Andreas Feininger

Andreas Bernhard Lyonel Feininger (December 27, 1906 – February 18, 1999) was an American photographer and a writer on photographic technique. He was noted for his dynamic black-and-white scenes of Manhattan and for studies of the structures of natural objects.

Feininger, The Photojournalist
The Photojournalist, showing the photojournalist Dennis Stock, may be Feininger's best-known photograph; he took it for Life in 1951.
The Library of Congress - (View along US 40 in Mount Vernon Canyon, Colorado) (LOC)
View along US 40 in Mount Vernon Canyon, Colorado, 1942, a photograph taken when Feininger was an employee of the Office of War Information (OWI)
Creede, 1942
Creede, Colorado in 1942, another OWI photograph by Feininger


Feininger was born in Paris, France, the eldest son of Julia Berg, a German Jew, and the American painter and art educator Lyonel Feininger (1871-1956). His paternal grandparents were the German violinist Karl Feininger (1844–1922) and the American singer Elizabeth Feininger, (née Lutz), who was also of German descent. His younger brother was the painter and photographer T. Lux Feininger (1910–2011).[1]

In 1908 the Feininger family moved to Berlin, and in 1919 to Weimar, where Lyonel Feininger took up the post of Master of the Printing Workshop at the newly formed Bauhaus art school.[2]

Andreas left school at 16, in 1922, to study at the Bauhaus; he graduated as a cabinetmaker in April 1925. After that he studied architecture, initially at the Staatliche Bauschule Weimar (State Architectural College, Weimar) and later at the Staatliche Bauschule Zerbst. (Zerbst is a city in the German state of Saxony-Anhalt, about 20 km from Dessau, where the Bauhaus moved to in 1926.) The Feininger family moved to Dessau with the Bauhaus. In addition to continuing his architectural studies in Zerbst, Andreas developed an interest in photography and was given guidance by neighbour and Bauhaus teacher László Moholy-Nagy.[3]

In 1936, he gave up architecture and moved to Sweden, where he focused on photography. In advance of World War II, in 1939, Feininger immigrated to the U.S. where he established himself as a freelance photographer. In 1943 he joined the staff of Life magazine, an association that lasted until 1962.

Feininger became famous for his photographs of New York. Other frequent subjects among his works were science and nature, as seen in bones, shells, plants, and minerals in the images of which he often stressed their structure. Rarely did he photograph people or make portraits.

Feininger wrote comprehensive manuals about photography, of which the best known is The Complete Photographer. In the introduction to one of Feininger's books of photographs, Ralph Hattersley, the editor of the photography journal Infinity, described him as "one of the great architects who helped create photography as we know it today." In 1966, the American Society of Media Photographers (ASMP) awarded Feininger its highest distinction, the Robert Leavitt Award. In 1991, the International Center of Photography awarded Feininger the Infinity Lifetime Achievement Award.

Today, Feininger's photographs are in the permanent collections of the Center for Creative Photography, the Museum of Modern Art, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the National Gallery of Art, London's Victoria and Albert Museum, and the George Eastman House in Rochester, New York.


