Andrea del Verrocchio (Italian pronunciation: [anˈdrɛːa del verˈrɔkkjo]; c. 1435 – 1488), born Andrea di Michele di Francesco de' Cioni, was an Italian painter, sculptor, and goldsmith who was a master of an important workshop in Florence. He apparently became known as Verrocchio after the surname of his master, a goldsmith. Few paintings are attributed to him with certainty, but a number of important painters were trained at his workshop. His pupils included Leonardo da Vinci, Pietro Perugino and Lorenzo di Credi. His greatest importance was as a sculptor and his last work, the Equestrian statue of Bartolomeo Colleoni in Venice, is generally accepted as a masterpiece.
Andrea del Verrocchio
Portrait of Verrocchio by Nicolas de Larmessin
Andrea di Michele di Francesco de' Cioni
|Known for||Painting, Sculpture|
|Tobias and the Angel (painting)|
The Baptism of Christ (painting) – with Leonardo da Vinci
Christ and St. Thomas (bronze sculpture)
Putto with a Dolfin (bronze sculpture)
David (bronze sculpture)
Equestrian statue of Bartolomeo Colleoni (bronze sculpture – cast by Alessandro Leopardi)
Verrocchio was born in Florence in around 1435. His father, Michele di Francesco Cioni, initially worked as a tile and brick maker, then later as a tax collector. Verrocchio never married, and had to provide financial support for some members of his family. He was at first apprenticed to a goldsmith. It has been suggested that he was later apprenticed to Donatello, but there is no evidence of this and John Pope-Hennessy considered that it is contradicted by the style of his early works. It has been suggested that he was trained as a painter under Fra Filippo Lippi. Little is known about his life. His main works are dated in his last twenty years and his advancement owed much to the patronage of Lorenzo de' Medici and his son Piero. His workshop was in Florence where he was a member of the Guild of St Luke. Several great artists like Leonardo da Vinci and Lorenzo di Credi passed through his workshop as apprentices; beyond this, artists like Domenico Ghirlandaio, Francesco Botticini, and Pietro Perugino were also involved and their early works can be hard to distinguish from works by Verrocchio. At the end of his life he opened a new workshop in Venice where he was working on the statue of Bartolomeo Colleoni, leaving the Florentine workshop in charge of Lorenzo di Credi. He died in Venice in 1488. The name has gradually evolved into the name Verrochi. Andrea is also the several generation grandfather of Italian entrepreneur, Paul M. Verrochi.
Despite the importance of Verrocchio's workshop in the training of younger painters, very few paintings are universally recognised as his own work and there are many problems of attribution.
A painting in the National Gallery in London (cat. no.NG2508) of the Virgin and Child with two angels in tempera on panel, which had not previously been attributed to Verrocchio, was cleaned and restored about 2010 and is now attributed to him with a date of about 1467-69.
A small painting on panel of Tobias setting out on his journey with the Archangel Raphael, carrying the fish with which he was to heal his father's blindness, was probably painted as a private devotional picture. It is an early work which has formerly been attributed to Pollaiuolo and other artists. Covi thinks that it was probably painted with assistance from Ghirlandaio. It is now in London at the National Gallery.
The Baptism of Christ, now in the Uffizi Gallery at Florence, was painted in 1474–75. In this work Verrocchio was assisted by Leonardo da Vinci, then a youth and a member of his workshop, who painted the angel on the left and the part of the background above. According to Vasari, Andrea resolved never to touch the brush again because Leonardo, his pupil, had far surpassed him, but later critics consider this story apocryphal.
The Madonna enthroned with John the Baptist and St Donato is in the Pistoia Cathedral. It had been left unfinished and was completed by Lorenzo di Credi when Verrocchio was in Venice near the end of his life.
Between 1465 and 1467 he executed the funerary monument Cosimo de' Medici for the crypt under the altar of the same church, and in 1472 he completed the monument to Piero and Giovanni de' Medici in the Old Sacristy.
