André Charles Boulle

André-Charles Boulle (11 November 1642 – 29 February 1732[1]), le joailler du meuble (the "furniture jeweller"),[2] is the most famous French cabinetmaker and the preeminent artist in the field of marquetry,[3][4] also known as "Inlay".[5] Boulle was "the most remarkable of all French cabinetmakers".[6] He was commended to Louis XIV of France, the "Sun King", by Jean-Baptiste Colbert (29 August 1619 – 6 September 1683) as being “the most skilled craftsman in his profession”. Over the centuries since his death, his name and that of his family has been given to the art he perfected, the inlay of tortoiseshell, brass and pewter into ebony. It is known as Boulle Work[7] and the École Boulle, a college of fine arts and crafts and applied arts in Paris, today bears testimony to his enduring art, the Art of inlay.

Commode MET DT8915
Commode by André-Charles Boulle, son of Jean Boulle: (ca. 1710–20). Walnut veneered with ebony, marquetry of engraved brass and tortoiseshell, gilt-bronze mounts, verd antique marble
Commode MET DP108733
Commode by André-Charles Boulle - Detail

Boulle's Life

in 1677, on his marriage certificate, André-Charles Boulle gave his birth date, for posterity, as being 11 November 1642. No other document corroborates this birth in Paris. The historians M. Charles Read, H.-L. Lacordaire and Paulin Richard have determined[8] that his father was the Protestant Jan (or Jean/Johann) Bolt (or Bolte/Boul/ Bolle[9])[10] but at his own (Catholic) marriage, André-Charles Boulle named his father as "Jean Boulle". André-Charles Boulle's marriage at Saint Sulpice and burial in 1732 at Saint-Germain-l'Auxerrois[11] are but two of many lifetime inconsistencies with his Protestant 'provenance', most easily explained by the ongoing persecution of Protestants. His parentage with the Protestant Boulles from Marseille, the Sun King's Historian[12] needs clarification and Coliès, in his Bibliotheque Choisies confirms a Marseillais relative as being the author of a History of Protestantism, called Essay de l'histoire des Protestants Distingués Par Nation (1646).

Jean-Baptiste Lully.jpeg
Jean Baptiste Lully signature
Jean-Baptiste Lully c. 1670
Jean Baptiste Lully signature
Commode MET DP108734
Commode by André-Charles Boulle, son of Jean Boulle - Detail

In the absence of a birth document, three factors play a critical part in the mystery surrounding Boulle's parentage.

The first is that foreign artists flocking to the Sun King's Court were keen to be naturalised French subjects to 'fit in' and would, like Jean-Baptiste Lully the Royal Musician (28 November 1632 – 22 March 1687), have changed their names. Jean-Baptiste Lully, c.1670]]For Lully, it was from "Giovanni Battista Lulli" to "Jean-Baptiste Lully") but at his marriage, he falsely declared his father's name to be Laurent de Lully, gentilhomme Florentin [Florentine gentleman]".[13] This historical background makes it difficult for the historian to identify which of the many Jean Boulles, Jean Bolles,[9] Johann Bolts or even 'Jean Boulds' on record was André-Charles Boulle's true father. Some of these are of Catholic French origin, some are French Protestants and some are from Gelderland in Holland[10]

Getty Museum Wall Clock André-Charles Boulle
J. Paul Getty Museum: Wall Clock; Attributed to André-Charles Boulle (French, 1642 - 1732, master before 1666); Paris, France; about 1710; Gilt bronze; blue-painted horn; enameled metal.

The second factor is that André-Charles Boulle's birth date is almost certainly inacurrate. Despite his genius (or perhaps because of it) André-Charles Boulle was a demonstrably poor administrator and poor with dates and specifically in respect of his age. His children were no different, declaring him to be 90 Years old when he died. This is highly unlikely.[14]

Clock with pedestal MET DP340881
Clock with pedestal by André-Charles Boulle - Detail

The third and perhaps most telling factor adding to the overall confusion about Boulle's parentage was that in October 1685 (a mere 8 years after his marriage), Louis XIV renounced the Edict of Nantes and declared Protestantism illegal with the Edict of Fontainebleau. All Protestant ministers were given two weeks to leave the country unless they converted to Catholicism.Louis XIV ordered the destruction of Huguenot churches, as well as the closure of Protestant schools. This made official the persecution of Protestants already enforced since 1681 and it led to around 400,000 fleeing the country.[15][16]

Jean-Baptiste Lully demonstrates, by his documented actions, that marriage was a propitious time to tidy up provenance. Within the context of the times, it is natural to expect that as well as ensuring his father's Catholic name was recorded for posterity, André-Charles Boulle 'tidied' up his own place and date of birth. This made him older, for motives we do not yet comprehend.[17] There is also the definite possibility, as yet unexplored by historians, that André-Charles Boulle was born in Holland. It would explain a lot of the confusion around his parentage. The salient fact is that we only have André-Charles Boulle's word that he was born in Paris in 1642.

Cabinet MET DP117990
Cabinet - Oak veneered with Macassar and Gabon ebony, ebonized fruitwood, burl wood, and marquetry of tortoiseshell and brass; gilt bronze

André-Charles Boulle's Protestant family environment was a rich and artistic milieu totally consistent with the genius of the Art he was to produce in later years. His father, Jean Boulle (ca 1616-?),[18] was cabinetmaker to the King, had been naturalised French in 1676 and lived in the Louvre, by Royal Decree. His grandfather, Pierre Boulle (ca 1595-1649),[18] was naturalised French in 1675, had been cabinetmaker to Louis XIII and had also lived in the Louvre. André-Charles was thus exposed to two generations of illustrious artists, master craftsmen, engravers, cabinetmakers and, indeed, family all directly contracted by the King. As pointed out by the historians M. De Montaiglon and Charles Asselineau, this entourage included his aunt Marguerite Bahusche (on his mother's side) who was a famous painter in her own right, married to another very famous artist, Jacques Bunel de Blois, Henri IV's favourite painter.[19] Others who were appointed by the King and worked with the two preceding generations of Boulles from their ateliers in the Louvre included the painter Louis Du Guernier (1614-1659),[20] the embroiderers Nicolas Boulle and Caillard and the goldsmith Pierre de la Barre.[21]

Clock with pedestal MET DP214853
Boulle Work on Boulle Clock - Detail

There is virtually nothing on André-Charles Boulle's youth, upbringing or training apart from a solitary Notarial Act dated 19 July 1666 (when he was supposedly 24 years old) agreeing a 5-year apprentice's contract for a 17-year-old nephew, François Delaleau, Master Carpenter from L'Abbaye des Celestins de Marcoussis in Paris.[22] André-Charles Boulle's own apprenticeship was therefore most likely to have occurred within the focused confines of his father's atelier at the Louvre. Here, in any event, he was closest to the Sun King. and to Jean-Baptiste Colbert who discovered him.[23]

Barometer Clock (Boulle) Front
Andre-Charles Boulle (1642-1732) Casemaker (Attributed to) Ebony, Tortoiseshell, and Brass Barometer Mantel Clock, 1690 ebony, tortoiseshell, and brass on walnut and oak 42 1/4 in. x 23 1/8 in. x 10 1/4 in. (107.32 cm x 58.67 cm x 26.04 cm) Bequest of Winthrop Kellogg Edey, 1999.

