Andrea Doria

Andrea Doria (Italian: [anˈdrɛ.a ˈdɔːrja]; 30 November 1466 – 25 November 1560) was an Italian condottiero and admiral of the Republic of Genoa.[1]

Andrea Doria
Andrea Doria
Portrait of Andrea Doria, c. 1520, by Sebastiano del Piombo
Born30 November 1466
Oneglia, Republic of Genoa
Died25 November 1560 (aged 93)
Genoa, Republic of Genoa
AllegianceCoat of arms of the House of della Rovere.svg Duchy of Urbino

Coa fam ITA ghislieri.jpg Papal States
 Republic of Genoa
 Kingdom of France

Spain Kingdom of Spain
Battles/wars

Early life

Casa Andrea Doria
Natal home of Andrea Doria in Oneglia

Doria was born at Oneglia from the ancient Genoese family, the Doria di Oneglia branch of the old Doria, de Oria or de Auria family. His parents were related: Ceva Doria, co-lord of Oneglia, and Caracosa Doria, of the Doria di Dolceacqua branch. Orphaned at an early age, he became a soldier of fortune, serving first in the papal guard and then under various Italian princes.[2]

In 1503, he fought in Corsica in the service of the Genoese navy, at that time under French vassalage, and he took part in the rising of Genoa against the French, whom he compelled to evacuate the city. From that time onwards, he became famous as a naval commander. For several years he scoured the Mediterranean in command of the Genoese fleet, waging war on the Turks and the Barbary pirates and defeating them at Pianosa.[2]

Wars between France and the Holy Roman Empire

In the meanwhile Genoa had been recaptured by the French, and in 1522 by the armies of the Holy Roman Emperor. But Doria joined the French or popular faction and entered the service of King Francis I of France, who made him captain-general; in 1524 he relieved Marseille, which was besieged by the Imperials, and later helped to place his native city once more under French domination.[2] His ships, under the command of his nephew, Filippino Doria crushed a Spanish squadron on April 28, 1528 at the Battle of Capo d'Orso.

Dissatisfied with his treatment at the hands of Francis, who was mean about payment, he resented the king's behavior in connection with Savona, which he delayed handing back to the Genoese as he had promised. Consequently, on the expiration of Doria's contract he entered the service of Emperor Charles V (June 1528).[2]

Re-establishment of the Genoese Republic

Doria ordered his nephew Filippino, who was then blockading Naples in alliance with a French army, to withdraw; Doria then sailed for Genoa where, with the help of some leading citizens, he expelled the French and re-established the republic under imperial protection. He reformed the constitution in an aristocratic sense, most of the nobility being Imperialists, and put an end to the factions which divided the city,[2] by creating 28 Alberghi or "clans". The 28 Alberghi that formed this new ruling class included the Cybo, Doria, Fieschi, Giustiniani, Grimaldi, Imperiale, Pallavicino, and Spinola families.[3][4]

He refused offers to take the lordship of Genoa and even the dogeship, but accepted the position of "perpetual censor", and exercised predominant influence in the councils of the republic until his death.[2] The title "censor" in this context was modeled on its meaning in the Roman Republic, i.e., a highly respected senior public official (see Roman censor), rather than its modern meaning having to do with censorship. He was given two palaces, many privileges, and the title of Liberator et Pater Patriae (Liberator and Father of His Country).[2]

As imperial admiral

As imperial admiral, he commanded several expeditions against the Ottoman Empire between 1530 and 1541.[5] He captured Koroni and Patras, and co-operated with the emperor himself in the capture of Tunis (1535). Charles found him an invaluable ally in the wars with Francis I, and through him extended his domination over the whole of Italy.[2]

In February 1538, Pope Paul III succeeded in assembling a Holy League (comprising the Papal States, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire, the Republic of Venice and the Maltese Knights) against the Ottomans, but Hayreddin Barbarossa defeated its combined fleet, commanded by Andrea Doria, at the Battle of Preveza in September 1538. This victory secured Turkish dominance over the eastern Mediterranean for the next 33 years, until the Battle of Lepanto in 1571.

