Andrew Goodman

Andrew Goodman (November 23, 1943 – June 21, 1964) was one of three American activists of the Civil Rights Movement and also a social worker, murdered near Philadelphia, Mississippi, during Freedom Summer in 1964 by members of the Ku Klux Klan.

Andrew Goodman
AndrewGoodman
Born
Andrew Goodman

November 23, 1943
DiedJune 21, 1964 (aged 20)
Cause of deathMurder
EducationWalden School
Queens College, New York City
OccupationCivil rights activist
Parent(s)
AwardsPresidential Medal of Freedom (posthumous)

Early life and education

Andrew Goodman was born and raised in the Upper West Side of New York City, at 161 West 86 Street.[1] He was the second of three boys born of Robert and Carolyn Goodman, and, like fellow murdered activist Michael Schwerner, was Jewish.[2] His family and community were steeped in intellectual and socially progressive activism and were devoted to social justice. An activist at an early age, Goodman graduated from the progressive Walden School, which was said to have had a strongly formative influence on his outlook. He attended the Honors Program at the University of Wisconsin–Madison for a semester but withdrew after falling ill with pneumonia.[3]

Goodman then enrolled at Queens College, New York City, where he was a friend and classmate of Paul Simon. With Goodman's brief experience as an Off-Broadway actor, he originally planned to study drama but switched to anthropology. Goodman's growing interest in anthropology seemed to parallel his increasing political seriousness.[4]

Civil rights activism

In 1964, Goodman volunteered along with fellow activists Mickey Schwerner, his wife Rita Schwerner Bender, and James Chaney to work on the "Freedom Summer" project of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) to register black people to vote in Mississippi. Having protested U.S. President Lyndon Johnson's presence at the opening of that year's World's Fair, Goodman left New York to train and develop civil rights strategies at Western College for Women (now part of Miami University) in Oxford, Ohio. In mid-June, Goodman joined Schwerner in Meridian, Mississippi, where the latter was designated head of the field office. They worked in rural areas on registering blacks to vote.[5]

The Mississippi State Sovereignty Commission was strongly opposed to integration and civil rights. It paid spies to identify citizens suspected of activism, especially northerners who entered the state. The records opened by court order in 1998 also revealed the state's deep complicity in the murders of Chaney, Goodman, and Schwerner, because its investigator A. L. Hopkins passed on to the Commission information about the workers, including the car license number of a new civil rights worker. Records showed the Commission, in turn, passed the information on to the Neshoba County Sheriff, who was implicated in the murders.[6]

Schwerner had been working closely with an assistant James Chaney, also a civil rights activist in Meridian. On the morning of June 21, 1964, the three men set out for Philadelphia, Neshoba County, where they were to investigate the recent burning of Mount Zion Methodist Church, a black church that had agreed to be a site for a religious school for education and voter registration.[7]

Arrest, release and murder

FBI Poster of Missing Civil Rights Workers
Missing persons poster created by the FBI in 1964, shows the photographs of Andrew Goodman, James Chaney, and Michael Schwerner.

On their return to Meridian, the three men were stopped and arrested by Deputy Sheriff Cecil Price (a Klan member) for allegedly driving 35 miles over the 30-mile-per-hour speed limit. The trio were taken to the jail in Neshoba County where Chaney was booked for speeding, while Schwerner and Goodman were booked "for investigation". After Chaney was fined $20, the three men were released and told to leave the county. Price followed them in his patrol car. At 10:25, Price sped to catch up with the station wagon before it crossed the border into the relative safety of Lauderdale County. Price ordered the three out of their car and into his. He then drove them to a deserted area on Rock Cut Road while being followed by two cars filled with other Klansmen.[8] He then turned them over to the Klansmen who beat Chaney and then shot and killed Schwerner, Goodman, and Chaney.

