android, a full-scale humanoid intelligent robot. Its limb control system allowed it to walk with the lower limbs, and to grip and transport objects with hands, using tactile sensors. Its vision system allowed it to measure distances and directions to objects using external receptors, artificial eyes and ears. And its conversation system allowed it to communicate with a person in Japanese, with an artificial mouth.
In 1984, WABOT-2 was revealed, and made a number of improvements. It was capable of playing the organ. Wabot-2 had 10 fingers and two feet, and was able to read a score of music. It was also able to accompany a person. In 1986, Honda began its humanoid research and development program, to create humanoid robots capable of interacting successfully with humans.
The Intelligent Robotics Lab, directed by Hiroshi Ishiguro at Osaka University, and Kokoro Co., Ltd. have demonstrated the Actroid at Expo 2005 in Aichi Prefecture, Japan and released the Telenoid R1 in 2010. In 2006, Kokoro Co. developed a new DER 2 android. The height of the human body part of DER2 is 165 cm. There are 47 mobile points. DER2 can not only change its expression but also move its hands and feet and twist its body. The "air servosystem" which Kokoro Co. developed originally is used for the actuator. As a result of having an actuator controlled precisely with air pressure via a servosystem, the movement is very fluid and there is very little noise. DER2 realized a slimmer body than that of the former version by using a smaller cylinder. Outwardly DER2 has a more beautiful proportion. Compared to the previous model, DER2 has thinner arms and a wider repertoire of expressions. Once programmed, it is able to choreograph its motions and gestures with its voice.
The Intelligent Mechatronics Lab, directed by Hiroshi Kobayashi at the Tokyo University of Science, has developed an android head called Saya, which was exhibited at Robodex 2002 in Yokohama, Japan. There are several other initiatives around the world involving humanoid research and development at this time, which will hopefully introduce a broader spectrum of realized technology in the near future. Now Saya is working at the Science University of Tokyo as a guide.
The Waseda University (Japan) and NTT Docomo's manufacturers have succeeded in creating a shape-shifting robot WD-2. It is capable of changing its face. At first, the creators decided the positions of the necessary points to express the outline, eyes, nose, and so on of a certain person. The robot expresses its face by moving all points to the decided positions, they say. The first version of the robot was first developed back in 2003. After that, a year later, they made a couple of major improvements to the design. The robot features an elastic mask made from the average head dummy. It uses a driving system with a 3DOF unit. The WD-2 robot can change its facial features by activating specific facial points on a mask, with each point possessing three degrees of freedom. This one has 17 facial points, for a total of 56 degrees of freedom. As for the materials they used, the WD-2's mask is fabricated with a highly elastic material called Septom, with bits of steel wool mixed in for added strength. Other technical features reveal a shaft driven behind the mask at the desired facial point, driven by a DC motor with a simple pulley and a slide screw. Apparently, the researchers can also modify the shape of the mask based on actual human faces. To "copy" a face, they need only a 3D scanner to determine the locations of an individual's 17 facial points. After that, they are then driven into position using a laptop and 56 motor control boards. In addition, the researchers also mention that the shifting robot can even display an individual's hair style and skin color if a photo of their face is projected onto the 3D Mask.
Prof Nadia Thalmann, a Nanyang Technological University scientist, directed efforts of the Institute for Media Innovation along with the School of Computer Engineering in the development of a social robot, Nadine. Nadine is powered by software similar to Apple's Siri or Microsoft's Cortana. Nadine may become a personal assistant in offices and homes in future, or she may become a companion for the young and the elderly.
Assoc Prof Gerald Seet from the School of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering and the BeingThere Centre led a three-year R&D development in tele-presence robotics, creating EDGAR. A remote user can control EDGAR with the user's face and expressions displayed on the robot's face in real time. The robot also mimics their upper body movements. 