In 1467 the Tribunale della Mercanzia, the judicial organ of the Guilds in Florence, commissioned from Verrocchio a bronze group portraying Christ and St. Thomas for the centre tabernacle, which the Tribunale had recently purchased, on the east facade of Orsanmichele to replace a statue of St. Louis of Toulouse, which had been removed. He therefore had the problem of placing two statues (more than life size) in a tabernacle originally intended for one. As Covi says, the problem was resolved "in a most felicitous manner". The work was placed in position in 1483 and "has been acclaimed since the day of its unveiling and almost without exception recognised as a masterpiece."
Also in 1468 he contracted to make a golden ball (palla) to be placed on top of the lantern of Brunelleschi's cupola on the Duomo in Florence. The ball was ingeniously made of sheets of copper soldered together and hammered into shape and then gilded. It was completed by the spring of 1471. (The cross on top was made by other hands). The ball was struck by lightning and fell on 27 January 1601 but was reconstructed in 1602.
A bronze statue of David was commissioned by Piero de'Medici. On grounds of style and technique it was dated by Butterfield to the mid-1460s; he considered it a masterpiece of Verrocchio's early career. It was purchased by the Signoria of Florence from his heirs Lorenzo and Giuliano de' Medici in 1476 and is now at the Bargello in Florence. Verrocchio's David is a young lad, modestly clad, contrasting with Donatello's provocative David. For this figure, the Master is purported to have used the young Leonardo, a newcomer to his workshop, as his model.
At a date unknown (suggestions range from 1465 to 1480: Pope-Hennessy said about 1470) he finished in bronze a Putto (winged boy) with Dolphin, originally intended for a fountain in the Medici villa of Careggi and later brought to Florence for a fountain in the Palazzo della Signoria by the Grand Duke Cosimo de' Medici. It was replaced with a copy by Bruno Bearzi and since 1959 has been kept in a room in the Palazzo Vecchio.
The relief for the funerary monument of Francesca Tornabuoni for Santa Maria sopra Minerva in Rome is also now in the Bargello at Florence. Verrochio had been at work in the Funerary Monument to Cardinal Niccolo Forteguerri, Pistoia, when he departed for Venice in 1483.
In 1475 the Condottiero Colleoni, a former Captain General of the Republic of Venice, died and by his will left a substantial part of his estate to the Republic on condition that a statue of himself should be commissioned and set up in the Piazza San Marco. In 1479 the Republic announced that it would accept the legacy, but that (as statues were not permitted in the Piazza) the statue would be placed in the open space in front of the Scuola San Marco. A competition was arranged to enable a sculptor to be selected. Three sculptors competed for the contract, Verrocchio from Florence, Alessandro Leopardi from Venice and Bartolomeo Vellano from Padua. Verrocchio made model of his proposed sculpture using wood and black leather, while the others made models of wax and clay. The three models were exhibited in Venice in 1483 and the contract was awarded to Verrocchio. He then opened a workshop in Venice and made the final clay model which was ready to be cast in bronze, but he died in 1488, before this was done. He had asked that his pupil Lorenzo di Credi, who was then in charge of his workshop in Florence, should be entrusted with the finishing of the statue, but after the considerable delay Venetian state commissioned Alessandro Leopardi to do this. The statue was eventually erected on a pedestal made by Leopardi in the Santi Giovanni e Paolo in Venice, where it stands today.
Leopardi cast the bronze very successfully and the statue is universally admired, but Pope-Hennessy suggests that, if Verrocchio had been able to do this himself, he would have finished the head and other parts more smoothly and made it even better than it is. Although it was not placed where Colleoni had intended, Passavent emphasised how fine it looks in its actual position, writing that "the magnificent sense of movement in this figure is shown to superb advantage in its present setting" and that, as sculpture, "it far surpasses anything the century had yet aspired to or thought possible". He points out that both man and horse are equally fine and together are inseparable parts of the sculpture.