In 1672, by the age of 30, Boulle had already been granted lodgings in the galleries of the Louvre which Louis XIV had set apart for the use of the most favoured among the artists employed by the Crown. To be admitted to these galleries signified a mark of special Royal favour and also freed him from the restrictions imposed by the trade guilds. Boulle received the deceased Jean Macé's lodgings on the recommendation of the Minister of Arts, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, who described Boulle as le plus habile ébéniste de Paris. The Royal Decree conferring this privilege describes Boulle variously as a chaser, gilder and maker of marquetry.[24] Boulle received the post of Premier ébéniste du Roi.[25]

A cabinet-on-stand attributed to André-Charles Boulle at the Getty Museum
The J. Paul Getty Museum. Cabinet on Stand; Attributed to André-Charles Boulle (French, 1642 - 1732, master before 1666), and medallions after Jean Varin (French, 1596 - 1672); Paris, France; about 1675 - 1680; Oak veneered with pewter, brass, tortoise shell, horn, ebony, ivory, and wood marquetry; bronze mounts; figures of painted and gilded oak; with drawers of snakewood

Boulle initially had aspirations to be a painter but according to one of his close friends, Pierre-Jean Mariette (7 May 1694 – 10 September 1774), he was forced by his cabinetmaker father, Jean Boulle, to develop other skills. This may explain a sense of 'missed vocation' and resultant 'passion' and utter dedication to the collection of prints and paintings, which nearly ruined him...[26]

The first payment on record to him by the crown (1669) specifies ouvrages de peinture and Boulle was employed for years on end at the Versailles, where the mirrored walls, floors of wood mosaic, inlaid paneling and marquetry in the Cabinet du Dauphin (1682–1686) came to be regarded by such as Jean-Aimar Piganiol de La Force ( 21 September 1669 - 10 January 1753 )[27] as his most remarkable work. The rooms were dismantled in the Late 18th century and their unfashionable art broken up,.[24] More recently, a partial inventory of the Grand Dauphin's decorations at the Palace of Versailles has come to light at the National Archives in Paris.[28]

Boulle carried out numerous royal commissions for the "Sun King", as can be seen from the records of the Bâtiments du Roi and correspondence of the marquis de Louvois. Foreign Princes, French Nobility, government ministers and French financiers flocked to him offering him work, and the famous words of the abbé de Marolles, Boulle y tourne en ovale became a well established saying in the literature associated with French cabinetmaking.[24] Professor C.R. Williams writes, There was no limit to the prices a reckless and profligate court was willing to pay for luxurious beauty during the sumptuous, extravagant reign of Louis the Magnificent of France. For much that was most splendid and beautiful in furniture making at this period stands the name of Charles André Boulle. His imagination and skill were given full play, and he proved equal to the demands made upon him.Boulle was a remarkable man. In a court whose only thought was of pleasure and display, he realized that his furniture must not only excel all others in richness, beauty, and cost; it must also be both comfortable and useful. He was appointed cabinet maker to the Dauphin, the heir to the throne of France. This distinction, together with his own tastes, led him to copy some of the manners and bearing of his rich customers.' He was an aristocrat among furniture makers. He spent the greater part of his large fortune in filling his workshop with works of art. His warehouses were packed with precious woods and finished and unfinished pieces of magnificent furniture. In his own rooms were priceless works of art, the collection of a lifetime—gems, medals, drawings, and paintings, which included forty-eight drawings by Raphael''.[29]

Boulle's output from, at one time, three workshops included commodes, bureaux, armoires, pedestals, clockcases and lighting-fixtures, richly mounted with gilt-bronze that he modelled himself. Despite his skills, his exquisite craftsmen and the high prices he commanded, Boulle was always running out of money. This was mostly as a direct result of his lifelong obsession as a collector and hoarder of works of art. Although he undoubtedly drew inspiration for his own works from these purchases, it meant he did not always pay his workmen regularly. In addition, clients who had made considerable advances failed to obtain the pieces they had ordered and, on more than one occasion. These dissatisfied clients made formal attempts to get Royal permission to arrest him for his debts, despite the Royal protection afforded by his post at the Louvre. In 1704, the king granted him six months' protection from his creditors on condition that Boulle use the time to regulate his affairs or ce sera la dernière grace que sa majesté lui fera là-dessus. Living beyond his means seems to have been a family trait as history repeated itself, twenty years later, when one of his sons was arrested at Fontainebleau and actually imprisoned until King Louis XV had him released.[24]

In 1720, Boulle's shaky finances were dealt a further blow by a fire which began in an adjoining atelier and spread to his workshop in the Place du Louvre (one of three he maintained[25]), completely destroying twenty workbenches and the various tools of eighteen ébénistes, two menuisiers as well as most of the precious seasoned wood, appliances, models, and finished works of art. What could be salvaged was sold and a petition for financial assistance made to the Regent, the success of this appeal is unknown. According to Boulle's friend, Pierre-Jean Mariette, many of his pecuniary problems were indeed as a direct result of his obsession for collecting and hoarding pictures, engravings, and other art objects. The inventory of his losses in this fire exceeded 40,000 livres, included many old Masters, not to mention 48 drawings by Raphael, wax models by Michelangelo and the manuscript journal kept by Rubens in Italy.

The compulsive Boulle attended literally every sale of drawings and engravings he could.[30] He borrowed at high interest rates to pay for his purchases until the next auction when he devised other means to gain more cash. His friend Pierre-Jean Mariette informs that it was a compulsion that was impossible to cure. André-Charles Boulle died on 29 February 1732 in the Louvre,[31] leaving many debts for his four sons to deal with and, to whom he had transferred ownership of his business and tenure in the Louvre some seventeen years earlier.[25]

Boulle's Family

Boulle left four sons: Jean-Philippe(1678-1744),[32] Pierre-Benoît (c.1683-1741), André-Charles II (1685–1749) and Charles-Joseph (1688–1754). They were handed over the contents and technology of his workshops as early as 1715.[25] Despite all four sons being granted the very prestigious Royal title ébéniste du roi, their financial affairs were as badly managed as those of their father's. Three of the four brothers are known to have died in debt.[24][33]

Jean-Philippe Boulle (1678-1744)

Design for a marquetry panel by Boulle, Jean-Philippe etching with some engraving E.1168-1936 Prints & Drawings Study Room, level C, case 2, shelf H, box 6
Design for a marquetry panel by Jean-Philippe Boulle, the Oldest Son of André-Charles Boulle

.

Boulle Work

Example of boulle work
Example of Boulle Work with tortoiseshell in mottled red, brass and pewter

'Boulle’s inlay materials included tortoiseshell, brass, pewter and even animal horn. For contrasting woods, he often used rosewood, ebony, kingwood, and other dense, dark-toned tropical species. Boulle’s marquetry technique was to make two contrasting sheets of intricate inlay that were cut from a single sandwich of materials. If the sandwich, or packet, contained two layers that were light and dark, the two finalproducts would be a sheet with a light pattern on a dark background, and a reversed sheet, with a dark pattern on a light background. One sheet would have been considered the primary pattern, in French the 'première partie'. The opposite pattern was called the counterpart, or 'contrapartie'. By sawing both patterns out of one packet and reassembling them on two trays, the background of the 'première partie' becomes the motif of the 'contrapartie'. Boulle made cabinets with both patterns in a single piece, or pairs of contrasting cabinets.'.[34]

Tortoiseshell

Boulle work example showing depth given by tortoiseshell
Boulle Work showing the use of pewter (center) and the 'depth' given by tortoiseshell in the background. Brass Inlay is on the right and left

.