KITECH researched and developed EveR-1, an android interpersonal communications model capable of emulating human emotional expression via facial "musculature" and capable of rudimentary conversation, having a vocabulary of around 400 words. She is 160 cm tall and weighs 50 kg, matching the average figure of a Korean woman in her twenties. EveR-1's name derives from the Biblical Eve, plus the letter r for robot. EveR-1's advanced computing processing power enables speech recognition and vocal synthesis, at the same time processing lip synchronization and visual recognition by 90-degree micro-CCD cameras with face recognition technology. An independent microchip inside her artificial brain handles gesture expression, body coordination, and emotion expression. Her whole body is made of highly advanced synthetic jelly silicon and with 60 artificial joints in her face, neck, and lower body; she is able to demonstrate realistic facial expressions and sing while simultaneously dancing. In South Korea, the Ministry of Information and Communication has an ambitious plan to put a robot in every household by 2020. Several robot cities have been planned for the country: the first will be built in 2016 at a cost of 500 billion won (US$440 million), of which 50 billion is direct government investment. The new robot city will feature research and development centers for manufacturers and part suppliers, as well as exhibition halls and a stadium for robot competitions. The country's new Robotics Ethics Charter will establish ground rules and laws for human interaction with robots in the future, setting standards for robotics users and manufacturers, as well as guidelines on ethical standards to be programmed into robots to prevent human abuse of robots and vice versa.
Hanson Robotics, Inc., of Texas and KAIST produced an android portrait of Albert Einstein, using Hanson's facial android technology mounted on KAIST's life-size walking bipedal robot body. This Einstein android, also called "Albert Hubo", thus represents the first full-body walking android in history (see video at). Hanson Robotics, the FedEx Institute of Technology, and the University of Texas at Arlington also developed the android portrait of sci-fi author Philip K. Dick (creator of Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?, the basis for the film Blade Runner), with full conversational capabilities that incorporated thousands of pages of the author's works. In 2005, the PKD android won a first place artificial intelligence award from AAAI.
Androids are a staple of science fiction. Isaac Asimov pioneered the fictionalization of the science of robotics and artificial intelligence, notably in his 1950s series I, Robot. One thing common to most fictional androids is that the real-life technological challenges associated with creating thoroughly human-like robots—such as the creation of strong artificial intelligence—are assumed to have been solved. Fictional androids are often depicted as mentally and physically equal or superior to humans—moving, thinking and speaking as fluidly as them.
The tension between the nonhuman substance and the human appearance—or even human ambitions—of androids is the dramatic impetus behind most of their fictional depictions. Some android heroes seek, like Pinocchio, to become human, as in the film Bicentennial Man, or Data in Star Trek: The Next Generation. Others, as in the film Westworld, rebel against abuse by careless humans. Android hunter Deckard in Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? and its film adaptation Blade Runner discovers that his targets appear to be, in some ways, more "human" than he is. Android stories, therefore, are not essentially stories "about" androids; they are stories about the human condition and what it means to be human.
One aspect of writing about the meaning of humanity is to use discrimination against androids as a mechanism for exploring racism in society, as in Blade Runner. Perhaps the clearest example of this is John Brunner's 1968 novel Into the Slave Nebula, where the blue-skinned android slaves are explicitly shown to be fully human. More recently, the androids Bishop and Annalee Call in the films Aliens and Alien Resurrection are used as vehicles for exploring how humans deal with the presence of an "Other".
Female androids, or "gynoids", are often seen in science fiction, and can be viewed as a continuation of the long tradition of men attempting to create the stereotypical "perfect woman". Examples include the Greek myth of Pygmalion and the female robot Maria in Fritz Lang's Metropolis. Some gynoids, like Pris in Blade Runner, are designed as sex-objects, with the intent of "pleasing men's violent sexual desires", or as submissive, servile companions, such as in The Stepford Wives. Fiction about gynoids has therefore been described as reinforcing "essentialist ideas of femininity", although others have suggested that the treatment of androids is a way of exploring racism and misogyny in society.