Doria accompanied Charles V on the ill-fated Algiers expedition of 1541, of which he disapproved, and which ended in disaster. For the next five years he continued to serve the emperor in various wars, in which he was generally successful and always active, although now over seventy years old.[2]

Later years

After the Peace of Crépy between Francis and Charles in 1544, Doria hoped to end his days in quiet. However, his great wealth and power, as well as the arrogance of his nephew and heir Giannettino Doria, had made him many enemies, and in 1547 the Fieschi conspiracy to dislodge his family from power took place. Giannettino was killed, but the conspirators were defeated, and Doria showed great vindictiveness in punishing them, seizing many of their fiefs for himself. He was also implicated in the murder of Pier Luigi Farnese, duke of Parma and Piacenza, who had helped Fieschi.[2]

Other conspiracies followed, of which the most important was that of Giulio Cybo (1548), but all failed. Although Doria was ambitious and harsh, he was a patriot and successfully opposed Emperor Charles's repeated attempts to have a citadel built in Genoa and garrisoned by Spaniards; neither blandishments nor threats could win him over to the scheme.[2]

Nor did age lessen his energy, for in 1550, aged 84, he again put to sea to confront the Barbary pirates, but with no great success. In 1552 the Ottoman fleet under the command of Turgut Reis defeated the Spanish-Italian fleet of Charles V under the command of Andrea Doria in the Battle of Ponza (1552). War between France and the Empire having broken out once more, the French seized Corsica in the Invasion of Corsica (1553), then administered by the Genoese Bank of Saint George. Doria was again summoned, and he spent two years (1553–1555) on the island fighting the French with varying fortune.[2]

He returned to Genoa for good in 1555, and being very old and infirm, he gave over the command of the galleys to his great-nephew Giovanni Andrea Doria, the son of Giannettino Doria, who conducted an expedition against Tripoli, but proved even more unsuccessful than his great-uncle had been at Algiers, barely escaping with his life after losing the Battle of Djerba against the Turkish fleet of Piyale Pasha and Turgut Reis. Andrea Doria left his estates to Giovanni Andrea. The family of Doria-Pamphili-Landi is descended from Giovanni Andrea Doria and bears his title of Prince of Melfi.[2]

Ships

Several ships were named in honour of the Admiral:

Paintings and commemorations

A painted sheepskin for The Magnificent and Excellent Andrea Doria hangs at The Breakers in Newport, RI, US.

References

  1. ^ Frediani, Andrea (2012-06-25). I grandi condottieri che hanno cambiato la storia (in Italian). Newton Compton Editori. ISBN 9788854144088.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainVillari, Luigi (1911). "Doria, Andrea" . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. 8 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 425.
  3. ^ The Grimaldis of Monaco, Anne Edwards, HarperCollins, 1992, [1], ISBN 0-00-215195-2
  4. ^ Genoa and the sea: policy and power in an early modern maritime republic, 1559–1684, Thomas Allison Kirk, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005., pg. 25 [2], ISBN 0-8018-8083-1
  5. ^ Lloyd, Christopher (1961). Ships and Seamen: a Pictorial History from the Vikings to the Present Day. Cleveland, Ohio: World Publishing Company. p. 25.
1907 Prima Categoria

The 1907 Prima Categoria season was won by Milan.

1908 Italian Football Championship

The 1908 Italian Football Championship season was won by Pro Vercelli.

In this season, two championships of Prima Categoria were played:

Italian Championship, the main tournament where only Italian players were allowed to play; the winners would be proclaimed Campioni d'Italia (Italian Champions)

Federal Championship, a secondary tournament where foreign players (if they lived in Italy) were also allowed to play; the winners would be proclaimed Campioni Federali (Federal Champions)The winner of Italian Championship was Pro Vercelli. They won as prize Coppa Buni.

The winner of Federal Championship was Juventus. They won as prize Coppa Spensley.

However, only Pro Vercelli's title is officially recognized by the Italian Football Federation, while the Federal Championship won by Juventus was later forgotten by FIGC, due to the boycott made by the "spurious international teams" (the clubs composed mostly of foreign players).