Tortoiseshell was used in thin sliced inlays onto wood and is today an important reference with regard to Boulle Work. Despite tortoiseshell's rarity and cost, its durability, organic warmth and mottled-red aesthetics made it particularly apt for exotic wood such as ebony. This is because it gives a sense of depth to Boulle Work. The initial processing of tortoiseshell involves separating the layers of the scutes from the animal's carapace by heating, and softening the plates by boiling them, in salt water, and thereafter flattening them under a press. Although two pieces could be fused together by use of a hot iron, great care had to be taken not to lose the colour. Finishing and polishing was done by various techniques.[35][36]

Brass (Gilt Bronze)

Example of Brass - André-Charles Boulle
Brass work by Boulle

'Henry IV established the privileged status for the artists in 1608 in a lettre patente (royal decree) in which he stated his express purpose of encouraging the flourishing of the arts in France through a sort of cross-pollenisation and co-operation. The inhabitants enjoyed the status for life which freed then from the strict laws of the guild system and granted other legal and fiscal benefits. The system was very important to André Charles Boulle who was granted the prestige of a workshop in 1672, the same year he was named ébéniste, ciseleur, doreur du roi (cabinet maker, chaser, gilder to the King) by Marie-Thérèse d’Autriche (1638-1683), Louis XIV’s wife and Queen. The space was too small for a furniture production workshop of any scale, so basically served as a calling card or prestigious address for Boulle who still possessed his family workshop on Rue de Reims on the left bank, and was eventually granted a large space of over 500 square meters in an abandoned theatre in the Louvre. (Jean Nérée Ronfort, exhibition catalogue) In addition, the lack of guild control allowed Boulle, who was also trained as a sculptor, to create and cast his own gilt bronze mounts for his furniture. From 1685, he possessed his own foundry, a critical aspect to the originality of his work. Boulle also created objects purely in gilt-bronze such as chandeliers, clocks, firedogs, wall lights among others, which contributed greatly to his fame.[37]

Pewter

Clock with pedestal MET DP214851By Creator André Charles Boulle this file was donated to Wikimedia Commons by as part of a project by the Metropolitan Museum of Art. See the Image and Data Resources Open
Fine Premier-Parti Pewter inlay onto tortoiseshell by André-Charles Boulle Clock held at the Metropolitan Museum of Arts

'Pewter or brass inlay on tortoiseshell was known as premier-partie, while tortoiseshell inlay on brass or pewter was contre-partie. For an even more sumptuous effect, mother-of-pearl, stained horn and dyed tortoiseshell would be included in the design.'[38]

Boulle's Works

Clock with pedestal MET DP214851
André-Charles Boulle, circa 1690. Clock with Case and pedestal of oak with marquetry of tortoiseshell, engraved brass, and pewter; gilt bronze; dial of gilt brass with white enameled Arabic numerals; movement of brass and steell
Clock with pedestal MET DP214850
André-Charles Boulle circa 1690. Clock with pedestal. Case and pedestal of oak with marquetry of tortoiseshell, engraved brass, and pewter; gilt bronze; dial of gilt brass with white enameled Arabic numerals; movement of brass and steel

André-Charles Boulle kept no accurate records of his prodigious output. The identification of furniture produced by Boulle's workshop is greatly hampered by a lack of documentation of the pieces he created. Unhappily it is by no means easy, even for the expert, to declare the authenticity of a commode, a bureau, or a table in the manner of Boulle and to all appearance from his workshops. His sons unquestionably carried on the traditions for some years after his death but his imitators were many and capable. A few of the more magnificent pedigree-pieces are among the worlds mobiliary treasures. Rather than having his own internal system of identification or poinçon or mark on each piece, he depended on the records kept by the Bâtiments du Roi. These, did not identify new works with specific entry numbers as they were being produced nor did they keep a detailed daily journal of output. Had Boulle used the royal wardrobe, the Garde-Meuble de la Couronne to identify and record his output, things might have turned out differently.[39]

Of his many Royal commissions, only a pair of commodes delivered in 1708 and 1709 to the King at the Grand Trianon can be securely linked to any sort of documentation to confirm provenance.[40] A series of grand armoires in the Louvre Museum and the Wallace Collection are also securely attributed to his workshop. Identification of some of Boulle's works based on the tell-tale refinements of the marquetry and the re-use of marquetry templates and characteristic boldly sculptured gilt-bronze mounts can at times be provenanced from three sets of images of furniture designs engraved by Boulle and published by his friend Pierre-Jean Mariette around 1720;[41] pieces depicted in a series of workshop drawings traditionally ascribed to Boulle in the Musée des Arts Décoratifs, Paris and private collections; and the descriptions in the inventory of works in progress made when Boulle transferred legal ownership of the workshops to his sons in 1715.[42]

A few of the more magnificent pedigree-pieces are among the worlds mobiliary treasures. There are, for instance, two famous armoires, which fetched 12,075 at the Hamilton Palace sale; the marquetry commodes, enriched with bronze mounts, formerly in the Bibliothèque Mazarine; various cabinets and commodes and tables in the Louvre, the Musée de Cluny and the Mobilier National; the marriage coffers of the dauphin which were in the San Donato collection. There are several fine authenticated pieces in the Wallace Collection at Hertford House, together with others consummately imitated, probably in the Louis Seize period. On the rare occasions when a pedigree example comes into the auction room, it invariably commands a high price; but there can be little doubt that the most splendid and sumptuous specimens of Boulle are diminishing in number, while the second and third classes of his work are perhaps becoming more numerous. The truth is that this wonderful work, with its engraved or inlaid designs; its myriads of tiny pieces of ivory and copper, ebony and tortoiseshell, all kept together with glue and tiny chased nails, and applied very often to a rather soft, white wood, is not meet to withstand the ravages of time and the variations of the atmosphere. Alternate heat and humidity are even greater enemies of inlaid furniture than time and wear. Such delicate objects were rarely used, and the most talented of the artists were employed by the crown.[24]

Boulle in Museums

The Louvre

Paris July 2011-27a
The Louvre Palace. Some of André-Charles Boulle's Art at the Louvre are shown below.
Cabinet sur piètement - Cabinet on stand - Vers 1690-1710 - Boulle - Louvre - OA 5469
Cabinet sur piètement - Tiroirs - Cabinet on stand - Drawers - Vers 1690-1710 - Boulle - Louvre - OA 5469
Musée du Louvre - Département des Objets d'art - Salle 34 -2
Gaine - Pedestal - vers 1700-1720 - Boulle - Louvre - OA 5058 ou 5061
Musée du Louvre - Département des Objets d'art - Salle 34 -1
Régulateur - Regulator clock - vers 1714-1719 - Oppenordt - Boulle - Louvre - OA 6746

The Metropolitan Museum of Arts

Commode MET DT8913
Commode by André-Charles Boulle, son of Jean Boulle: (ca. 1710–20). Walnut veneered with ebony, marquetry of engraved brass and tortoiseshell, gilt-bronze mounts, verd antique marble
Small desk with folding top (bureau brisé) MET DP102696
Cabinet MET DP117989
Clock with pedestal MET DP214849
Commode MET DP108742
Commode MET DT8914
Commode MET DP108735

Indianapolis Museum of Art

Longcase regulator, André-Charles Boulle - Indianapolis Museum of Art - DSC00698
Indianapolis Museum of Art Andre-Charles Boulle - Longcase Regulator