Investigation and trial

The murders changed the course of the Civil Rights Movement:

Rev. Willie Blue, a surviving participant in the Freedom Summer movement said: “Goodman's richer than whipped cream. He wasn't supposed to die in Vietnam; he sure wasn’t supposed to die in Mississippi. When America’s brightest are murdered for doing something fundamentally American, suddenly the world knows about Mississippi. It was another nail in the segregated coffin."[9] The FBI entered the case after the men disappeared. They helped find them buried in an earthen dam. The US government prosecuted the case under the Enforcement Act of 1870. The Neshoba County deputy sheriff and six conspirators were convicted by Federal prosecutors of civil rights violations but were not convicted of murder. Two defendants were acquitted because the jury deadlocked.

Reinvestigation

GoodmanSchwernerChaneyMemorial
A memorial to victims Andrew Goodman, James Earl Chaney, and Michael H. Schwerner at Mt. Nebo Missionary Baptist Church, Philadelphia, Mississippi. See murders of Chaney, Goodman, and Schwerner.

Journalist Jerry Mitchell, an award-winning investigative reporter for the Jackson Clarion-Ledger, had written extensively about the case for many years. Mitchell, who had already earned fame for helping secure convictions in several other high-profile civil rights era murder cases, including the assassination of Medgar Evers, the Birmingham, Alabama 16th Street Baptist Church bombing, and the murder of Vernon Dahmer in Mississippi, developed new evidence, found new witnesses and pressured the state to take action. Barry Bradford, an Illinois high-school teacher later famous for helping clear the name of civil rights martyr Clyde Kennard, and three students, Allison Nichols, Sarah Siegel, and Brittany Saltiel, joined Mitchell's efforts.

Bradford and his students' documentary, produced for the National History Day contest, presented important new evidence and compelling reasons for reopening the Goodman, Chaney, and Schwerner case. They also obtained an interview with Edgar Ray Killen, which helped persuade the state to open the case for investigation. Mitchell was able to determine the identity of "Mr. X", the mystery informer who had helped the FBI discover the bodies and smash the conspiracy of the Klan in 1964, in part using evidence developed by Bradford and the students.

On September 14, 2004, Mississippi State Attorney General Jim Hood announced that he was gathering evidence for a charge of murder and intended to take the case to a grand jury. On January 7, 2005, Edgar Ray Killen was arrested. He was found guilty of three counts of manslaughter — not murder — on June 21, 2005, exactly 41 years to the day after the murders. He was sentenced to sixty years in prison—twenty years for each count, to be served consecutively.

On June 20, 2016, just one day ahead of the 52nd anniversary of the murders, Attorney General Hood announced an end to the federal and state investigations into the 'Mississippi Murders', officially closing the case.[10]

Legacy and honors

In 1966, Andrew's parents, Robert and Carolyn Goodman started The Andrew Goodman Foundation to carry on the spirit and purpose of their son's life. After the death of Robert Goodman in 1969, Carolyn continued the work of the Foundation, focusing on projects like a reverse march to Mississippi and a 25th Anniversary Memorial. The memorial, which took place at St. John The Divine Church in NYC, was attended by 10,000 people and was presided by Governor Mario Cuomo, Maya Angelou, Peter Seeger, Aaron Henry, Harry Belafonte, Robert Kennedy Jr., and others closely associated with the Civil Rights Movement. After Carolyn's death in August 2007, David Goodman, Andrew's younger brother, and Sylvia Golbin Goodman, David's wife, took up the work of the Foundation.

For nearly 50 years, the organization was a private foundation acting in the public interest. With their eyes set on the future, the Board of Trustees of The Andrew Goodman Foundation elected to turn the organization into a public charity in 2012. In 2014, on the fiftieth anniversary of the murders, the Foundation officially launched Vote Everywhere, a program designed to support college students who are continuing the work of Freedom Summer.