Verrocchio is unlikely to have ever seen Colleoni and the statue is not a portrait of the man but of the idea of a strong and ruthless military commander "bursting with titanic power and energy". This is in contrast to Donatello's statue at Padua of the condottiere known as Gattamelata with its "air of calm command" and all Verrocchio's effort "has been devoted to the rendering of movement and of a sense of strain and energy".
Andrea Vendramin (1393 – May 5, 1478, both Venice) served as Doge of Venice, 1476–78, at the height of Venetian power, the only member of the Vendramin family to do so. His mother, Maria Michiel, and his wife Regina Gradenigo, both came from Dogal families. He had served as Venetian Procurator in Rome, and his brief reign was largely concerned with the end of the Second Turkish–Venetian War. He probably died of plague.
The process of his election as Doge resulted in a divisive split in the Council, that resulted in bad feelings: in 1477 Antonio Feleto was imprisoned, then banished, for remarking in public that the Council of the Forty-One must have been hard-pressed to elect a cheesemonger Doge. The diarist Malipiero noted that Andrea Vendramin at the time of his election was worth 160,000 ducats, after allowing for 6 to 7000 ducats with which he had endowed each of six daughters, in order to procure politically influential sons-in-law. In his youth, he and his brother Luca, in joint ventures, used to ship from Alexandria enough goods to fill a galley or a galley and a half, Malipiero recorded in retrospect: even his factors grew rich managing his affairs.He has a large monumental wall-tomb, generally agreed to be "the most lavish funerary monument of Renaissance Venice", in the basilica of Santi Giovanni e Paolo, the usual burial-place of Doges, which was executed by Tullio Lombardo (1493), though Andrea del Verrocchio competed for the commission. It was originally intended for the church of Santa Maria dei Servi. However the portrait in the Frick Collection by Gentile Bellini, inscribed with his name, is now considered to be of his successor, Doge Giovanni Mocenigo.
He was interred in the Basilica di San Giovanni e Paolo, a traditional burial place of the doges. After Andrea's death, his widow married his brother, Luca.
For other Andrea Vendramins, see the article on the familyAnnunciation (Leonardo)
Annunciation is a painting by the Italian Renaissance artists Leonardo da Vinci and Andrea del Verrocchio, dating from circa 1472–1475. It is housed in the Uffizi gallery of Florence, Italy.
The subject matter is drawn from Luke 1.26-39 and depicts the angel Gabriel, sent by God to announce to a virgin, Mary, that she would miraculously conceive and give birth to a son, to be named Jesus, and to be called "the Son of God" whose reign would never end. The subject was very popular for artworks and had been depicted many times in the art of Florence, including several examples by the Early Renaissance painter Fra Angelico. The details of its commission and its early history remain obscure.In 1867, following Gustav Waagen methods, Baron Liphart identified this Annunciation, newly arrived in the Uffizi Gallery from a convent near Florence, as by the young Leonardo, still working in the studio of his master Verrocchio. The painting has since been attributed to different artists, including Leonardo and Verrocchio's contemporary Domenico Ghirlandaio. It was more recently determined to be a collaboration between Leonardo and his master Verrocchio, with whom Leonardo collaborated on the Baptism of Jesus.Christ and St. Thomas (Verrocchio)
Christ and St. Thomas (1467–1483) is a bronze statue by Andrea del Verrocchio made for one of the 14 niches on the exterior walls of the Orsanmichele in Florence, Italy, where it is now replaced by a cast and the original moved inside the building, which is now a museum. It shows the episode that gave rise to the term "Doubting Thomas" which, formally known as the Incredulity of Thomas, had been frequently represented in Christian art since at least the 5th century, and used to make a variety of theological points. Thomas the Apostle doubted the resurrection of Jesus and had to feel the wounds for himself in order to be convinced (John 20:24-29). The surrounding marble niche was designed by Donatello for his St Louis of Toulouse (1413), but the statue was moved to Santa Croce when the niche was sold to the Tribunale di Mercanzia (merchant's guild), who commissioned the Verrochio work.Dama col mazzolino
Woman with Flowers (Italian: Dama col mazzolino or Italian: Gentildonna dalle belle mani) is a marble sculpture of 60 centimetres height made by Andrea del Verrocchio between 1475 and 1480. It's preserved at Bargello Museum, in Florence.The identity of the woman could be address to Fioretta Gorini, spouse of Giuliano de' Medici, Lucrezia Donati, platonic love of Lorenzo il Magnifico, or the portrait of Ginevra d'Amerigo Benci, of Leonardo.Dama col mazzolino had influences on Studio di mani, of Leonardo da Vinci. It stand out for having the hands on the chest.David (Verrocchio)
Andrea del Verrocchio's bronze statue of David was most likely made between 1473 and 1475. It was commissioned by the Medici family. It is sometimes claimed that Verrocchio modeled the statue after a handsome pupil in his workshop, the young Leonardo da Vinci.