The Wallace Collection

Wallace Collection Large Drawing Room
The Large Drawing Room - Some of the most spectacular works by the French furniture-maker, Andre-Charles Boulle
Example of Boulle Marquetry from the Wallace Collection in London 1
Example of Boulle Marquetry from the Wallace Collection in London 2
Example of Boulle Marquetry from the Wallace Collection in London 3
Example of Boulle Marquetry from the Wallace Collection in London 4
Example of Boulle Marquetry from the Wallace Collection in London 5
Example of Boulle Marquetry from the Wallace Collection in London 6
Example of Boulle Marquetry from the Wallace Collection in London 7
Example of Boulle Marquetry from the Wallace Collection in London 8
Example of Boulle Marquetry from the Wallace Collection in London 9
Example of Boulle Marquetry from the Wallace Collection in London 10
Example of Boulle Marquetry from the Wallace Collection in London 11
Example of Boulle Marquetry from the Wallace Collection in London 12

The Art Institute of Chicago

Casket, early 18th century, attributed to Andre-Charles Boulle, oak carcass veneered with tortoiseshell, gilt copper, pewter, ebony - Art Institute of Chicago - DSC09745
Casket, early 18th century, attributed to Andre-Charles Boulle, oak carcass veneered with tortoiseshell, gilt copper, pewter, ebony - Art Institute of Chicago
Casket, early 18th century, attributed to Andre-Charles Boulle, oak carcass veneered with tortoiseshell, gilt copper, pewter, ebony - Art Institute of Chicago - DSC09744
Casket, early 18th century, attributed to Andre-Charles Boulle, oak carcass veneered with tortoiseshell, gilt copper, pewter, ebony - Art Institute of Chicago

The Cleveland Museum of Art

Springtime art museum
The Cleveland Museum of Art Houses Important Andre-Charles Boulle Works.
Cabinet, c. 1690, ebony, metal and tortoise shell, André-Charles Boulle, Cleveland Museum of Art
Cabinet, c. 1690, ebony, metal and tortoise shell, André-Charles Boulle, Cleveland Museum of Art
Clock, c. 1695, tortoise shell and brass inlay, gilt bronze, André-Charles Boulle, Cleveland Museum of Art
Clock, c. 1695, tortoise shell and brass inlay, gilt bronze, André-Charles Boulle, Cleveland Museum of Art

The Legion of Honor Museum

Table, Andre-Charles Boulle, Paris, c. 1670-1680, marquetry of various woods, pewter, brass, copper, horn, tortoiseshell - California Palace of the Legion of Honor - DSC07731
Andre-Charles Boulle at The Legion of Honor (museum)

The Calouste Gulbenkian Museum

André-charles boulle (attr.), armario, parigi 1700 ca
Armoire -André-Charles Boulle, Paris circa 1700

The Victoria and Albert Museum

Victoria and Albert Museum Design for medal cabinet c.1720 André-Charles Boulle Museum number E.43-1915 Prints Drawings Study Room, level D, case EO, shelf 51
Victoria and Albert Museum. Design by André-Charles Boulle for medal cabinet c.1720 "Plan des Deux Médaillers"

The Paul Getty Museum

André-Charles Boulle, Movement maker Paul Gudin
J. Paul Getty Museum : André-Charles Boulle, Mantel Clock (Pendule), 1715 to 1725, Oak veneered with tortoise shell, blue-painted horn, brass, and ebony; enameled metal; gilt bronze mounts

Boulle in Châteaux

Château de Vaux Le-Vicomte

Vaux le vicomte 1
Château Vaux le Vicomte
Vaux chambre muses
Chambre des Muses
0 Grand bureau de Nicolas Fouquet - Château de Vaux-le-Vicomte
Grand Bureau de Nicolas Fouquet
CommodeBoulle
Commode "Mazarine"

Château de Versailles

Versaillespanoraama2
Panoramic view of Versailles with Art of Andre-Charles Boulle shown below.
Boulle armadio
Armoire
Château de Versailles, salon de l'abondance, médailler
Medal Chest
Château de Versailles, salon de l'abondance
Medal Chest and Commode
P1020934 (5015162959)
Salon de L'Abondance

Grand Trianon

Grand-Trianon1700
Grand Trianon, Circa 1700, part of Versailles
André-Charles Boulle, Commode Mazarin (Mazarin Cabinet), 1708, Grand Trianon
André-Charles Boulle, Commode Mazarin (Mazarin Cabinet), 1708, made for the Grand Trianon

In 1708, the prototypes for the Mazarin Commode, then called bureaux, were delivered to the Grand Trianon by André-Charles Boulle. The 1st Duke of Antin, Louis Antoine de Pardaillan de Gondrin Director of the King's buildings, wrote to Louis XIV: "I was at the Trianon inspecting the second writing desk by Boulle; it is as beautiful as the other and suits the room perfectly."'[43] From the beginning, the design proved to be immensely popular, although it has also been criticized for an "awkward treatment of forms," meaning, in particular, the four extra spiral legs that were required to support the weight of the bronze mounts and marble top.[3] Nevertheless, the Boulle workshop made at least five other examples of this expensive model, including the Metropolitan's. Traditionally, they have been dated between 1710 and 1732, the year of Boulle's death; by 1730, however, the decorative style of the Sun King's long reign had been supplanted by the lighter forms of the Régence and early Rococo, and a date of 1710–20 is probably more accurate.'[44]

It seems strange that the Duke of Antin and probably Boulle himself should have called this new type of chest a bureau, yet they may have seen it in connection with the bureau plat, a flat-topped desk with a large writing surface that was currently being developed. A very fine example of the celebrated Boulle bureau plat is the one made for Louis-Henri de Bourbon (1692–1740), prince de Condé, for the Château de Chantilly.'[45]

The design of the commode reflects the view of the late Louis Quatorze period that court art should be characterized by opulence and swagger. John Morley has pointed out that "the extraordinary way in which its body is, as it were, slung between the eccentric legs is somewhat reminiscent of carriage construction."[5] Indeed, if the tapering spiral supports behind the paw feet could be removed, the resemblance would be even more striking. Like one of the splendid carriages that rolled down the road to Versailles––a moving "billboard" for the glorification of its owner[6]––this commode was intended to impress.'[44]

A look at some details reveals the unsurpassed skill and artistic imagination of the Boulle workshop. The three-dimensional acanthus-leaf scroll mount on the upper drawer was a signature ornament of Boulle's, one that he employed on many pieces.[7] Its design is echoed in the light-catching two-dimensional brass-and-tortoiseshell marquetry on both drawer fronts. This refinement extends the movement along the surface of the piece and heightens the bulging appearance of the body, as if some power within was pressing the surface outward. This effect of surface tension is one of the reasons why Boulle's pieces dominate the space around them, becoming the focal point of any interior. Extraordinary are the female figures with paw-and-acanthus feet that support the sarcophagus-shaped body.[8] The sensitive finishing of the bronze surface of these sculptures is especially noticeable in the matted, feathery look of the wings, which is achieved by chiseling, and in the sheen of the burnished areas.'[43]