Goodman

  • In 2002, a 2,176-foot peak in the Adirondack Mountains town of Tupper Lake, New York, was officially named Goodman Mountain in Goodman's memory. Goodman's family had spent summers there for 30 years.[11]
  • The Walden School, in Manhattan, named its middle and upper school building in Goodman's memory. The Trevor Day School now occupies the building and has maintained the building's name as the "Andrew Goodman Building".[12]
  • Goodman, along with Chaney and Schwerner, received a posthumous Presidential Medal of Freedom from President Barack Obama in 2014.[13]
  • The Chaney-Goodman-Schwerner Clock Tower of Rosenthal Library, is named in honor of James, Andrew, and Mickey on the CUNY Queens College Campus in New York City.

References

  1. ^ "Andrew Goodman". Biography. Retrieved 2018-05-25.
  2. ^ Haaretz (12 November 2014). "Murdered Jewish Civil Rights Workers to Receive Presidential Medal" – via Haaretz.
  3. ^ "Historical Archives". Andrew Goodman Foundation. Retrieved April 2, 2019.
  4. ^ "Historical Archives". Andrew Goodman Foundation.
  5. ^ Kaleem, Jaweed. "They dared to register blacks to vote, and the KKK killed them: A 52-year-old case is closed — unsolved". latimes.com. Retrieved 2019-04-02.
  6. ^ AP (18 March 1998). "Mississippi Commission's Files a Treasure Trove of Innuendo". MDCBowen.org. Retrieved 9 May 2008.
  7. ^ "PBS".
  8. ^ Linder, Douglas (August 2000). "The "Mississippi Burning" Trial (U. S. vs. Price et al.)". JURIST. JURIST: The Legal Education Network. Archived from the original on 2010-06-17. Retrieved 2013-10-25.
  9. ^ Hannah-Jones, Nikole (July 12, 2014). "Dispatches From Freedom Summer: The Ghosts of Greenwood". TheRoot.com. Retrieved November 26, 2018.
  10. ^ Mitchell, Jerry. "AG Jim Hood: 'Mississippi Burning' case closed". www.ClarionLedger.com. The Clarion-Ledger. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
  11. ^ "A Sacrifice in Mississippi Remembered on a New York Mountain". The New York Times. October 6, 2002.
  12. ^ "Trevor Day School NYC | Manhattan Private School Tour". www.trevor.org. Retrieved 2017-04-18.
  13. ^ "President Obama Names Recipients of the Presidential Medal of Freedom". whitehouse.gov.

Further reading

  • My Mantelpiece: A Memoir of Survival and Social Justice by Carolyn Goodman with Brad Herzog, Why Not Books, ISBN 978-0-9849919-4-5. Memoir by Andrew Goodman's mother.

External links

2011 ITM Cup

The 2011 ITM Cup season was the sixth season since the competition reconstruction in 2006 and the first under the new Premiership and Championship format. For the ITM Cup competition it involved the top 14 provincial unions of New Zealand. The tournament was won by Canterbury, who defeated Waikato 12–3 in the competition final. For sponsorship reasons, the competition was known as the ITM Cup and it was currently the second season under the new sponsor. Including the defunct National Provincial Championship, this is the 35th season of New Zealand's premier domestic competition. The regular season matches took place from 14 July until 30 August – followed by the final on 3 September. It finished without semi-finals to allow more time for the 2011 Rugby World Cup to be held in September and October; in future non-World Cup years, the competition will extend into semi-finals.

The 2011 season saw the arrival of the new Premiership and Championship division format. The 14 teams were grouped based on their on-field finishing positions in 2010 plus a promotion/relegation between the winner of the Championship receiving automatic promotion to the Premiership replacing the seventh placed team in the Premiership which will be relegated to the Championship.

2012 ITM Cup

The 2012 ITM Cup season was the seventh season since the competition reconstruction in 2006 and the second under the new Premiership and Championship format. For the ITM Cup competition it involved the top 14 provincial unions of New Zealand. The tournament was won by Canterbury, who defeated Auckland 31–18 in the competition final. For sponsorship reasons, the competition was known as the ITM Cup and it was currently the third season under the new sponsor. Including the defunct National Provincial Championship, this is the 36th season of New Zealand's premier domestic competition. The regular season matches took place from 23 August until 14 October – followed by the semi-finals that culminated in the final on 27 October.

