Andrei Rublev

Andrei Rublev (Russian: Андре́й Рублёв, IPA: [ɐnˈdrʲej rʊˈblʲɵf], also transliterated as Andrey Rublyov);[1] Born in the 1360s, he died between 1427-1430[2] in Moscow and is considered to be one of the greatest medieval Russian painters of Orthodox icons and frescos.

St. Andrei Rublev
1961 CPA 2553
anniversary stamp in 1961
Venerable Father (Prepodobne)
Born1360–1370
Diedbetween 1427-1430
Andronikov Monastery, Moscow
Venerated inEastern Orthodox Church
Anglican Communion
Canonized6 June 1988, Trinity-St. Sergius Lavra by 1988 Local Council of the Russian Orthodox Church
Feast29 January, 4 July
AttributesClothed as an Orthodox monk, often shown holding an icon

Early life

Little information survives about his life; even where he was born is unknown. He probably lived in the Trinity-St. Sergius Lavra, near Moscow, under Nikon of Radonezh, who became hegumen after the death of Sergii Radonezhsky in 1392. The first mention of Rublev is in 1405, when he decorated icons and frescos for the Cathedral of the Annunciation of the Moscow Kremlin, in company with Theophanes the Greek and Prokhor of Gorodets. His name was the last of the list of masters, as the junior both by rank and by age. Theophanes was an important Byzantine master, who moved to Russia and is considered to have trained Rublev.

Career

Chronicles tell us that together with Daniil Cherni he painted the Assumption Cathedral in Vladimir in 1408 as well as the Trinity Cathedral in the Trinity Lavra of St. Sergius between 1425 and 1427. After Daniil's death, Andrei came to Moscow's Andronikov Monastery where he painted his last work, the frescoes of the Saviour Cathedral. He is also believed to have painted at least one of the miniatures in the Khitrovo Gospels.

The only work authenticated as entirely his is the icon of the Trinity (c. 1410, currently in the Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow). It is based on an earlier icon known as the "Hospitality of Abraham" (illustrating Genesis 18). Rublev removed the figures of Abraham and Sarah from the scene, and through a subtle use of composition and symbolism changed the subject to focus on the Mystery of the Trinity.

In Rublev's art two traditions are combined: the highest asceticism and the classic harmony of Byzantine mannerism. The characters of his paintings are always peaceful and calm. After some time his art came to be perceived as the ideal of Eastern Church painting and of Orthodox iconography.

Death and legacy

Rublev died at Andronikov Monastery between 1427-1430. Rublev's work influenced many artists including Dionisy. The Stoglavi Sobor (1551) promulgated Rublev's icon style as a model for church painting. Since 1959 the Andrei Rublev Museum at the Andronikov Monastery has displayed his and related art.

The Russian Orthodox Church canonized Rublev as a saint in 1988, celebrating his feast day on 29 January[3] and/or on 4 July.[3][4][5] The liturgical calendar of the Episcopal Church in the United States of America remembers Rublev on January 29.

In 1966, Andrei Tarkovsky made a film Andrei Rublev, loosely based on the artist's life. This became the first (and perhaps only) film produced in the Soviet era to treat the artist as a world-historic figure and Christianity as an axiom of Russia’s historical identity,[6] during a turbulent period in the history of Russia.

Selected works

Baptism (15th c., Annunciation Cathedral in Moscow)

Baptism of Jesus, 1405 (Cathedral of the Annunciation, Moscow)

Annunciation from Vasilyevskiy chin (1408, Tretyakov gallery)

Annunciation, 1405 (Cathedral of the Annunciation, Moscow)

Vladimirskaya by A.Rublev (1395-1410s, Vladimir museum)

Version of the Theotokos of Vladimir, ca. 1405

Gabriel from Vladimirskiy chin (15th c., GTG)

St. Gabriel, 1408 (Dormition Cathedral, Vladimir)