André-Charles Boulle, who was named King's Cabinetmaker, Chaser, Gilder, and Engraver in 1672,[9] headed an important workshop at the Louvre. He did not invent the metal-and-tortoiseshell marquetry technique named for him called "Boulle Work", but he perfected it, and it bestows upon his creations a unique look, raising them to a level of artistry where furniture becomes sculpture. Through his etchings Boulle publicized his exquisitely fashionable line of products, both stimulating and reflecting a new taste for luxurious furnishings.Every collector of grand French furniture has acquired a "Boulle," either an original workshop example or one of the countless copies that were made during the late-eighteenth, nineteenth, and twentieth centuries.'[46]

Château de Chantilly

Château Chantilly 1
Château de Chantilly with some works by André-Charles Boulle, immediately below

Waddesdon Manor

Pedestal clock by André-Charles Boulle, movement by George Graham, 1720-1725 - Waddesdon Manor - Buckinghamshire, England - DSC07655
Pedestal clock by André-Charles Boulle, movement by George Graham, 1720-1725 - Waddesdon Manor - Buckinghamshire, England - DSC07655

The Royal Collection & Windsor Castle

AC Boulle Armoire in the Royal Collection
Royal Collection Trust / © HM Queen Elizabeth II 2017
AC Clock Boulle Royal Collection
Royal Collection Trust © HM Queen Elizabeth II 2017

'Most of the furniture in the Royal Collection made by, or attributed to, Boulle was acquired by George IV (1762–1830). A Francophile, the king furnished the royal palaces with large quantities of fashionable French furniture from the 1780s until his death in 1830. The lavish style and use of exotic materials accorded well with his extravagant taste. However, due to the volume of eighteenth- and nineteenth-century imitations, as well as the fact that Boulle did not sign his work, it can be difficult to definitively credit pieces to the maker. For this reason, many of the Boulle-marquetry pieces in the Royal Collection are recorded as ‘attributed to André-Charles Boulle’.[47] There are at least 13 works of art by André-Charles Boulle in the Royal Collection, including (i)Armoire, c. 1700 (The Grand Corridor, Windsor Castle) (ii) Cabinet (en première-partie), c. 1700 (The Grand Corridor, Windsor Castle) (iii) Cabinet (en contre-partie), c. 1700 (The Grand Corridor, Windsor Castle) (iv)Cabinet, (without stand, similar to ones in the State Hermitage Museum and the collections of the Duke of Buccleuch) (v) Paire de bas d'armoire, (The Grand Corridor, Windsor Castle) (vi) Writing table, possibly delivered to Louis, the Grand Dauphin (1661–1711), c. 1680 (vii) Paire de torchère, c. 1700 (viii) Bureau Plat, c. 1710 (The Rubens Room, Windsor Castle) (ix) Petit gaines, attributed to., early 18th century. (Source: Royal Collection)

AC Boulle Medal Cabinet Royal Collection
Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2017

Boulle at Auction

Sothebys

Christies

http://artist.christies.com/Andre-Charles-Boulle-13150.aspx

Hôtel des Ventes de Monte-Carlo

http://www.hvmc.com/en/auctions/mobilier-objets-d-art-tableaux-anciens-archeologie-civilisation-vente-de-prestige-105/andre-charles-boulle-1642-1732-84929

Archives & References

  • P. Fuhring, “Designs for and after Boulle furniture”, in The Burlington Magazine, June 1992, pp. 350–62;
  • P. Hughes, The Wallace Collection Catalogue of Furniture, vol. II, London, 1996;
  • A. Pradère, Les ebenistes Français de Louis XIV à la révolution, Paris, 1989;
  • J-R. Ronfort (ed.), André Charles Boulle : Un nouveau style pour l’Europe, exh. cat., Paris, 2009;
  • J-P. Samoyault, André Charles Boulle et sa famille, Paris, 1979.
  • The Boulle Archives, Centre de Recherches Historiques, 92, rue La Fayette, 75009 Paris

Notes

  1. ^ "Death of André-Charles Boulle". Mercure de France.
  2. ^ "André-Charles Boulle "le joaillier du meuble"". Le Portail des Antiquaires.
  3. ^ "The French cabinetmaker who is generally considered to be the preeminent artist in the field of marquetry, even "the most remarkable of all French cabinetmakers."". Google Arts and Culture.
  4. ^ "Masters of marquetry in the 17th century: Boulle". Khanacademy.
  5. ^ "André-Charles Boulle - Inlay". Pinterest.
  6. ^ Theodore Dell, The Frick Collection, V: Furniture in the Frick Collection (1992:187).
  7. ^ "Boulle Work". Boulle Vortal.
  8. ^ "André-Charles Boulle". "André Boulle, Ebeniste de Louis XIV" M. CHARLES ASSELINEAU 1872 P 11.
  9. ^ a b Jean-Pierre Samoyault, "André-Charles Boulle et sa famille: nouvelles recherches, nouveaux documents" Haute Etudes Medievales et Modernes, Nr 40, 1979, pp. 39 Para 2, Librairie Droz, Genève.
  10. ^ a b Jean-Pierre Samoyault, "André-Charles Boulle et sa famille: nouvelles recherches, nouveaux documents" Haute Etudes Medievales et Modernes, Nr 40, 1979, pp. 5, Librairie Droz, Genève.
  11. ^ "Burial of André-Charles Boulle in Saint-Germain-l'Auxerrois". Mercure de France.
  12. ^ "André-Charles Boulle and Marseilles". "André Boulle, Ebeniste de Louis XIV" M. CHARLES ASSELINEAU 1872 P 13,14.
  13. ^ La Gorce, pp. 28–29, 115–119.
  14. ^ Jal, Auguste (1795-1873), "Dictionnaire critique de biographie et d'histoire : errata et supplément pour tous les dictionnaires historiques d'après des documents authentiques inédits",1867 pp 265, H. Plon (Paris).
  15. ^ "Internet History Sourcebooks". www.fordham.edu.
  16. ^ Morison, Samuel Eliot (1972). The Oxford History of the American People. New York City: Mentor. p. 220. ISBN 0-451-62600-1.
  17. ^ "Marriage d'André-Charles Boulle". Gallica.bnf "Livre Dictionnaire critique de biographie et d'histoire errata et supplément pour tous" PP 265.
  18. ^ a b Alain Garric, "Essai de Genealogie sur André-Charles Boulle par Alain Garric" [1]
  19. ^ Matthew PILKINGTON (Vicar of Donabate, Dublin.), Henry Fuseli, "The Gentleman's and Connosseur's Dictionary of Painters",1760 pp 644, T. Cadell (London).
  20. ^ "Louis Du Guernier (1614-1659)". Musée virtuel du Protestantisme.
  21. ^ "Entourage of André-Charles Boulle". Gallica.bnf "André Boulle, ébéniste de Louis XIV" PP 14.
  22. ^ Jean-Pierre Samoyault, "André-Charles Boulle et sa famille: nouvelles recherches, nouveaux documents" Haute Etudes Medievales et Modernes, Nr 40, 1979, pp. 36, Librairie Droz, Genève.
  23. ^ Jean Nérée Ronfort, "André-Charles Boulle (1642–1732). Chronologie nouvelle de sa vie et de son œuvre" Dossier de l'Art, Nr 124, November 2005, pp. 8-31, Editions Faton, Dijon.
  24. ^ a b c d e f  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainPenderel-Brodhurst, James (1911). "Boulle, André Charles" . In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 4 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 321–323.
  25. ^ a b c d Dell 1992:187.
  26. ^ "Mariette and André-Charles Boulle". Art & Antiques.
  27. ^ Jean Nérée Ronfort, "André-Charles Boulle. Commandes pour le Grand Dauphin à Versailles" Dossier de l'Art, Nr 124, November 2005, pp. 38-63, Editions Faton, Dijon.
  28. ^ Jean Nérée Ronfort, "Inventaire d'un des magasins de la Direction Générale des Bâtiments du Roy à Versailles (c.1744-1746)", Dossier de l'Art, Nr 124, November 2005, pp. 64-65, Editions Faton, Dijon.
  29. ^ C.R. Williams, "The Mentor:Furniture and its Makers Vol.1, No. 30, Serial Number 30, September 7, 2015, [EBook #49904]
  30. ^ Th. H. Lunsingh-Scheurleer, "Parmigianino and Boulle", The Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs 68 No. 399 (June 1936), pp. 286-288.
  31. ^ "Death of André-Charles Boulle in the Louvre". Mercure de France.
  32. ^ "Jean Philippe Boulle, Son of André-Charles Boulle". V&A.
  33. ^ Carolyn Sargentson, "Markets for Boulle furniture in early eighteenth-century Paris" The Burlington Magazine 134 No. 1071 (June 1992), pp. 363–367; Peter Fuhring, "Designs for and after Boulle Furniture", The Burlington Magazine 134 No. 1071 (June 1992), pp. 350-362.
  34. ^ "Beautiful Boulle Work". www.popularwoodworking.com.
  35. ^ Transactions, 344-346
  36. ^ Lupano, Guglielmo; Peola, Paolo (1915). Corso di Scienze Naturali a uso delle Scuole Complementari [A Course of Natural Sciences for the Complementary Institutes] (in Italian). G.B. Paravia. p. 71.
  37. ^ "André-Charles Boulle's Foundry". betharnold.com 25 January 2010 Edition.
  38. ^ "André-Charles Boulle in the Royal collection". Royal Collection.
  39. ^ Dell 1992:194/
  40. ^ Dell 1992:233-46 catalogues a very fine pair of 19th-century English copies in the Frick Collection.
  41. ^ Nouveaux Deisseins de Meubles et Ouvrages de Bronze et de Marqueterie Inventés et gravés par André Charles Boulle, n.d..
  42. ^ Sources note by Dell 1992:196 notes 13-15.
  43. ^ a b "André-Charles Boulle, Metropolitan Museum of Arts". Metropolitan Museum of Art.
  44. ^ a b "André-Charles Boulle, Metropolitan Museum of Arts". Metropolitan Museum of Art.
  45. ^ "André-Charles Boulle in the Metropolitan Museum". Metropolitan Museum of Art.
  46. ^ "André-Charles Boulle, Metropolitan Museum of Arts". Metropolitan Museum of Art.
  47. ^ "Andre-Charles Boulle in the Royal Collection". Royal Collection.