The statue represents the youthful David, future king of the Israelites, triumphantly posed over the head of the slain Goliath.
The bronze was initially installed in Palazzo Vecchio in 1476.Placement of Goliath's head has been a source of some debate for art historians. When exhibited at the National Gallery of Art, the head was placed between David's feet, as is the case in the statue's permanent home, the National Museum of the Bargello, in Florence, Italy. Another school of art historians have suggested that Verrocchio intended for Goliath's head to be placed to David's right, pointing to the diagonals of the ensemble. This placement was temporarily arranged at the National Gallery of Art, as well as Atlanta's High Museum, among others.
David was intended as a representation of Florence, as both were more powerful than they appeared, and both the shepherd boy and Florence could be viewed as rising powers.The Victoria & Albert Museum in London also owns a plaster cast of Verrocchio's David.Doubting Thomas
A doubting Thomas is a skeptic who refuses to believe without direct personal experience—a reference to the Apostle Thomas, who refused to believe that the resurrected Jesus had appeared to the ten other apostles, until he could see and feel the wounds received by Jesus on the cross.
In art, the episode (formally called the Incredulity of Thomas) has been frequently depicted since at least the 5th century, with its depiction reflecting a range of theological interpretations.Equestrian statue of Bartolomeo Colleoni
The Equestrian statue of Bartolomeo Colleoni is a Renaissance sculpture in Campo Santi Giovanni e Paolo, Venice, Italy, executed by Andrea del Verrocchio in 1480–88. Portraying the condottiero Bartolomeo Colleoni (who served for a long time under the Republic of Venice), it has a height of 395 cm excluding the pedestal. It is the second major equestrian monument of the Italian Renaissance, after Donatello's equestrian statue of Gattamelata (1453).Fioretta Gorini
Fioretta Gorini was the mistress of Giuliano de' Medici and the mother of Giulio de' Medici, the future Pope Clement VII. Gorini was the daughter of professor Antonio Gorini. Her actual name was Antonia or Antonietta, while Fioretta was a nickname given to her.On May 26, 1478, after the assassination of Giuliano in the Pazzi conspiracy, Fioretta gave birth to his illegitimate son Giulio.The female figure of Fioretta is represented in Ritratto di giovane donna (1475), of Sandro Botticelli, which is preserved in Palazzo Pitti, although it will represent Simonetta Vespucci, Clarice Orsini, Alfonsina Orsini or Lucrezia Tornabuoni. The woman sculpted on Dama col mazzolino (1475), of Andrea del Verrocchio, which is preserved in Museo Nazionale del Bargello, could be Fioretta Gorini.God the Father with Two Saints
God the Father with Two Saints is a 1477–78 fresco by Perugino. It was painted for the church of San Francesco in Deruta and shows the town at its base, along with the inscription "DECRETO PUBBLICO DFCTA / ANNO D[OMI]NI MCCCCLXXV[II/III]". This shows it was an ex voto for the end of the plague in 1476 - the two saints are St Roch (right) and St Romanus (left), both invoked against the plague.It comes from the painter's initial period back in Umbria after returning following his training under Andrea del Verrocchio in Florence. It reuses elements from his previous work - St Roch's head is similar to that of Balthazar in Adoration of the Magi, whilst the pavement pattern is from The Miracle of the Stillborn Child.Leonardeschi
The Leonardeschi is the large group of artists who worked in the studio of or under the influence of Leonardo da Vinci. In 1472 da Vinci joined the Guild of St Luke and at the end of 1477 he left the studio of Andrea del Verrocchio as an independent artist. In 1482 Leonardo came to Milan where he stayed with Giovanni Ambrogio de Predis, Evangelista de Predis and their four brothers, who all were artists of different kinds. Both Predis brothers are known for having collaborated with Leonardo da Vinci in the painting of the Virgin of the Rocks for the altarpiece in the chapel of the Confraternity of the Immaculate Conception at the Church of San Francesco Grande, Milan. In 1490 Leonardo earned recognition and a breakthrough at the court of Ludovico Sforza and because of the scale of works commissioned he was permitted to have assistants and pupils in his own studio.Madonna of the Carnation
The Madonna of the Carnation, a.k.a. Madonna with Vase or Madonna with Child, is a Renaissance oil painting by Leonardo da Vinci created around 1478-1480. It is permanently displayed at the Alte Pinakothek gallery in Munich, Germany.