The 2012 season saw Hawke's Bay enter the Premiership division for the first time, having replaced the under-performing Southland. Hawke's Bay achieved three victories in their inaugural division, but finished last following the regular season.

Andrew Goodman (rugby union)

Andrew David Goodman (born 28 October 1982) is a New Zealand rugby union player, who played for and captained the Tasman Makos in the National Provincial Championship. In July 2012, Goodman signed a one-year deal with Leinster.Goodman was educated at Nelson College from 1996 to 2000. In 1999 and 2000, he was a member of both the school's 1st XV rugby team and 1st XI cricket team. He then studied physical education and teaching at the University of Otago for five years, before returning to Nelson College as a physical education teacher. In late 2014 he again returned to Nelson after two seasons at Leinster, and accepted a position as head of the rugby academy at Nelson College for 2015.

Bergdorf Goodman

Bergdorf Goodman Inc. is a luxury department store based on Fifth Avenue in Midtown Manhattan in New York City. The company was founded in 1899 by Herman Bergdorf and was later owned and managed by Edwin Goodman, and later his son Andrew Goodman.

Today, Bergdorf Goodman operates from two stores situated across the street from each other at Fifth Avenue between 57th and 58th streets. The main store, which opened at its current location in 1928, is located on the west side of Fifth Avenue. A separate men's store, established in 1990, is located on the east side of Fifth Avenue, directly across the street.

Bergdorf Goodman is a subsidiary of Neiman Marcus, which is owned by the private equity firm Ares Management.

Carolyn Goodman (psychologist)

Carolyn Elizabeth Goodman (née Drucker; October 6, 1915 – August 17, 2007) was a clinical psychologist who became a prominent civil rights advocate after her son, Andrew Goodman and two other civil rights workers, James Chaney and Michael Schwerner, were murdered by the Ku Klux Klan in Neshoba County, Mississippi, in 1964.

Politically active until age 90, Goodman came to wide public attention again in 2005. Traveling to Philadelphia, Mississippi, she testified at the murder trial of Edgar Ray Killen, a former Klan leader recently indicted in the case. On June 21, 2005, the 41st anniversary of the killings, a jury acquitted Killen of murder but found him guilty of manslaughter in the deaths of Goodman, Chaney, and Schwerner.

Civil Rights Memorial

The Civil Rights Memorial is a memorial in Montgomery, Alabama, to 41 people who were killed in the struggle for the equal and integrated treatment of all people, regardless of race, during the 1954-1968 civil rights movement in the United States. The memorial is sponsored by the Southern Poverty Law Center.

Edgar Ray Killen

Edgar Ray Killen (January 17, 1925 – January 11, 2018) was a Ku Klux Klan organizer who planned and directed the murders of James Chaney, Andrew Goodman, and Michael Schwerner, three civil rights activists participating in the Freedom Summer of 1964. He was found guilty in state court of three counts of manslaughter on June 21, 2005, the forty-first anniversary of the crime, and sentenced to 60 years in prison. He appealed the verdict, but the sentence was upheld on April 12, 2007, by the Supreme Court of Mississippi. He died in prison on January 11, 2018, six days before his 93rd birthday.

Here's to the State of Mississippi

"Here's to the State of Mississippi" is a civil rights protest song by Phil Ochs, an American topical singer and songwriter in the 1960s. Ochs is best known for his anti-war and freedom songs. "Here's to the State of Mississippi" was released in 1965 as the last track on his album I Ain't Marching Anymore. The song criticizes the state of Mississippi for its mistreatment of African Americans. He points out various problems with the social constructs that allowed for oppression of the race. Jim Crow laws and white supremacy in the South fueled an imbalance in the civil structure of the state. "Here's to the State of Mississippi" touches on various issues like segregation, corrupt and biased school systems, and the negligence and crookedness of society and of government officials.