Educational books on photography

  • Menschen vor der Kamera. Ein Lehrbuch moderner Bildnisfotografie. Halle: Dr. Walther Heering Verlag, 1934. About portrait photography.
  • Vergrössern leicht gemacht. Harzburg: Dr. Walther Heering Verlag, 1935.
  • Selbst Entwickeln und Kopieren. Harzburg: Dr. Walther Heering Verlag, 1935.
  • Aufnahme-Technik. Die Harzburg-Reihe, 13. Harzburg: Dr. Walther Heering Verlag, 1936.
  • Entwickeln, Kopieren, Vergrössern. Harzburg: Dr. Walther Heering Verlag, 1936.
  • Fotografische Gestaltung. Harzburg: Dr. Walther Heering Verlag, 1937.
  • Hyresgästernas sparkasse- och byggnadsförening. Stockholm: Hyresgästernas Förlags A.-B., 1937. About HSB; in Swedish.
  • Motive im Gegenlicht. Harzburg: Dr. Walther Heering Verlag, 1939.
  • Exakta – Ein Weg zu Foto-Neuland. Halle: Isert, 1939. On the Exakta camera.
    • Les Horizons nouveaux de la photographie avec l'Exakta. Halle: Isert, 1940. French translation.
  • New Paths in Photography. Boston, American Photographic Pub. Co., 1939. London: Chapman & Hall, 1939.
  • The Twin-Lens Camera Companion. London: Focal Press, 1948. By Henry Swinsbury, with a contribution by Feininger. On twin-lens reflex cameras.
  • Feininger on Photography. Chicago: Ziff-Davis, 1949. New York: Crown, 1953.
  • Advanced Photography, Methods and Conclusions. New York: Prentice-Hall, 1952.
  • Successful Photography. New York: Prentice-Hall, 1954. And later editions.
    • Das Buch der Fotografie. Frankfurt: Büchergilde Gutenberg, 1961. German translation.
    • Framgångsrik fotografering. Stockholm: Bonnier, 1958. Swedish translation.
    • Hyvä valokuvaaja. Helsinki: Tammi, 1957. Finnish translation.
    • Il libro della fotografia: Tecnica e applicazioni. Milan: Garzanti, 1961. Italian translation. Also later editions.
  • Successful Color Photography. New York: Prentice-Hall, 1954. And later editions.
    • Das Buch der Farbfotografie. Düsseldorf: Econ, 1961. German translation.
    • Värivalokuvaaja. Helsinki: Tammi, 1958. Finnish translation.
    • Il libro della fotografia a colori. Milan: Garzanti, 1962. Italian translation. Also later editions.
  • The Creative Photographer. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1955. And later editions.
    • Der Schlüssel zur Fotografie von Heute. Düsseldorf: Econ, 1958. German translation.
    • Skapande fotografering. Stockholm: Bonnier, 1958. Swedish translation.
    • Fotograful creator. Bucharest: Editura Meridiane, 1967. Romanian translation.
  • Total Picture Control: A Personal Approach to Photography. New York: Crown, 1961. New York: Amphoto, 1970.
  • Die hohe Schule der Fotografie. Düsseldorf: Econ, 1961. And later editions.
    • Andreas Feiningers fotoskole. Copenhagen: Grafisk Forlag, 1962. Danish translation.
    • De hogere school der fotografie. Amsterdam: De Bussey, 1963. Dutch translation.
    • Vysoká škola fotografie. Prague: Orbis, 1968. Czech translation.
    • A Manual of Advanced Photography. London: Thames & Hudson, 1962. Revised edition, London: Thames & Hudson, 1970.
  • Voir: Précis sur la technique et l'art d'exceller en photographie. Lausanne: Edita, 1961.
  • Arte y técnica en fotografía: Cómo perfeccionar sus fotos. Madrid: Mediterráneo, 1968.
  • Cómo hacer buenas fotografías: Un curso completo sobre la mecánica, la técnica y las aplicaciones de la fotografía. Madrid: Mediterráneo, 1968. Madrid: Mediterráneo, 1980. ISBN 8471561158.
  • The Complete Photographer. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1965. London: Thames & Hudson, 1965. And later editions.
  • Die neue Foto-Lehre. Düsseldorf: Econ, 1965.
    • La nuova tecnica della fotografia. Milan: Garzanti, 1966. Italian translation.
  • Fotograferen van A–Z: Een nieuw handboek der fotografie. Amsterdam: De Bussy, 1965.
  • Basic Color Photography. 1969.
  • The Color Photo Book. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1969.
    • Kleurenfotografie van A–Z. Amsterdam: De Bussy, 1969. Dutch translation.
  • The Complete Colour Photographer. Thames & Hudson, 1969.
  • Farbfotolehre. Neu bearbeitete Ausgabe des berühmten Standardwerkes. Munich: Heyne, 1969. ISBN 3453411609.
  • Photographic Seeing. 1973.
  • Principles of Composition. 1973.
  • Darkroom Techniques. 1974.
  • The Perfect Photograph. 1974.
  • Roots of Art. 1974.
  • Light and Lighting in Photography. 1976.