Andrew from Vasilyevskiy chin (15th c., GTG)

St. Andrew the First-called, 1408 (Dormition Cathedral, Vladimir)

Gregory of Nazianzus from Vasilyevskiy chin (15th c., GTG)

St. Gregory the Theologian, 1408 (Dormition Cathedral, Vladimir)

Virgin Mary from Vasilyevskiy chin (15th c., GTG)

Theotokos from Deësis, 1408 (Dormition Cathedral, Vladimir) Some think this may be the work of Theophanes the Greek

John the Evangelist from Vasilyevskiy chin (15th c., GTG)

St. John the Theologian, 1408 (Dormition Cathedral, Vladimir)

John the Baptist from Vasilyevskiy chin (15th c., GTG)

St. John the Baptist, 1408 (Dormition Cathedral, Vladimir)

Spas v silach from Vasilyevskiy chin (15th c., GTG)

Saviour in Glory, 1408 (Dormition Cathedral, Vladimir)

Harrowing of hell from Vasilyevskiy chin (1408, Tretyakov gallery)

Harrowing of Hell, 1408-1410 (Vladimir)

Ascension from Vasilyevskiy chin (15th c., GTG)

Ascension, 1408 (Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow)

Rublev Paul

Apostle Paul, 1410s (Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow)

References

  1. ^ The Getty Union Artist Name List prefers "Rublyov", but "Rublev" is more commonly found.
  2. ^ "Venerable Andrew Rublev the Iconographer", Orthodox Church in America
  3. ^ a b "Saint Herman Calendar 2006". Platina CA: Saint Herman of Alaska Brotherhood. 2006: 12, 56.
  4. ^ Church Calendar Archived 2006-07-21 at the Wayback Machine (in Russian)
  5. ^ "Moscow Patriarchate Glorifies Saints", Orthodox America, IX (82), August 1988, archived from the original on 2008-07-05, retrieved 2008-03-16
  6. ^ Hoberman, Jim. "Andrei Rublev". The Criterion Collection. Retrieved 2007-12-06.

Sources

  • Andrei Rublev, a 1966 film by Andrei Tarkovsky loosely based on the painter's life.
  • Mikhail V. Alpatov, Andrey Rublev, Moscow: Iskusstvo, 1972.
  • Gabriel Bunge, The Rublev Trinity, transl. Andrew Louth, St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, Crestwood, New York, 2007.
  • Sergius Golubtsov, Voplosh’enie bogoslovskih idey v tvorchestve prepodobnogo Andreya Rubleva [The realization of theological ideas in creative works of Andrey Rublev]. Bogoslovskie trudy 22, 20–40, 1981.
  • Troitca Andreya Rubleva [The Trinity of Andrey Rublev], Gerold I. Vzdornov (ed.), Moscow: Iskusstvo 1989.
  • Viktor N. Lazarev, The Russian Icon: From Its Origins to the Sixteenth Century, Gerold I. Vzdornov (ed.). Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1997.
  • Priscilla Hunt, Andrei Rublev’s Old Testament Trinity Icon in Cultural Context, The Trinity-Sergius Lavr in Russian History and Culture: Readings in Russian Religious Culture, vol. 3, ed. Deacon Vladimir Tsurikov, (Jordanville, NY: Holy Trinity Seminary Press, 2006), 99-122.(See on-line at phslavic.com)
  • Priscilla Hunt, Andrei Rublev’s Old Testament Trinity Icon: Problems of Meaning, Intertextuality, and Transmission, Symposion: A Journal of Russian (Religious) Thought, ed. Roy Robson, 7-12 (2002–2007), 15-46 (See on-line at www.phslavic.com)
  • Konrad Onasch, Das Problem des Lichtes in der Ikonomalerei Andrej Rublevs. Zur 600–Jahrfeier des grossen russischen Malers, vol. 28. Berlin: Berliner byzantinische Arbeiten, 1962.
  • Konrad Onasch, Das Gedankenmodell des byzantisch–slawischen Kirchenbaus. In Tausend Jahre Christentum in Russland, Karl Christian Felmy et al. (eds.), 539–543. Go¨ ttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, 1988.
  • Eugeny N. Trubetskoi, Russkaya ikonopis'. Umozrenie w kraskah. Wopros o smysle vizni w drewnerusskoj religioznoj viwopisi [Russian icon painting. Colourful contemplation. Question of the meaning of life in early Russian religious painting], Moscow: Beliy Gorod, 2003 [1916].
  • Georgij Yu. Somov, Semiotic systemity of visual artworks: Case study of The Holy Trinity by Rublev, Semiotica 166 (1/4), 1-79, 2007.