The central and centered motif is the young Virgin Mary seated with Baby Jesus on her lap. Depicted in precious clothes and jewellery, with her left hand Mary holds a carnation (red, suggesting blood and the Passion). The faces are put into light while all other objects are darker, e.g. the carnation is covered by a shadow. The child is looking up, the mother is looking down — there is no eye contact. The setting of the portrait is a room with two windows on each side of the figures.
Originally this painting was thought to have been created by Andrea del Verrocchio but subsequent art historians agree that it is Leonardo's work.
The Madonna and Child was a common motif in Christian art during the Middle Ages. This painting is the only work by Leonardo which is permanently on display in Germany.Madonna with Sts John the Baptist and Donatus (Verrocchio)
The Madonna with the Saints John the Baptist and Donatus is a painting by the Italian Renaissance painter Andrea del Verrocchio, circa 1475-1483. It is housed in the Cathedral of Pistoia, Italy. The painting depicts the Virgin Mary, and Saints John the Baptist and Donatus of Fiesole.Nativity of the Virgin (Perugino)
Nativity of the Virgin is a small tempera on panel painting by Perugino, dating to around 1472 and now in the Walker Art Gallery in Liverpool. It shows the nativity of Mary. The style of the house is heavily influenced by Andrea del Verrocchio
It belongs to the painter's early period and the important commissions he gained during the short time he was active in Florence. Both it and Miracle of the Snow are usually identified as one of two surviving parts of the same predella, either from a lost altarpiece of the Virgin Mary or from the Piazza Madonna by Verocchio's studio. Both panels were in the Pucci chapel in Santissima Annunziata in Florence by 1786, when they were bought by John Campbell. They were sold to different owners in London in 1804, with Birth bought by William Roscoe for nine guineas. At the time of the sale it was misattributed to Masaccio.Piazza Madonna
The Piazza Madonna (Italian - Madonna di Piazza) is a tempera on panel painting, dating to 1474-1486 and held in Pistoia Cathedral.It was commissioned from Andrea del Verrocchio in 1474 as an altarpiece for the oratory of the Piazza Madonna. It was intended to commemorate bishop Donato de Medici, whose name saint Donatus of Fiesole stands to the right, with Florence's patron saint John the Baptist to the left. It was painted in two parts, with heavy involvement from Verrochio's studio assistants, particularly Lorenzo di Credi. The first part was finished in 1479, but the second phase was postponed until 1485 thanks to delays in payment. The painting was finally completed in 1486.