Other pictorial books

  • Stockholm. Stockholm: A. Bonnier, 1936. In Swedish and English.
  • Hedenhös och medeltid. Forna dagars Sverige. Copenhagen, 1941. By Feininger and Gustaf Näsström.
  • Vasatid och karolinsk tid. Forna dagars Sverige. Copenhagen, 1941. By Feininger and Gustaf Näsström.
  • Frihetstid och Gustaviansk tid. Forna dagars Sverige. Copenhagen, 1941. By Feininger and Gustaf Näsström.
  • New York. Chicago: Ziff-Davis, 1945. Introduction by John Erskine, text by Jacquelyn Judge.
  • The Face of New York: The City as It Was and as It Is. New York: Crown, 1954. Text by Susan E. Lyman.
  • Changing America: The Land as It Was and How Man Has Changed It. New York: Crown, 1955. Text by Patricia Dyett.
  • The Anatomy of Nature: How Function Shapes the Form and Design of Animate and Inanimate Structures throughout the Universe. New York: Crown, 1956. London: Thomas Yoseloff, 1956. New York: Dover, 1979.
    • Vorm en functie in de natuur: 170 foto's. Delft: W. Gaade, 1956. Dutch translation.
    • Das Antlitz der Natur. Munich: Knaur, 1957. Zurich: Buchclub Ex Libris, 1957. German translation.
    • Anatomía de la naturaleza: De cómo la función crea la forma en las estructuras animadas e inanimadas de entero universo. Barcelona: Jano, 1962. Spanish translation.
  • Frauen und Göttinnen von der Steinzeit bis zu Picasso. Cologne: M. DuMont Schauberg, 1960. Text by J. Bon.
    • Maids, Madonnas, and Witches: Women in Sculpture from Prehistoric Times to Picasso. New York: Abrams, 1961. English translation. Introduction by Henry Miller.
    • The Image of Woman: Women in Sculpture from Pre-historic Times to the Present Day. London: Thames & Hudson, 1961. English translation. Introduction by Henry Miller.
  • Andreas Feininger fotografiert Steine. Düsseldorf: Econ, 1960. About architecture; with an introduction by Kasimir Edschmid.
    • Man and Stone: A Journey into the Past. New York: Crown, 1961. English translation.
    • Andreas Feininger fotografeert steen. Haarlem: Gottmer, 1962. Dutch translation.
    • Stone and Man: A Photographic Exploration. New York: Dover, 1979.
  • New York. New York: Crown, 1964; New York: Viking, 1964. London: Thames & Hudson, 1964. Text by Kate Simon.
    • New York. Düsseldorf: Econ, 1964. German translation.
  • Lyonel Feininger: City at the Edge of the World. New York: Praeger, 1965. Text by T. Lux Feininger.
    • Lyonel Feininger. Die Stadt am Ende der Welt. Munich: Rütten & Loening, 1965. German translation.
  • Forms of Nature and Life. New York: Viking Press, 1966.
    • Die Sprache der Natur. Düsseldorf: Econ, 1966. German translation.
  • Form in Nature and Life. London: Thames & Hudson, 1966.
  • Trees. New York: Viking Press, 1968. London: Thames & Hudson, 1968. Harmondsworth, Middx: Penguin, 1978. ISBN 0-14-004747-6. New York: Viking Press, 1978. ISBN 0670729434. New York: Rizzoli, 1991. ISBN 0847813258.
    • Wunderbare Welt der Bäume und Wälder. Vienna: Econ, 1968. German translation.
  • Lyonel Feininger. New York: Marlborough-Gerson Gallery, 1969. Text by Peter Selz.
  • Shells. 1972.
  • Feininger's Hamburg. 1980.
  • Feininger's Chicago. 1981.
  • Industrial America. 1981.
  • Leaves. New York. 1984.
  • In a Grain of Sand: Exploring Design by Nature. San Francisco: Sierra Club, 1986.
  • Stockholm 1933–1939. Stockholm: Stockholms Stadsmuseum, 1991. ISBN 9185238708.