External links

1410s in art

The decade of the 1410s in art involved some significant events.

Andrei Rublev (film)

Andrei Rublev (Russian: Андрей Рублёв) is a 1969 Soviet biographical historical drama film directed by Andrei Tarkovsky and co-written with Andrei Konchalovsky. The film was remade and re-edited from the 1966 film titled The Passion According to Andrei by Tarkovsky which was censored during the first decade of the Breshnev era in the Soviet Union. The film is loosely based on the life of Andrei Rublev, the 15th-century Russian icon painter. The film features Anatoly Solonitsyn, Nikolai Grinko, Ivan Lapikov, Nikolai Sergeyev, Nikolai Burlyayev and Tarkovsky's wife Irma Raush. Savva Yamshchikov, a famous Russian restorer and art historian, was a scientific consultant of the film.

Andrei Rublev is set against the background of 15th-century Russia. Although the film is only loosely based on the life of Andrei Rublev, it seeks to depict a realistic portrait of medieval Russia. Tarkovsky sought to create a film that shows the artist as "a world-historic figure" and "Christianity as an axiom of Russia’s historical identity" during a turbulent period of Russian history that ultimately resulted in the Tsardom of Russia. The film's themes include artistic freedom, religion, political ambiguity, autodidacticism, and the making of art under a repressive regime. Because of this, it was not released domestically in the officially atheist Soviet Union for years after it was completed, except for a single 1966 screening in Moscow. A version of the film was shown at the 1969 Cannes Film Festival, where it won the FIPRESCI prize. In 1971, a censored version of the film was released in the Soviet Union. The film was further cut for commercial reasons upon its U.S. release through Columbia Pictures in 1973. As a result, several versions of the film exist.

Although these issues with censorship obscured and truncated the film for many years following its release, the film was soon recognized by many western critics and film directors as a highly original and accomplished work. Even more since being restored to its original version, Andrei Rublev has come to be regarded as one of the greatest films of all time, and has often been ranked highly in both the Sight & Sound critics' and directors' polls.

Andrei Tarkovsky

Andrei Arsenyevich Tarkovsky (Russian: Андре́й Арсе́ньевич Тарко́вский, IPA: [ɐnˈdrʲej ɐrˈsʲenʲjɪvʲɪtɕ tɐrˈkofskʲɪj]; 4 April 1932 – 29 December 1986) was a Russian filmmaker, writer, film editor, film theorist, theatre and opera director. His work is characterized by unconventionally long takes, sparse dramatic structure, poetic imagery, and spiritual and metaphysical themes. He has been called a progenitor of slow cinema. Director Ingmar Bergman said of him:

Tarkovsky for me is the greatest (director), the one who invented a new language, true to the nature of film, as it captures life as a reflection, life as a dream.

Tarkovsky's films include Ivan's Childhood (1962), Andrei Rublev (1966), Solaris (1972), Mirror (1975), and Stalker (1979). He directed the first five of his seven feature films in the Soviet Union; his last two films, Nostalghia (1983) and The Sacrifice (1986), were produced in Italy and Sweden, respectively. The films Andrei Rublev, Solaris, Mirror, and Stalker are regularly listed among the greatest films of all time.