18th century local historians attributed the work to Leonardo da Vinci, based on a note made by the artist on a folio now in the Uffizi which records that in the month of "...bre" 1478 he began "two Virgin Maries", one of which is usually identified as the Garofano Madonna. Today Leonardo is thought to have had no involvement in the painting of the Piazza Madonna beyond one compartment of the predella which corresponds to an autograph drawing of a head of the Virgin by him - that panel is now in the Louvre and the drawing is no. 438 E in the Gabinetto dei Disegni e delle Stampe of the Uffizi.The painting originally had a predella, whose panels are now dispersed among several museums. Credi's St Donatus and the Tax Collector (Worcester Art Museum) is identified as one of them, whilst Perugino's Birth of the Virgin Mary and Miracle of the Snow are both also sometimes thought to have been part of this predellaSimone Ferrucci
Simone Ferrucci (1437-1493), also Francesco di Simone Ferrucci, was an Italian sculptor.
Ferrucci was born in Fiesole into a family of artists, and was probably trained by his father, Simone di Nanni Ferrucci. He was also first cousin to Andrea Ferrucci. He was also influenced by Desiderio da Settignano and Andrea del Verrocchio. In 1463 he joined the Arte dei Maestri di Pietra e di Legname, the Florentine sculptors' wood and stone workers guild, and established a workshop in Florence in 1466. The art historian Vasari named him among the pupils of Andrea del Verrocchio who he most likely worked with in the 1470s. Ferrucci primarily produced religious-themed sculptures for commissions.
Records indicate that by 1470 Ferrucci was married and owned a house in Florence. He lived and worked in Florence until his death in 1493.The Baptism of Christ (Verrocchio and Leonardo)
The Baptism of Christ is a painting finished around 1475 in the studio of the Italian Renaissance painter Andrea del Verrocchio and generally ascribed to him and his pupil Leonardo da Vinci. Some art historians discern the hands of other members of Verrocchio's workshop in the painting as well.
The picture depicts the Baptism of Jesus by John the Baptist as recorded in the Biblical Gospels of Matthew, Mark and Luke. The angel to the left is recorded as having been painted by the youthful Leonardo, a fact which has excited so much special comment and mythology, that the importance and value of the picture as a whole and within the œuvre of Verrocchio is often overlooked. Modern critics also attribute much of the landscape in the background to Leonardo da Vinci as well. The painting is housed in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence.The Virgin and Child with Two Angels (Andrea del Verrochio)
The Virgin and Child with Two Angels (Italian, sometimes: Madonna del Latte) is a painting by the Italian Renaissance painter Andrea del Verrocchio, dating from circa 1467–1469. It is in the National Gallery, London, United Kingdom.Tobias and the Angel (Verrocchio)
Tobias and the Angel is an altar painting, finished around 1470–1475, attributed to the workshop of the Italian Renaissance painter Andrea del Verrocchio. It is housed in the National Gallery, London. This painting is similar to an earlier painting depicting Tobias and the Angel, by Antonio del Pollaiolo.According to Oxford art historian Martin Kemp, Leonardo da Vinci, who was a member of Verrocchio's studio, may have painted some part of this work, most likely the fish. David Alan Brown, of the National Gallery in Washington, attributes the painting of the fluffy little dog to him as well. If so, this would be perhaps the first extant example of a painting with input by Leonardo.Visitation (Perugino)
Visitation is a c.1472 tempera on panel painting usually attributed to Perugino, now in the Galleria dell'Accademia in Florence. An early work by the artist from around the same time as Nativity of the Virgin, whilst he was still heavily influenced by Andrea del Verrocchio, it probably originated as part of the predella for a lost altarpiece. It shows the Visitation, with the Virgin Mary's mother Saint Anne to the left. In the left background is Francis of Assisi receiving the stigmata and in the right background is Florence's patron saint John the Baptist - this may indicate that the lost altarpiece was intended for a Franciscan monastery in Florence such as Santa Croce.
There is debate over the painting's attribution to Perugino - Mackowsky, Raimond Van Marle and Ugo Procacci instead attributed it to Jacopo del Sellaio or his school. The attribution to Perugino was first mooted in 1959 at a conference by Federico Zeri. Anna Padoa Rizzo agrees, but Jean K. Cadogan instead attributes it to Domenico Ghirlandaio.