External links

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1732 in France

Events from the year 1732 in France

1732 in art

Events from the year 1732 in art.

Balthazar Martinot

Balthazar Martinot (1636–1714) was a French clockmaker, and valet de chambre of the queen and of the King.

His daughter Anne Martinot married the king's goldsmith Philippe Van Dievoet.

He was considered in his time to be one of the most famous clockmakers in Europe.

'He was born in Rouen, the son of Balthazar Martinot I (1610–1697), Gouverneur du Gros Horloge at Rouen. His brothers, Claude (1637-after 1697), Etienne (1639–1702) and Gilles (1658–1726) were also clockmakers of repute and in turn Martinot II sired Balthazar-Louis Martinot, who became Ecuyer, Valet de la Garde-Robe du Roi. Unlike his father, Balthazar Martinot worked in Paris from circa 1660, where he was established at rue Galande in 1683 and Quai des Orfèvres in 1697. He retired to Saint-Germain-en-Laye in 1710, where he died a few years later. His talent aroused important patronage and gained great prestige. In 1665 he succeeded his father-in-law, Pierre Belon, as Valet de Chambre-Horloger Ordinaire de la Reine, Anne of Austria. He was later appointed Horloger Ordinaire du Conseil du Roi. Garde-Visiteur, 1678–79 and 1693-95. He was patronized by the most influential members of society including Louis XIV, the Grand Dauphin, the Ducs d’Aumont and de La Trémoille, the Prince de Rohan, the Marquis d’Argenson, the Comtesse de Polignac, the Cardinal de Gesvres, the Présidents du Harlay, de Lamoignon, de Maison and many others. He also sold several clocks to the King of Siam in 1685 and supplied a number to Constantinople. An inventory of 1700 revealed that he held the largest stock of clocks in Paris, while five years previously he had organized a significant lottery in association with his colleague, Nicholas Gribelin.

His clocks were not only of the very finest quality but were also housed in exceptionally beautiful cases; notably those made by Jean-Michel Ziegler and André-Charles Boulle. His works are now installed in some of the world’s finest collections including the Musée du Louvre, Musée de Cluny and Musée National des Techniques, Paris; the Musée des Arts Décoratifs, Lyons; Musée de Saint-Pierre; Musée de Pau and Château de Champs; the Museum der Zeitmessung Beyer, Zurich; Musée d’Horlogerie de La Chaux-de-Fonds; the Mathematisch-Physikalischer Salon, Dresden; the Victoria and Albert Museum, London and the Museum of Art, Cleveland, Ohio.'

Barometer Clock

Barometer Clock (Boulle) by André-Charles Boulle is a late seventeenth-century French clock created out of ebony, turtle shell, brass, gilt bronze, and enamel. The clock case is decorated on all sides and was intended as either a centerpiece or for display on a mantel in front of a mirror. The centerpiece of the clock is a relief of "Father Time Carrying Off Truth." This late seventeenth-century clock also functions as a barometer; the "two doors on the rear of the clock open to reveal a glass tube containing mercury and a float to which thread is attached." The semicircular barometer dial indicates five weather conditions from one extreme, beaucoup de pluye (rainy), to the other, beau fixe (fine).Boulle, who gave his name to the type of veneering on this clock, is listed in the French Archives Nationales as a cabinet maker, maker of marquetry, and gilder and chaser of bronzes. The clock movement design is by either Isaac Thuret or his son Jacques Thuret. The dial and backplate of the movement are both signed "I. Thuret...", the character I and J being interchangeable during the period.

Boulle

Boulle is a French surname. Notable people with the surname include:

Jean Boulle the father of André Charles Boulle a cabinetmaker to the King of France

André Charles Boulle (1642–1732), French cabinetmaker to the Sun King

Jean-Philippe Boulle (1678–1744), French cabinetmaker to the King of France and the oldest son of André-Charles Boulle

Pierre Boulle (1912–1994), French novelist

Jean-Raymond Boulle (born 1950), mining entrepreneur, founder and principal shareholder of Titanium Resources Group

Mark Boulle (born 1979), Australian musician

Boulle Work

Boulle Work is a type of rich marquetry process or inlay perfected by the French cabinetmaker André Charles Boulle

(11 November 1642 – 28 February 1732). It involves veneering furniture with a marquetry of tortoiseshell, pewter which is and inlaid with arabesques of gilded brass.