Andronikov Monastery

Andronikov Monastery of the Saviour (Russian: Андро́ников монасты́рь, Спа́со-Андро́ников монасты́рь, or Андро́ников Нерукотво́рного Спа́са монасты́рь) is a former monastery on the left bank of the Yauza River in Moscow, consecrated to the Holy Image of Saviour Not Made by Hands and containing the oldest extant (i.e. outside the Kremlin) building in Moscow. It is home to Andrei Rublev Museum of Old Russian Art, named after the most famous monk of this abbey.

Dormition Cathedral, Vladimir

The Dormition Cathedral in Vladimir (sometimes translated Assumption Cathedral) (Russian: Собор Успения Пресвятой Богородицы, Sobor Uspeniya Presvyatoy Bogoroditsy) was a mother church of Medieval Russia in the 13th and 14th centuries. It is part of a World Heritage Site, the White Monuments of Vladimir and Suzdal.

The cathedral was commissioned by Andrew the Pious in his capital, Vladimir, and dedicated to the Dormition of the Theotokos (Virgin Mary), whom he promoted as the patron saint of his lands. Originally erected in 1158 to 1160, the cathedral, with six pillars and five domes, was expanded in 1185 to 1189 to reflect the augmented prestige of Vladimir. At of 1178 m², it remained the largest of Russian churches for the next 300 or 400 years.

Andrew the Pious, Vsevolod the Big Nest and other rulers of Vladimir-Suzdal were interred in the crypt of this church. Unlike many other churches, the cathedral survived the great devastation and fire of Vladimir in 1239, when the Mongol hordes of Batu Khan took hold of the capital.

The exterior walls of the church are covered with elaborate carvings. The interior was painted in the 12th century and then repainted by Andrei Rublev and Daniil Chernyi in 1408. The Dormition Cathedral served as a model for Aristotele Fioravanti, when he designed the eponymous cathedral in the Moscow Kremlin in 1475 to 1479. A lofty belltower, combining genuine Russian, Gothic and Neoclassical influences, was erected nearby in 1810.

Epiphanius the Wise

Epiphanius the Wise (Russian: Епифаний Премудрый) (died 1420) was a monk from Rostov, hagiographer and disciple of Saint Sergius of Radonezh. Historian Serge A. Zenkovsky wrote that Epiphanius, along with Stephen of Perm, along with St. Sergius of Radonezh, and the painter Andrei Rublev signified "the Russian spiritual and cultural revival of the late fourteenth and early fifteenth century."

Fernando Vicente

Fernando Vicente Fibla (Spanish pronunciation: [feɾˈnando βiˈθente ˈfiβla]; born 8 March 1977) is a professional tennis coach and a former player from Spain, who turned professional in 1996. He reached his career-high ATP singles ranking of world Number 29 in June 2000, winning three singles titles and reaching the quarterfinals of the 1998 Rome Masters and the 2000 Cincinnati Masters.

As of 2018, he is coaching Andrei Rublev and from 2010 to 2014 he worked with Marcel Granollers and Marc López.

Irma Raush

Irma Yakovlevna Raush (Russian: Ирма Яковлевна Рауш; born 21 April 1938) is a Russian actress and the first wife of film director Andrei Tarkovsky. She is best known for her role as Durochka in Andrei Rublev and as Ivan's mother in Ivan's Childhood.

Khitrovo Gospels

The Khitrovo Gospels is a Russian illuminated Gospel Book from the late 14th or early 15th century. The book has numerous similarities to the Koshka Gospels, Kiev Psalter of 1397, and other East Slavic manuscripts of the 1390s.