Ochs was inspired to write this song following a visit to the state as a volunteer for the Mississippi Caravan of Music. The Caravan worked in conjunction with Freedom Summer, a volunteer-based campaign that began in June 1964. The campaign aimed to register black voters in a place where the voting rights for blacks were nearly non-existent. The Caravan supported the mission of Freedom Summer through motivational songs and participation in campaign projects throughout the state.Ochs was deeply affected by what he saw and experienced in Mississippi. One incident in particular that shook the Freedom Summer campaign were the murders of Chaney, Goodman, and Schwerner. Within the first month of the Freedom Summer campaign, civil rights activists, James Chaney, Andrew Goodman and Michael Schwerner were arrested in Philadelphia, Mississippi. The three were released after a few hours. However, as they drove through Neshoba County, Mississippi later that day, they were pulled over again and abducted by officers working with the Ku Klux Klan. The three were reported missing and an FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation) investigation began with a large-scale search of the area. The investigation revealed that the activists were beaten and shot to death. Their bodies were found buried beneath a dam.

Ochs sings, "If you drag her muddy rivers, nameless bodies you will find," which refers to the FBI's search for Chaney, Goodman, and Schwerner. While searching for the three civil rights activists, Navy divers and FBI agents found the mangled bodies of Charles Eddie Moore and Henry Hezekiah Dee, both 19-year-old men who had been kidnapped, beaten and tortured, and then dropped alive into the Mississippi River by Klan members a month earlier. They also found the bodies of 14-year-old Herbert Oarsby and five other African Americans who remain unidentified; none of their kidnappings had attracted attention outside their local communities.

James Chaney

James Earl Chaney (May 30, 1943 – June 21, 1964), from Meridian, Mississippi, was one of three American civil rights workers who was murdered during Freedom Summer by members of the Ku Klux Klan near Philadelphia, Mississippi. The others were Andrew Goodman and Michael Schwerner from New York City.

Michael Schwerner

Michael Henry "Mickey" Schwerner (November 6, 1939 – June 21, 1964), was one of three Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) field/social workers killed in Philadelphia, Mississippi, by members of the Ku Klux Klan. Schwerner and two others were killed in response to their civil rights work, which included promoting voting registration among African Americans, most of whom had been disenfranchised in the state since 1890.

Mississippi Burning

Mississippi Burning is a 1988 American crime thriller film directed by Alan Parker. The script by Chris Gerolmo is loosely based on the 1964 Chaney, Goodman, and Schwerner murder investigation in Mississippi. The film stars Gene Hackman and Willem Dafoe as two FBI agents assigned to investigate the disappearance of three civil rights workers in fictional Jessup County, Mississippi. The investigation is met with hostility by the town's residents, local police, and the Ku Klux Klan.

Gerolmo began working on the original script in 1985, after researching the 1964 murders of James Chaney, Andrew Goodman, and Michael Schwerner. He and producer Frederick Zollo took the script to Orion Pictures, and Parker was subsequently hired by the studio to direct the film. Both the writer and director had disputes over the script, which resulted in Orion allowing Parker to make uncredited rewrites. Principal photography commenced in March 1988 and concluded in May of that year with a budget of $15 million. The film was shot in a number of locations in Mississippi and Alabama.

Upon release, Mississippi Burning was embroiled in controversy; it was criticized by African-American activists involved in the civil rights movement and the families of Chaney, Goodman, and Schwerner for its fictionalization of history. Critical reaction was mixed at the time, though the performances of Hackman, Dafoe, and Frances McDormand were generally praised. Mississippi Burning grossed $34.6 million in North American box-office revenue. The film received seven Academy Awards nominations, including Best Picture, and won for Best Cinematography.

Murder in Mississippi

Murder in Mississippi is a 1990 television film which dramatized the last weeks of civil rights activists Michael "Mickey" Schwerner, Andrew Goodman and James Chaney, and the events leading up to their disappearance and subsequent murder during Freedom Summer in 1964. It starred Tom Hulce as Schwerner, Jennifer Grey as his wife Rita, Blair Underwood as Chaney, and Josh Charles as Goodman. Hulce received a nomination for Best Actor in a TV Miniseries at the 1990 Golden Globes.