Although Boulle did not invent the technique, he was its greatest practitioner and gave his name to it. Boulle was from a well known Protestant family of artists in France and his family was primarily in Paris but also in Marseille. Boulle was awarded the title of master cabinetmaker around 1666 and, in 1672 Boulle received the post of Premier ébéniste du Roi and was admitted to a group of skilled artists maintained by Louis XIV, in the Louvre Palace. In 1672, Boulle received a warrant signed by the Queen, giving him the added title of ‘bronzier’ as well as ‘Ebeniste du Roi’. André-Charles Boulle’s masterpieces are now mostly in museums and have come to represent the wealth, luxury and finesse of the court of Louis XIV, the Sun King. In 2016, a putative descendant of Andre-Charles Boulle, Jean-Raymond Boulle, invented a Boulle Work process of inlay using gem diamonds which is produced by AkzoNobel and has been used by Rolls Royce.

Cabinet des Médailles

The Cabinet des Médailles, more formally known as Département des Monnaies, Médailles et Antiques de la Bibliothèque nationale de France, is a department of the Bibliothèque nationale de France in Paris. The Cabinet des Médailles is located in the Richelieu-Louvois building – the former main building of the library – on the Rue de Richelieu.

The Cabinet des Médailles is a museum containing internationally important collections of coins, engraved gems, and antiquities, with its distant origins in the treasuries of the French kings of the Middle Ages. The disruptions of the Wars of Religion inspired Charles IX (1560-1574) to create the position of a garde particulier des médailles et antiques du roi ("Special guardian of the Crown's medals and antiques"). Thus the collection, which has been augmented and never again dispersed, passed from being the personal collection of the king to becoming a national property – a bien national – as the royal collection was declared during the Revolution. A stage in this aspect of its development was the bequest of the collection of pioneering archeologist comte de Caylus, who knew that in this fashion his antiquities would be most accessible to scholars. Other collectors followed suit: when the duc de Luynes gave his collection of Greek coins to the Cabinet Impérial in 1862, it was a national collection rather than simply an Imperial one he was enriching. The State also added to the treasury contained in the Cabinet des Médailles: a notable addition, in 1846, was the early sixth century gold Treasure of Gourdon.

The Cabinet – a term which in French implies a small private room for the conservation and display of intimate works of art and for private conversations, rather than a piece of furniture – took a stable shape under Henry IV, who nominated connoisseur Rascas de Bagarris garde particulier des médailles et antiques du roi, the "particular guardian of the medals and antiquities of the King".

Among the antiquarians and scholars who have had the charge of the Cabinet des Médailles, one of the most outstanding was Théophile Marion Dumersan, who began working there in 1795 at the age of sixteen, protected the collection from dispersal by the allies after Napoleon's defeat, and published at his own expense a history of the collection and description, as newly rearranged according to historical principles, in 1838Earlier printed catalogues of parts of the collection had been published. Pierre-Jean Mariette, urged by the comte de Caylus, published a selection of the royal carved hardstones as volume II of hisTraité des pierres gravées}.Louis XIV of France, an acquisitive connoisseur, brought together the cabinet de curiosités of his uncle Gaston d'Orléans and acquired that of Hippolyte de Béthune, the nephew of Henri IV's minister Sully. In order to keep the collections closer at hand, he removed them from the old royal library in Paris to Versailles.

When Louis' great-grandson Louis XV had attained majority, the Cabinet was returned to Paris in 1724, to take up its present space in the royal library that was designed under the direction of Jules-Robert de Cotte, the son of Mansart's successor at the Bâtiments du Roi. In the Cabinet des Médailles, the medal-cabinet delivered in 1739 by the ébéniste du roi Antoine Gaudreau figures among the greatest pieces of French furniture. Other medal cabinets were delivered for Louis XIV by André-Charles Boulle. The cabinet also still houses its paintings by Boucher, Natoire and Van Loo.

The Cabinet des Médailles is considered the oldest museum in France. It is located in the former building of the Bibliothèque Nationale, 58 rue Richelieu, Paris I, and can be visited for free every afternoon (13:00-17:00), seven days a week.

Calouste Gulbenkian Museum

The Calouste Gulbenkian Museum (Portuguese: Museu Calouste Gulbenkian) is a Portuguese museum in the civil parish of Avenidas Novas, in the municipality of Lisbon. Founded in conformity with Calouste Gulbenkian's last will and testament, the museum accommodates the art collection of the similarly-named Foundation, that includes ancient and, some, modern art.

Djahanguir Riahi

Djahanguir Riahi (22 September 1914 – 28 April 2014) was a French-Iranian businessman and a renowned collector of 18th century French furniture. Riahl has been declared one of the greatest art collectors since 1945.Riahi started out as an engineer and road-builder, eventually acquiring an apartment in France. He started collecting in the 1970s, in order to furnish the apartment in the grandest possible tradition. Riahi swiftly achieved notoriety among French dealers due to regularly outbidding them on the finest pieces at auction. Among the master craftsmen represented in the collection were André Charles Boulle, the ébénistes Bernard II van Risamburgh and Martin Carlin; and carpets and tapestry from the Savonnerie and Gobelins manufactories. Some of his individual pieces included wall brackets from Marie Antoinette's bedroom and a cabinet made for the Comtesse de Provence. 59 pieces from the collection, including pieces with royal provenances, were purchased in 2000 by Christie's and estimated to raise 25 million dollars when auctioned off. In 2012 Christie's held a second auction dedicated to former Riahl collection pieces.

Grange Furniture

Grange Furniture is a furniture shop in Monts du Lyonnais, France that was established by Joseph Grange in 1904. The company continues to produce heirlooms using "old-world techniques" such as dove-tail jointing, hand applied wood stain and lacquer. Designs are "subtle updates" based on the "feminine shapes" used in 17th century chateaux furniture by André-Charles Boulle and Jean-François Oeben, or other furniture from historic Provence, France homes. A five-foot cherrywood corner cabinet cost about $6,000 in 2009.

Inlay

Inlay covers a range of techniques in sculpture and the decorative arts for inserting pieces of contrasting, often coloured materials into depressions in a base object to form ornament or pictures that normally are flush with the matrix. A great range of materials have been used both for the base or matrix and for the inlays inserted into it. Inlay is commonly used in the production of decorative furniture, where pieces of coloured wood, precious metals or even diamonds are inserted into the surface of the carcass using various matrices including clearcoats and varnishes. Lutherie inlays are frequently used as decoration and marking on musical instruments, particularly the smaller strings.

Perhaps the most famous example of furniture inlay is that of Andre-Charles Boulle (11 November 1642 – 28 February 1732) which is known as Boulle Work and evolved in part from inlay produced in Italy during the late 15th century at the Studiolo for Federico da Montefeltro in his Ducal Palace at Urbino, in which trompe-l'oeil shelving seems to carry books, papers, curios and mathematical instruments, in eye-deceiving perspective. The similar private study made for him at Gubbio is now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

J. Paul Getty Museum

The J. Paul Getty Museum, commonly referred to as the Getty, is an art museum in California housed on two campuses: the Getty Center and Getty Villa. The two locations received over two million visitors in 2016.The primary museum, the Getty Center, is located in Brentwood neighborhood of Los Angeles, on a hill top above the west side of the Sepulveda Pass and I-405 freeway. Its collection features Western art from the Middle Ages to the present.

The secondary museum, the Getty Villa, is in the Malibu neighborhood and displays art from Ancient Greece, Rome, and Etruria.