  • Die Welt neu gesehen. Ein Querschnitt meiner Arbeit. Vienna: Econ, 1963.
    • The World Through My Eyes: 30 Years of Photography. New York: Crown, 1963. English translation.
    • The World Through My Eyes. London: Thames & Hudson, 1964. English translation.
    • Regards sur le monde: 30 années d'art photographique. Brussels: Meddens 1964. French translation.
    • Il mondo come io lo vedo. Milan: Garzanti, 1964. Italian translation.
    • Met andere ogen gezien. Amsterdam: De Bussy, 1964. Dutch translation.
  • Andreas Feininger. 1973. Text by Ralph Hattersley.
  • Andreas Feininger, That's Photography. Ostfildern: Hatje Cantz, 2004. ISBN 3-7757-1429-4. 320 pages, 210 photographs, texts.
  • Andreas Feininger. A Photographer's Life. 1906–1999. Ostfildern: Hatje Cantz, 2010. ISBN 978-3-7757-2704-4. 192 pages, 129 photographs, text.

References and notes

  1. ^ Obituary of T. Lux Feininger, The New York Times.
  2. ^ Bauhaus100. Lyonel Feininger. Retrieved 3 February 2017
  3. ^ Bauhaus100. Andreas Feininger. Retrieved 3 February 2017

External links

1906 in France

Events from the year 1906 in France.

1906 in art

The year 1906 in art involved some significant events and new works.

1999 in France

Events from the year 1999 in France.

1999 in art

The year 1999 in art involves various significant events.

Afton Station Packard Museum

Afton Station Packard Museum, a privately owned automotive museum on U.S. Route 66 in Afton, Oklahoma, is situated in a restored 1930s Eagle D-X filling station. It houses a showroom, 18 Packards & other vintage automobiles plus a collection of Route 66 memorabilia, including items from the now-demolished Buffalo Ranch Trading Post.A restored set of historic D-X fuel pumps stands in the old station's forecourt and the red and white on blue "Approved Packard Service" dealership logo is proudly displayed atop a signpost.As a Route 66 information stop for travelers, who come from as far afield as Europe, Australia, and Asia, the station/welcome center distributes maps, guidebooks and memorabilia as well as word-of-mouth information about The Mother Road.


Andreas (Greek: Ἀνδρέας) is a name usually given to males in Austria, Greece, Cyprus, Denmark, Armenia, Finland, Flanders, Germany, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, Italy, Romania, and the Netherlands. The name derives from the Greek noun ἀνήρ anir – with genitive ἀνδρός andros –, which means "man" (i.e. male human being). See article on Andrew for more information. Also in regard to the name Andreas, it may be used in the feminine as Andrea, which is instead the main male form in Italy and the canton of Ticino in Switzerland.

Black Star (photo agency)

Black Star, also known as Black Star Publishing Company, was started by refugees from Germany who had established photographic agencies there in the 1920s. Today it is a New York City-based photographic agency with offices in London and in White Plains, New York. It is known for photojournalism, corporate assignment photography and stock photography services worldwide. It is noted for its contribution to the history of photojournalism in the United States. It was the first privately owned picture agency in the United States, and introduced numerous new techniques in photography and illustrated journalism. The agency was closely identified with Henry Luce's magazines Life and Time.

Car float

A railroad car float or rail barge is an unpowered barge with rail tracks mounted on its deck. It is used to move railroad cars across water obstacles, or to locations they could not otherwise go, and is towed by a tugboat or pushed by a towboat. As such, the car float is a specialised form of the lighter, as opposed to a train ferry, which is self-powered.

Cecil de Blaquiere Howard

Cecil de Blaquiere Howard, sometimes Cecil Howard, (April 2, 1888 - September 5, 1956), born in Clifton, Welland County, Ontario, Canada (today Niagara Falls) was an American painter and sculptor.