As a historical docudrama, Murder in Mississippi precedes the storylines of both 1975's Attack on Terror: The FBI vs. the Ku Klux Klan and 1988's Mississippi Burning.

Murder in Mississippi is the title of a 1964 Norman Rockwell painting depicting the same events. The painting is also known as Southern Justice.

Murders of Chaney, Goodman, and Schwerner

The murders of Chaney, Goodman, and Schwerner, also known as the Freedom Summer murders, the Mississippi civil rights workers' murders or the Mississippi Burning murders, involved three activists who were abducted and murdered in Neshoba County, Mississippi in June 1964 during the Civil Rights Movement. The victims were James Chaney from Meridian, Mississippi, and Andrew Goodman and Michael Schwerner from New York City. All three were associated with the Council of Federated Organizations (COFO) and its member organization the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). They had been working with the Freedom Summer campaign by attempting to register African Americans in Mississippi to vote. This registration effort was a part of contesting over 70 years of laws and practices that supported a systematic policy, begun by several states in 1890, of disenfranchisement of potential black voters.

The three men had traveled from Meridian, Mississippi, to the community of Longdale to talk with congregation members at a church that had been burned. The trio was thereafter arrested following a traffic stop outside Philadelphia, Mississippi for speeding, escorted to the local jail and held for a number of hours. As the three left town in their car, they were followed by law enforcement and others. Before leaving Neshoba County their car was pulled over and all three were abducted, driven to another location, and shot at close range. The three men's bodies were then transported to an earthen dam where they were buried.The disappearance of the three men was initially investigated as a missing persons case. The civil rights workers' burnt-out car was found near a swamp three days after their disappearance. An extensive search of the area was conducted by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), local and state authorities, and four hundred United States Navy sailors. The three men's bodies were only discovered two months later thanks to a tip-off. During the investigation it emerged that members of the local White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, the Neshoba County Sheriff's Office and the Philadelphia, Mississippi Police Department were involved in the incident.The murder of the activists sparked national outrage and an extensive federal investigation, filed as Mississippi Burning (MIBURN), which later became the title of a 1988 film loosely based on the events. After the state government refused to prosecute, in 1967 the United States federal government charged 18 individuals with civil rights violations. Seven were convicted and received relatively minor sentences for their actions. Outrage over the activists' disappearances helped gain passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.Forty-one years after the murders took place, one perpetrator, Edgar Ray Killen, was charged by the state of Mississippi for his part in the crimes. In 2005 he was convicted of three counts of manslaughter and was serving a 60 year sentence. On June 20, 2016, federal and state authorities officially closed the case and dispensed with the possibility of further prosecution. Killen died in prison in January 2018.

SpongeBob SquarePants (season 11)

The eleventh season of the American animated television series SpongeBob SquarePants, created by former marine biologist and animator Stephen Hillenburg, began airing on Nickelodeon in the United States on June 24, 2017, beginning with the episode "Spot Returns"/"The Check-Up". The series chronicles the exploits and adventures of the title character and his various friends in the fictional underwater city of Bikini Bottom. The season was executive produced by series creator Hillenburg. The showrunners for this season were Marc Ceccarelli and Vincent Waller, who are also the supervising producers.

The season was first announced on March 3, 2016, along with the tenth season, and premiered on June 24, 2017. A total of 26 episodes (50 segments) were produced for the season, bringing the number of episodes up to 241.

The season concluded with the airing of "Goons on the Moon" on November 25, 2018.

SpongeBob SquarePants (season 12)

The twelfth season of the American animated television series SpongeBob SquarePants, created by former marine biologist and animator Stephen Hillenburg, began airing on Nickelodeon in the United States on November 11, 2018. The series chronicles the exploits and adventures of the title character and his various friends in the fictional underwater city of Bikini Bottom. The season was executive produced by series creator Hillenburg. The showrunners for this season are Marc Ceccarelli and Vincent Waller, who are also the co-executive producers. This was the last season Hillenburg was involved in before his death on November 26, 2018.