It contains eight full page miniatures; four Evangelist portraits and four pictures of their symbols (the eagle, angel, lion, and bull), the latter the earliest known Russian full-page examples. The angel is attributed to Andrei Rublev, and is the only illumination usually attributed to him, although some art historians incline to attribute at least all the full-pages miniatures to him. All the initials are painted in colour and gold, and many pages are richly ornamented. The style is elegant with light colours and expressive faces.The gospel takes its name from Bogdan Khitrovo, a powerful boyar who obtained the manuscript from Tsar Fyodor III. Khitrovo bequeathed the gospel to the Trinity Monastery near Moscow, where Andrey Rublev used to be a monk. After the nationalisation of the monastic library the Khitrovo Gospel was incorporated in the holdings of the Russian State Library in Moscow.

List of Soviet films of 1966

A list of films produced in the Soviet Union in 1966 (see 1966 in film).

List of awards won by Andrei Tarkovsky

Andrei Tarkovsky (1932–1986) was a Soviet film director, screenwriter and film theorist. During his career he received numerous awards, both for individual films and in recognition of his work. This list is most likely incomplete as only awards and nominations have been included that are confirmed either by the award-giving organization or by reliable third-party sources.

Nikolai Burlyayev

Nikolai Petrovich Burlyayev (Russian: Николай Петрович Бурляев; born 3 August 1946) is a Soviet and Russian actor. Born into a family of actors, Burlyayev started his career in film and theatre when he was still a child. He is best known for his title role in Andrei Tarkovsky's Ivan's Childhood. He worked with Tarkovsky again four years later, as Boriska in Andrei Rublev.Burlyayev is a graduate of the Film Directors’ Faculty of VGIK, where he studied under Mikhail Romm and Lev Kulidzhanov. His later films include Wartime Romance (1983) and Lermontov (1986), where he played the lead.

Since 1991 Burlyayev has been the founder and director of the annual Zolotoi Vityaz (Golden Knight) Moscow Film Festival of Slavic and Orthodox Peoples, and since 1996 he has been the founder and chairman of the International Association of Cinematographers of Slavic and Orthodox Peoples.In March 2014 he signed a letter in support of the position of the President of Russia Vladimir Putin on Russia's military intervention in Ukraine. Burlyaev emphasizes that he is Orthodox, repeatedly sharply expressed his negative attitude towards people with non-traditional sexual orientation, calls himself a homophobe.He is married to Natalya Bondarchuk, and is thus the son-in-law of Sergei Bondarchuk and Inna Makarova.

Old Katholikon of the Trinity Lavra

The Trinity Cathedral (Russian: Тро́ицкий собо́р) is a cathedral church, the oldest of all the remaining buildings in the Trinity Lavra of St. Sergius. It was built in 1422-1423 by St. Nikon of Radonezh to "honour and praise" the founder of the Trinity Lavra monastery St. Sergius of Radonezh. St. Sergius's relics are kept there. It's the main object of veneration in the Trinity Lavra. The Cathedral was built from white stone. It is one of the most important examples of the early Moscow architecture. The Trinity Lavra's history started with the construction of this cathedral. The ancient wall painting, created by the famous painters Andrei Rublev and Daniel Chorny in 1425—1427, is lost. The remaining paintings were created in 1635. They reproduces the ancient iconography of the original. The main treasure of the Cathedral is a five-tier iconostasis. Most of its icons were painted in the first third of the 15th century by Andrei Rublev and his colleagues. Both existing copies of Andrei Rublev's Trinity are kept in the iconostasis of the Cathedral.

Pyotr Baranovsky

Pyotr Dmitrievich Baranovsky (Russian: Пётр Дмитриевич Барановский; February 26, 1892 – June 12, 1984) was a Russian architect, preservationist and restorator who reconstructed many ancient buildings in the Soviet Union. He is credited with saving Saint Basil's Cathedral from destruction in the early 1930s, founding and managing the Kolomenskoye and Andrei Rublev museums, and developing modern restoration technologies.