Alienator is a 1989 science fiction/action/thriller, directed by filmmaker Fred Olen Ray—the producer, director, and screenwriter of over one hundred low to medium-budget feature films in many genres—and starring Jan-Michael Vincent, star of the CBS television series Airwolf. Alienator is among several films produced by Jeffrey C. Hogue.
The movie was described by Leonard Maltin and confirmed by Fred Olen Ray to be a "semi-remake" of the 1957 film The Astounding She-Monster. Robert Clarke, who starred in that movie, also appears in Alienator.Android Cop
Android Cop is a 2014 American science fiction action film produced by The Asylum and directed by Mark Atkins. The film stars Michael Jai White, Charles S. Dutton, Randy Wayne and Kadeem Hardison. It is a mockbuster of RoboCop.Android lawn statues
The Android lawn statues are a series of large foam statues near the Googleplex (Google's headquarters) in Mountain View, California, currently located at 1981 Landings Drive. They are based on the code names for versions of Google's Android mobile operating system, which are named after desserts and sweet treats. These statues were originally located in front of Building 44, where the Android development team had its offices, before being moved to their present location a few blocks away next to the Google Visitor Center Beta. The area is open to Google employees and their guests, and visitors are encouraged to take photos. The sculptures are mostly made by a company named Themendous.Cyborg 2
Cyborg 2, released in some countries as Glass Shadow, is a 1993 American science fiction action film directed by Michael Schroeder and starring Elias Koteas, Angelina Jolie, Billy Drago, Karen Sheperd and Jack Palance. It is an unrelated sequel to the 1989 film Cyborg, although footage from the original is used in a dream sequence. It was also Jolie's film debut as an adult, and in a starring role. She had previously made an earlier film, Lookin' to Get Out, as a child actress). It was followed by the 1995 direct-to-video release Cyborg 3: The Recycler.Droid
Droid or DROID may refer to:
A robot, or specifically android (robot)Eve of Destruction (film)
Eve of Destruction is a 1991 American science fiction/action film. The film is about a nuclear armed prototype Android_(robot) named EVE gone amok while being field tested by the military in a big city. The film stars Gregory Hines as Col. Jim McQuade and Dutch actress Renée Soutendijk (in her first U.S. film) with the dual roles as the robot's creator Dr. Eve Simmons, and the robot Eve herself.Grey (manga)
Grey (グレイ, Gurei) is a Japanese science fiction manga created by Yoshihisa Tagami that was published in the 1980s. It has also been adapted into an original video animation under the title Grey: Digital Target.Gynoid
A gynoid, or fembot, is a feminine humanoid robot. Gynoids appear widely in science fiction film and art. As more realistic humanoid robot design becomes technologically possible, they are also emerging in real-life robot design.Hollywood (2002 film)
Hollywood is a 2002 Indian Kannada science fiction film written by Upendra and directed by Dinesh Babu. Hollywood is the first Indian robot film before Shankar's film Enthiran. Upendra is the first man in India to play the role of human like android. It starred Upendra in a triple role as Surendra, Upendra and US 47 (a robot) along with the Australian actress Felicity Mason as Manisha. The movie was shot entirely in Hollywood, California with a very few support cast, including Ananth Nag and a monkey called Lakshmi, voiced by Ramesh Bhat. The movie was also dubbed into Telugu, retaining the same title.Upendra became the first Indian actor to portray the role of an android robot in a lead role. Upendra had revealed that while he was working on this film, he had heard that S. Shankar was also planning a film themed on robots. According to Upendra it was only when Shankar told him that his film would be delayed that Upendra continued with this project - about a scientist who creates an android resembling himself to help him win over a girl. But,the android falls in love with the girl and tries to eliminate his creator. However,eight years later, Shankar directed Enthiran which had a similar theme - about a lookalike robot rebelling against his creator after falling in love with the creator's girlfriend.How to Build a Better Boy
How to Build a Better Boy is a Disney Channel Original Movie directed by Paul Hoen and written by Jason Mayland. It stars China Anne McClain, Kelli Berglund and Marshall Williams. The first images were shown during a promo for Disney Channel's Summer 2014, while the first promo aired on June 27, 2014 during the premiere of the Disney Channel Original Movie Zapped. The film premiered on August 15, 2014. The movie premiered on Disney Channel UK on September 19, 2014.Jason X
Jason X is a 2002 American science fantasy slasher film produced and directed by James Isaac. It is the tenth installment in the Friday the 13th film series and stars Kane Hodder in his fourth and final film appearance as the undead mass murderer Jason Voorhees. It also introduces his futuristic counterpart, Uber Jason.