The season was first announced on May 5, 2017. A total of 26 episodes will be produced for the season, bringing the number of episodes up to 267.

Squid Noir

"Squid Noir" is the first half of the ninth episode of Season 11 and the 224th overall episode of the American animated television series SpongeBob SquarePants. The episode originally aired on Nickelodeon in the United States on November 10, 2017. This episode aired as part of a premiere week of new SpongeBob episodes called "You Bring the Color". In addition to each episode of the premiere week beginning with different variations of the show's theme song with each frame colored online by viewers, the original airing of Squid Noir featured each frame of the last minute of the episode also colored by viewers. The episode revolves around Squidward's clarinet suddenly disappearing prior to his open mic performance.

The episode was written by Andrew Goodman, storyboarded by John Trabbic, and directed by Dave Cunningham, with Alan Smart and Tom Yasumi serving as animation directors. The episode is unique to the series as the majority of the episode is in black and white, parodying the film noir genre. It has received highly positive reviews from critics.

United States v. Price

United States v. Cecil Price, et al., also known as the Mississippi Burning trial or Mississippi Burning case, was a criminal trial where the United States charged a group of 18 men with conspiring in a Ku Klux Klan plot to murder three young civil rights workers (Michael Schwerner, James Chaney, and Andrew Goodman) in Philadelphia, Mississippi on June 21, 1964 during Freedom Summer. The trial, conducted in Meridian, Mississippi with U.S. District Court Judge W. Harold Cox presiding, resulted in convictions of 7 of the 18 defendants.

Walden School (New York City)

Walden School was a private day school in Manhattan, New York City, that operated from 1914 until 1988, when it merged with the New Lincoln School; the merged school closed in 1991. Walden was known as an innovator in progressive education. Faculty were addressed by first names and students were given great leeway in determining their course of study. Located on Central Park West at 88th Street, the school was very popular with intellectual families from New York's Upper West Side and with families based in Greenwich Village. The Walden School was founded in 1914 by Margaret Naumburg, an educator who later became an art therapist. Claire Raphael Reis, a musician, was also involved.Naumburg, who had been exposed to the theories of John Dewey at Columbia University, embraced "individual transformation" as an education principle, encouraging creative expression and self-motivated learning. Throughout its history, the Walden School emphasized the visual and performing arts. Competition between students was minimized. No exams were required for admission.Walden's original building at Central Park West at 88th Street has been demolished. However, Walden's adjacent building at 1 West 88th, now known as the Goodman Building after Walden alumnus and civil rights martyr Andrew Goodman, is now occupied by the Trevor Day School.

Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M.

Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M. is the debut studio album by American folk rock duo Simon & Garfunkel. Following their early gig as "Tom and Jerry", Columbia Records signed the two in late 1963. It was produced by Tom Wilson and engineered by Roy Halee. The cover and the label include the subtitle exciting new sounds in the folk tradition. Recorded in March 1964, the album was released on October 19.

The album was initially unsuccessful, so Paul Simon moved to London, England, and Art Garfunkel continued his studies at Columbia University in their native New York City, before reuniting in late 1965. Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M. was re-released in January 1966 (to capitalize on their newly found radio success because of the overdubbing of the song "The Sound of Silence" in June 1965, adding electric guitars, bass guitar and a drum kit), and reached #30 on the Billboard 200. It was belatedly released in the UK two years later (in 1968) in both mono and stereo formats.

The song "He Was My Brother" was dedicated to Andrew Goodman, who was their friend and a classmate of Simon at Queens College. Andrew Goodman volunteered in Freedom Summer during 1964 and was abducted and killed in the murders of Chaney, Goodman, and Schwerner.

The album is included in its entirety as part of the Simon & Garfunkel box sets Collected Works and The Columbia Studio Recordings (1964–1970).

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