2175 Andrea Doria

2175 Andrea Doria, provisional designation 1977 TY, is a stony Florian asteroid from the inner regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 4 kilometers in diameter.

It was discovered on 12 October 1977, by Swiss astronomer Paul Wild at Zimmerwald Observatory near Bern, Switzerland, and named after 16th-century Genoese admiral Andrea Doria.

Andrea Doria-class battleship

The Andrea Doria class (usually called Caio Duilio class in Italian sources) was a pair of dreadnought battleships built for the Royal Italian Navy (Regia Marina) between 1912 and 1916. The two ships—Andrea Doria and Caio Duilio—were completed during World War I. The class was an incremental improvement over the preceding Conte di Cavour class. Like the earlier ships, Andrea Doria and Caio Duilio were armed with a main battery of thirteen 305-millimeter (12.0 in) guns.

The two ships were based in southern Italy during World War I to help ensure that the Austro-Hungarian Navy's surface fleet would be contained in the Adriatic. Neither vessel saw any combat during the conflict. After the war, they cruised the Mediterranean and were involved in several international incidents, including at Corfu in 1923. In 1933, both ships were placed in reserve. In 1937 the ships began a lengthy reconstruction. The modifications included removing their center main battery turret and boring out the rest of the guns to 320 mm (12.6 in), strengthening their armor protection, installing new boilers and steam turbines, and lengthening their hulls. The reconstruction work lasted until 1940, by which time Italy was already engaged in World War II.

The two ships were moored in Taranto on the night of 11/12 November 1940 when the British launched a carrier strike on the Italian fleet. In the resulting Battle of Taranto, Caio Duilio was hit by a torpedo and forced to beach to avoid sinking. Andrea Doria was undamaged in the raid; repairs for Caio Duilio lasted until May 1941. Both ships escorted convoys to North Africa in late 1941, including Operation M42, where Andrea Doria saw action at the inconclusive First Battle of Sirte on 17 December. Fuel shortages curtailed further activities in 1942 and 1943, and both ships were interned at Malta following Italy's surrender in September 1943. Italy was permitted to retain both battleships after the war, and they alternated as fleet flagship until the early 1950s, when they were removed from active service. Both ships were scrapped after 1956.

Andrea Doria-class cruiser

The Andrea Doria class were helicopter cruisers of the Italian Navy. Italy's first major new designs of the post–World War II era, these ships were primarily designed for anti-submarine warfare tasks. Initially planned for three ships, the two ships that were constructed, Andrea Doria and Caio Duilio served until 1991 in both active and training capacities. The Andrea Doria class formed the basis for the larger Vittorio Veneto that followed them.

Battle of Pianosa

The Battle of Pianosa is a naval engagement which took place on April 25, 1519 when a Genoese fleet inflicted a severe defeat on the flotilla of the Tunisia-based Barbary corsair Kaid Ali in the Tyrrhenian Sea, in view of the island of Elba. The battle broke the back of one of the rising corsair bases on the Barbary Coast, Bizerte, and established Andrea Doria as one of the foremost captains in the Mediterranean .

Battle of Ponza (1552)

The Battle of Ponza (1552) was a naval battle that occurred near the Italian island of Ponza. The battle was fought between a Franco-Ottoman fleet under Dragut and a Genoese fleet commanded by Andrea Doria. The Genoese were defeated and lost seven galleys captured. The battle made it easier for the Ottoman fleet to raid the coasts of Sicily, Sardinia and Italy for the next three years.

Chrysler Norseman

The Chrysler Norseman was a four-seat fastback coupe built in 1956 as a concept car. Although designed by Chrysler's stylists, actual construction was contracted out to the Italian coach-building firm of Carrozzeria Ghia. The concept car was lost during the sinking of SS Andrea Doria.

Giovanni Andrea Doria

Giovanni Andrea Doria, also Gianandrea Doria (1539–1606), was an Italian admiral from Genoa. He was the son of Giannettino Doria.