The film was conceived by Todd Farmer, and was the only pitch that he gave to the studio, having suggested sending Jason into space as a means to advance the film series, while a crossover film Freddy vs. Jason was still in development hell.Making Mr. Right
Making Mr. Right is a 1987 American science fiction romantic comedy film directed by Susan Seidelman; starring John Malkovich as Jeff Peters/Ulysses and Ann Magnuson as Frankie Stone.This film is primarily about the misadventures between an android and a woman.Natural City
Natural City (Hangul: 내츄럴 시티) is a 2003 South Korean science fiction film about a colony world that integrates robots, androids and cyborgs amongst the population.Not Quite Human (film)
Not Quite Human is a 1987 television film directed by Steven Hilliard Stern and starring Jay Underwood, Alan Thicke, and Robyn Lively. The story is based on the Not Quite Human book series by Seth McEvoy. It is the first of three films in a series; its sequels are Not Quite Human II (1989) and Still Not Quite Human (1992). The filming locations were in Scottsdale and Phoenix, Arizona.Terminator (franchise)
The Terminator series is an American science-fiction action franchise created by James Cameron and Gale Anne Hurd. The franchise encompasses a series of films, comics, novels, and additional media concerning battles between Skynet's synthetic intelligent machine network, and John Connor's Resistance forces and the rest of the human race. Skynet's most well-known products in its genocidal goals are the various terminator models, such as the T-800 (Model 101), who was portrayed by Arnold Schwarzenegger from the original Terminator film in 1984, and similar units he also portrayed in the later films. By 2010, the franchise has generated $3 billion in revenue.Terminator 6
Terminator 6 is a currently untitled upcoming 2019 American science fiction action film directed by Tim Miller with a screenplay written by David S. Goyer. The film's story was conceived by Miller, and series co-creator James Cameron, with Cameron also serving as a producer alongside David Ellison, Dana Goldberg and Don Granger. It will be the sixth installment in the Terminator franchise and serves as a direct sequel to The Terminator and Terminator 2: Judgment Day, disregarding all other Terminator works as occurring in alternate timelines. The film will star Arnold Schwarzenegger, Linda Hamilton, Mackenzie Davis, Gabriel Luna, Natalia Reyes, and Diego Boneta. The film will be distributed by Paramount Pictures domestically and by 20th Century Fox in other territories, and is scheduled to be released on November 1, 2019.Torture Garden (film)
Torture Garden is a 1967 British horror film directed by Freddie Francis, scripted by Robert Bloch, and starring Burgess Meredith, Jack Palance, Michael Ripper, Beverly Adams, Peter Cushing, Maurice Denham, Ursula Howells, Michael Bryant and Barbara Ewing. The score was a collaboration between Hammer horror regulars James Bernard and Don Banks.
Made by Amicus Productions, it is one of producer Milton Subotsky's trademark "portmanteau" films, an omnibus of short stories linked by a single narrative.Unidentified Flying Oddball
Unidentified Flying Oddball (UK title: The Spaceman and King Arthur) is a 1979 film adaptation of Mark Twain's A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court, directed by Russ Mayberry and produced by Walt Disney Productions. Subsequently re-released in the United States under the title A Spaceman in King Arthur’s Court, the film stars Dennis Dugan as NASA employee Tom Trimble who unintentionally travels back in time with his look-alike android Hermes.