Center for Creative Photography

The Center for Creative Photography (CCP), established in 1975 and located on the University of Arizona (Tucson) campus, is a research facility and archival repository containing the full archives of over sixty of the most famous American photographers including those of Edward Weston, Harry Callahan and Garry Winogrand, as well as a collection of over 80,000 images representing more than 2,000 photographers. The center also houses the archives for Ansel Adams, including all negatives known to exist at the time of his death. The CCP collects, preserves, interprets, and makes available materials that are essential to understanding photography and its history.

Creede, Colorado

The historic City of Creede is a statutory town that is the county seat and the only incorporated municipality in Mineral County, Colorado, United States. The town population was 290 at the 2010 United States Census.


Feininger is a surname. Notable people with the surname include:

Karl Feininger (1844-1922), German-American musician, father of Lyonel

Lyonel Feininger (1871–1956), American painter and caricaturist who worked in Germany at the Bauhaus

Andreas Feininger (1906-1999), French-born, American photographer, son of Lyonel, educated at the Bauhaus as an architect

T. Lux Feininger (1910-2011), German-born, American painter, son of Lyonel, educated at the Bauhaus, who worked as a photographer until 1929

Geneva Steel

Geneva Steel was a steel mill located in Vineyard, Utah, United States, founded during World War II to enhance national steel output. It operated from December 1944 to November 2001. Its unique name came from a resort that once operated nearby on the shore of Utah Lake.

The steel mill was used in a dance scene in the iconic 1984 film Footloose with Kevin Bacon.

John Veltri

John Veltri is a photographer who was born in 1938 in New Jersey.

Large format

Large format refers to any imaging format of 4×5 inches (102×127 mm) or larger. Large format is larger than "medium format", the 6×6 cm (2¼×2¼ inch) or 6×9 cm (2¼×3½ inch) size of Hasselblad, Rollei, Kowa, and Pentax cameras (using 120- and 220-roll film), and much larger than the 24×36 mm (0.95×1.42 inch) frame of 35 mm format.

The main advantage of large format, film or digital, is a higher resolution at the same pixel pitch, or the same resolution with larger pixels or grains. A 4×5 inch image has about 15 times the area, and thus 15× the total resolution, of a 35 mm frame.

Large format cameras were some of the earliest photographic devices, and before enlargers were common, it was normal to just make 1:1 contact prints from a 4×5, 5×7, or 8×10-inch negative.

Neues Sehen

The Neues Sehen, also known as New Vision or Neue Optik, was a movement, not specifically restricted to photography, which was developed in the 1920s. The movement was directly related to the principles of the Bauhaus. Neues Sehen considered photography to be an autonomous artistic practice with its own laws of composition and lighting, through which the lens of the camera becomes a second eye for looking at the world. This new way of seeing was based on the use of unexpected framings, the search for contrast in form and light, the use of high and low camera angles, etc. The movement was contemporary with New Objectivity with which it shared a defence of photography as a specific medium of artistic expression, although Neues Sehen favoured experimentation and the use of technical means in photographic expression.

New York Harbor

New York Harbor, part of the Port of New York and New Jersey, is at the mouth of the Hudson River where it empties into New York Bay and into the Atlantic Ocean at the East Coast of the United States. It is one of the largest natural harbors in the world. Although the United States Board on Geographic Names does not use the term, New York Harbor has important historical, governmental, commercial, and ecological usages.

T. Lux Feininger

T. Lux Feininger (June 11, 1910 Berlin, Germany – July 7, 2011 Cambridge, Massachusetts) was a German-American painter, avant-garde photographer, author, and art teacher who was born in Berlin to Julia Berg and Lyonel Feininger, an American living in Germany from the age of sixteen. His father was appointed as the Master of the Printing Workingshop at the newly formed Bauhaus art school in Weimar by Walter Gropius in 1919. He had two older full brothers, including Andreas Feininger, and two half sisters, even older, by Clara Fürst and his father (from his first marriage).

William Keith Emerson

William Keith Emerson (May 1, 1925 – October, 19 2016), usually known as Bill Emerson, was an American malacologist, a biologist who studied mollusks. He was a Curator Emeritus at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City where he had been a curator since 1955. He was also Chairman of the Department of Living Invertebrates and head of the Malacology section for several decades.

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