Solaris (1972 film)

Solaris (Russian: Солярис, tr. Solyaris) is a 1972 Soviet science fiction art film based on Stanisław Lem's novel of the same name published in 1961. The film was co-written and directed by Andrei Tarkovsky. The film is a meditative psychological drama occurring mostly aboard a space station orbiting the fictional planet Solaris. The scientific mission has stalled because the skeleton crew of three scientists have fallen into separate emotional crises. Psychologist Kris Kelvin travels to the Solaris space station to evaluate the situation only to encounter the same mysterious phenomena as the others.

In loyalty to the novel's complex and slow-paced narrative, Tarkovsky wanted to bring a new emotional and intellectual depth to the genre, viewing most of western science fiction as shallow. The ideas Tarkovsky tried to express in this film are further developed in Stalker (1979).Solaris stars Natalya Bondarchuk (Hari), Donatas Banionis (Kris Kelvin), Jüri Järvet (Dr. Snaut), Vladislav Dvorzhetsky (Henri Berton), Nikolai Grinko (Kris Kelvin's Father), Olga Barnet (Kris Kelvin's Mother), Anatoli Solonitsyn (Dr. Sartorius), and Sos Sargsyan (Dr. Gibarian); the music is by Johann Sebastian Bach and Eduard Artemyev. At the 1972 Cannes Film Festival, it won the Grand Prix Spécial du Jury, the FIPRESCI prize and was nominated for the Palme d'Or. The film is often cited as one of the greatest science fiction films in the history of cinema.

The Courage of Others

The Courage of Others is the third studio album by American folk rock band Midlake. It was released on February 1, 2010, on Bella Union Records. The album sleeve pays homage to Andrei Rublev, a 1966 film by Russian writer and director Andrei Tarkovsky.

Theophanes the Greek

Theophanes the Greek (sometimes "Feofan Grek" from the Russian: Феофан Грек, Greek: Θεοφάνης; c. 1340 – c. 1410) was a Byzantine Greek artist and one of the greatest icon painters of Muscovite Russia, and was noted as the teacher and mentor of the great Andrei Rublev.

Trinity (Andrei Rublev)

The Trinity (Russian: Троица, tr. Troitsa, also called The Hospitality of Abraham) is an icon created by Russian painter Andrei Rublev in the 15th century. It is his most famous work and the most famous of all Russian icons, and it is regarded as one of the highest achievements of Russian art. Scholars believe that it is one of only two works of art (the other being the Dormition Cathedral frescoes in Vladimir) that can be attributed to Rublev with any sort of certainty.The Trinity depicts the three angels who visited Abraham at the Oak of Mamre (Genesis 18:1–8), but the painting is full of symbolism and is interpreted as an icon of the Holy Trinity. At the time of Rublev, the Holy Trinity was the embodiment of spiritual unity, peace, harmony, mutual love and humility.The icon was commissioned to honour Saint Sergius of Radonezh of the Trinity Lavra of St. Sergius, near Moscow, now in the town of Sergiyev Posad. Little is known about The Trinity's history, and art historians make suggestions based on only the few known facts. Even the authorship of Rublev has been questioned. Various authors suggest different dates, such as 1408-1425, 1422-1423 or 1420-1427. The official version states 1411 or 1425-27. The Trinity is currently held in the Tretyakov Gallery in Moscow.

Vadim Yusov

Vadim Ivanovich Yusov (Вадим Иванович Юсов, 20 April 1929 – 23 August 2013) was a Soviet and Russian cinematographer and professor at the Gerasimov Institute of Cinematography. He was known for his collaborations with Andrei Tarkovsky on The Steamroller and the Violin, Ivan's Childhood, Andrei Rublev and Solaris, and with Georgi Daneliya on I Step Through Moscow. He won a number of Nika Awards and Golden Osella for Ivan Dykhovichny's The Black Monk at the Venice International Film Festival in 1988.

He was a member of the jury at the 1984 Cannes Film Festival and the 45th Berlin International Film Festival in 1995.

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