He became the Admiral of the Genoese Fleet in 1556 and commanded the combined Christian fleet of the Holy League at the Battle of Djerba in 1560, which was won by the Ottoman Turks under the command of Piyale Pasha. He also participated in the Battle of Lepanto in 1571, commanding the right wing; the battle was won by the Christian forces and signaled the first ever defeat of the Ottoman Turks at sea. Doria also led an expedition against the Barbary states in 1601.

He was a knight commander of the Order of Santiago, Marquis of Tursi and 6th (or 2nd) Prince of Melfi (both titles inherited from his relation and adoptive father, the famed Genoese admiral Andrea Doria).

Horizon-class frigate

The Horizon class is a class of air-defence frigates in service with the French Navy and the Italian Navy, though they have since been designated as destroyers by both countries. The programme started as the Common New Generation Frigate (CNGF), a multi-national collaboration to produce a new generation of air-defence frigates. In Italy the class is known as the Orizzonte class, which translates to "horizon" in French and English. The UK then joined France and Italy in the Horizon-class frigate programme; however, differing national requirements, workshare arguments and delays led to the UK withdrawing on 26 April 1999 and starting its own national project, the Type 45 destroyer.The FREMM multipurpose frigate are currently under construction using the same company structure as the Horizon project.

Italian aircraft carrier Cavour

Cavour (Italian: portaerei Cavour) is an Italian aircraft carrier launched in 2004. It is the flagship of the Italian Navy.

Italian battleship Andrea Doria

Andrea Doria was the lead ship of her class of battleships built by the Regia Marina (Royal Navy). The class included only one sister ship, Caio Duilio. Andrea Doria was named after the 16th century Genoese admiral of the same name. Laid down in March 1912, the battleship was launched a year later in March 1913, and completed in March 1916. She was armed with a main battery of thirteen 305 mm (12.0 in) guns and had a top speed of 21 knots (39 km/h; 24 mph).

Andrea Doria saw no major action in World War I, and served extensively in Mediterranean in the 1920s and 1930s. She was involved in the suppression of rebels in Fiume and the Corfu incident in the 1920s. Starting in 1937, Andrea Doria underwent an extensive modernization, which lasted until 1940. She saw relatively little action during World War II; she was tasked with escorting convoys to Libya throughout 1941 and into 1942, during which she engaged in the inconclusive First Battle of Sirte. After the Armistice in September 1943 the ship was sailed to Malta and interned by the Allies. She remained there until 1944, when she was permitted to return to Italian ports. Andrea Doria survived the war and soldiered on in the post-war navy as a training ship until 1956. Paid off in September, she was formally stricken from the naval register on 1 November and sold for scrapping later that year.

Italian cruiser Andrea Doria

Andrea Doria (C 553) was an Andrea Doria-class helicopter cruiser of the Marina Militare. Built by the Cantieri del Tirreno at Riva Trigoso (Liguria), it was named after the Genoese Renaissance admiral Andrea Doria.

Italian destroyer Andrea Doria

Andrea Doria is a destroyer of the Italian Navy. She and her sister Caio Duilio form the Andrea Doria class; in turn these two ships, and the French vessels Forbin and Chevalier Paul, belong to the Horizon class. Andrea Doria has the hull number D 553 according to NATO classification.

Italian ironclad Andrea Doria

Andrea Doria was an ironclad battleship built for the Italian Regia Marina (Royal Navy) in the 1880s and 1890s. Named for the 16th-century Genoese admiral Andrea Doria, she was the third and final ship of the Ruggiero di Lauria class. The ship was armed with a main battery of four 17-inch (432 mm) guns, was protected with 17.75-inch (451 mm) thick belt armor, and was capable of a top speed of 17 knots (31 km/h; 20 mph).

The ship's construction period was very lengthy, beginning in August 1881 and completing in February 1888. She was quickly rendered obsolescent by the new pre-dreadnought battleships being laid down, and as a result, her career was limited. She spent her career alternating between the Active and Reserve Squadrons, where she took part in training exercises each year with the rest of the fleet. Andrea Doria was stricken from the naval register in 1911 and used as a depot ship until Italy entered World War I in 1915. The ship was renamed GR 104 and employed as a guard ship in Brindisi. She was converted into a floating oil tank after the war and was eventually broken up for scrap in 1929.

MV Astoria

MV Astoria was constructed as an ocean liner and subsequently rebuilt as a cruise ship. She was ordered in 1944, and launched 9 September 1946, as Stockholm by Götaverken in Gothenburg for the Swedish America Line (SAL). She made her Maiden voyage in 1948, under the command of captain John Nordlander. During her seven decades of service she has passed through several owners and sailed under the names Völkerfreundschaft, Volker, Fridtjof Nansen, Italia I, Italia Prima, Valtur Prima, Caribe, Athena, and Azores before beginning service as Astoria in March 2016.As Stockholm, she was best known for colliding with Andrea Doria in 1956, resulting in the sinking of the latter ship.

SS Andrea Doria

SS Andrea Doria, pronounced [anˈdrɛːa ˈdɔːrja], was an ocean liner for the Italian Line (Società di navigazione Italia) home ported in Genoa, Italy, most famous for her sinking in 1956, when 46 people were killed.

Named after the 16th-century Genoese admiral Andrea Doria, the ship had a gross register tonnage of 29,100 and a capacity of about 1,200 passengers and 500 crew. For a country attempting to rebuild its economy and reputation after World War II, Andrea Doria was an icon of Italian national pride. Of all Italy's ships at the time, Andrea Doria was the largest, fastest, and supposedly safest. Launched on 16 June 1951, the ship undertook its maiden voyage on 14 January 1953.

On 25 July 1956, while Andrea Doria was approaching the coast of Nantucket, Massachusetts, bound for New York City, the eastbound MS Stockholm of the Swedish American Line collided with it in one of history's most infamous maritime disasters. Struck in the side, the top-heavy Andrea Doria immediately started to list severely to starboard, which left half of its lifeboats unusable. The consequent shortage of lifeboats could have resulted in significant loss of life, but the efficiency of the ship's technical design allowed it to stay afloat for over 11 hours after the ramming. The good behavior of the crew, improvements in communications, and the rapid response of other ships averted a disaster similar in scale to that of Titanic in 1912. While 1,660 passengers and crew were rescued and survived, 46 people died with the ship as a consequence of the collision. The evacuated luxury liner capsized and sank the following morning. This accident remains the worst maritime disaster to occur in United States waters since the sinking of the SS Eastland in 1915.The incident and its aftermath were heavily covered by the news media. While the rescue efforts were both successful and commendable, the cause of the collision with Stockholm and the loss of Andrea Doria generated much interest in the media and many lawsuits. Largely because of an out-of-court settlement agreement between the two shipping companies during hearings immediately after the disaster, no determination of the cause(s) was ever formally published. Although greater blame appeared initially to fall on the Italian liner, more recent discoveries have indicated that a misreading of radar on the Swedish ship initiated the collision course, leading to errors on both ships.

The Andrea Doria (Seinfeld)

"The Andrea Doria" is the 144th episode of American television sitcom Seinfeld. This was the tenth episode for the eighth season. It aired on NBC on December 19, 1996.

U.C. Sampdoria

Unione Calcio Sampdoria, commonly referred to as Sampdoria (Italian pronunciation: [sampˈdɔːrja]), is an Italian professional football club based in Genoa, Liguria.

The club was formed in 1946 from the merger of two existing sports clubs whose roots can be traced back to the 1890s, Sampierdarenese and Andrea Doria.

Both the team name and jersey reflect this, the first being a combination of the former names, the second incorporating the former teams' colours (blue-white and red-black) in a single design. The team's colours are blue with white, red and black hoops, hence the nickname blucerchiati ("blue-circled"). Sampdoria play at Stadio Luigi Ferraris, capacity 36,536, which it shares with Genoa's other club, Genoa Cricket and Football Club. The derby between the two teams is commonly known as the Derby della Lanterna.

Sampdoria have won the Scudetto once in their history, in 1991. The club has also won the Coppa Italia four times, in 1985, 1988, 1989 and 1994, and the Supercoppa Italiana once, in 1991. Their biggest European success came when they won the Cup Winners' Cup in 1990. They also reached the European Cup final in 1992, losing the final 1–0 to Barcelona after extra time.

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