Louis XIV furniture

Louis XIV furniture was massive and lavishly covered with sculpture and ornament of gilded bronze in the earlier part of his personal reign (1660–1690). After about 1690, thanks in large part to the furniture designer André Charles Boulle, a more original and delicate style appeared. It was based on the use of marquetry, the inlay of piece of ebony and other rare woods, a technique first used in Florence in the 15th century, which was refined and developed by Boulle and others working for the King. Furniture was inlaid with thin plaques of ebony, copper, mother of pearl, and exotic woods of different colors in elaborate designs.New and often enduring types of furniture appeared; the commode, with two to four drawers, replaced the old coffre, or chest. The canapé, or sofa, appeared, in the form of a combination of two or three armchairs. New kinds of armchairs appeared, including the fauteuil en confessionale or "Confessional armchair", which had padded cushions ions on either side of the back of the chair. The console table also made its first appearance; it was designed to be placed against a wall. Another new type of furniture was the table à gibier, a marble-topped table for holding dishes. Early varieties of the desk appeared; the Mazarin desk had a central section set back, placed between two columns of drawers, with four feet on each column.

Louvre

The Louvre (US: ), or the Louvre Museum (French: Musée du Louvre [myze dy luvʁ] (listen)), is the world's largest art museum and a historic monument in Paris, France. A central landmark of the city, it is located on the Right Bank of the Seine in the city's 1st arrondissement (district or ward). Approximately 38,000 objects from prehistory to the 21st century are exhibited over an area of 72,735 square metres (782,910 square feet). In 2018, the Louvre was the world's most visited art museum, receiving 10.2 million visitors.The museum is housed in the Louvre Palace, originally built as the Louvre castle in the late 12th to 13th century under Philip II. Remnants of the fortress are visible in the basement of the museum. Due to the urban expansion of the city, the fortress eventually lost its defensive function and, in 1546, was converted by Francis I into the main residence of the French Kings. The building was extended many times to form the present Louvre Palace. In 1682, Louis XIV chose the Palace of Versailles for his household, leaving the Louvre primarily as a place to display the royal collection, including, from 1692, a collection of ancient Greek and Roman sculpture. In 1692, the building was occupied by the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres and the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture, which in 1699 held the first of a series of salons. The Académie remained at the Louvre for 100 years. During the French Revolution, the National Assembly decreed that the Louvre should be used as a museum to display the nation's masterpieces.

The museum opened on 10 August 1793 with an exhibition of 537 paintings, the majority of the works being royal and confiscated church property. Because of structural problems with the building, the museum was closed in 1796 until 1801. The collection was increased under Napoleon and the museum was renamed Musée Napoléon, but after Napoleon's abdication many works seized by his armies were returned to their original owners. The collection was further increased during the reigns of Louis XVIII and Charles X, and during the Second French Empire the museum gained 20,000 pieces. Holdings have grown steadily through donations and bequests since the Third Republic. The collection is divided among eight curatorial departments: Egyptian Antiquities; Near Eastern Antiquities; Greek, Etruscan and Roman Antiquities; Islamic Art; Sculpture; Decorative Arts; Paintings; Prints and Drawings.

Robert Blake (cabinetmaker)

Robert Blake (active 1826–39) was the first of the Blake family of London cabinetmakers. Robert Blake is particularly known for his marquetry and for the ormolu-mounted commodes in tortoiseshell and ebony that he made in 1708–09, after a pair that André-Charles Boulle made for Louis XIV's Chamber at the Grand Trianon, on display in the New York Frick Collection. A pair of Blake commodes, completing the two in the Frick Collection was sold at Sotheby's for $658,000 on October 15, 2015.Pieces in public collections include a piano in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, a writing desk in Goodwood House, a centre table in Syon House, a circular table in Alnwick Castle, and an octagonal table in the Leeds City Art Gallery at Temple Newsam House.His works often imitated the important pieces of 18th-century French furniture that francophile collectors including George, Prince of Wales, later George IV, William Beckford, Francis Seymour-Conway, 3rd Marquess of Hertford and George Watson-Taylor collected at the beginning of the 19th century.

Blake often worked for Edward Holmes Baldock, who was a dealer in china, glass and, later, furniture to the Royal Family. He is also known to have been associated with the well-known Old Bond Street dealer John Webb.Relatively little is known of the family. They are listed at 8 Stephen Street, off Tottenham Court Road, between 1826 and 1881. Robert Blake is listed in Robson's 1823 Commercial Directory as a "buhl cutter", at 8 Stephen Street, Tottenham Court Road, and subsequently in the 1826 Post Office Directory, as a "cabinet inlayer and buhl manufacturer". Robert Blake had four sons, George, Charles, James and Henry, who continued the firm of Robert Blake & Co. In 1840, it took the name of R. Blake & Sons, and in 1841 Blake; Geo & Brothers; and later George Blake & Co., cabinetmaker of 130 Mount Street, London, and also still in Stephen Street in 1844; George Blake in 1846-50 at 53 Mount Street; and in 1851 to around 1853 George Blake at 53 Mortimer Street. The premises on Stephen Street remained in use by various family members, listed as 'Blake, J. & H', and by 1853 'Blake, Chas. & H.,' until 1880.

Style Louis XIV

The Style Louis XIV, also called French classicism, was the style of architecture and decorative arts intended to glorify King Louis XIV and his reign. It featured majesty, harmony and regularity. It became the official style during the reign of Louis XIV (1643–1715), imposed upon artists by the newly established Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture (Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture) and the Académie royale d'architecture (Royal Academy of Architecture). It had an important influence upon the architecture of other European monarchs, from Frederick the Great of Prussia to Peter the Great of Russia. Major architects of the period included François Mansart, Jules Hardouin Mansart, Robert de Cotte, Pierre Le Muet, Charles Perrault, and Louis Le Vau. Major monuments included the Palace of Versailles, the Grand Trianon at Versailles, and the Church of Les Invalides (1675–91).

The Louis XIV style had three periods. During the first period, which coincided with the youth of the King (1643-1660) and the regency of Anne of Austria, architecture and art were strongly influenced by the earlier style of Louis XIII and by the Baroque style imported from Italy. The early period saw the beginning of French classicism, particularly in the early works of Francois Mansart, such as the Chateau de Maisons (1630–51). During the second period (1660-1690), under the personal rule of the King, the style of architecture and decoration became more classical, triumphant and ostentatious, expressed in the building of the Chateau of Versailles, first by Louis Le Vau and then Jules Hardouin-Mansart. Until 1680, furniture was massive, decorated with a profusion of sculpture and gilding. In the later period, thanks to the development of the craft of marquetry, the furniture was decorated with different colors and different woods. The most prominent creator of furniture in the later period was André Charles Boulle. The final period of Louis XIV style, from about 1690 to 1715, is called the period of transition; it was influenced by Hardouin-Mansart and by the King's designer of fetes and ceremonies, Jean Bérain the Elder. The new style was lighter in form, and featured greater fantasy and freedom of line, thanks in part to the use of wrought iron decoration, and greater use of arabesque, grotesque and coquille designs, which continued into the style of Louis XV.

Thomas-Joachim Hébert

Thomas-Joachim Hébert (1687–1773) was a leading Parisian marchand-mercier supplying the court (suivant le Cour) of Louis XV of France.In the 1720s, Hébert commissioned furniture from the workshops of André-Charles Boulle. Among the ébénistes working to his commissions in later days was Bernard II van Risamburgh; about 1750, he supplied furniture by Bernard to the minister Jean-Baptiste de Machault d'Arnouville, some of which can be traced in modern collections.

Thuret family

The Thuret family of clockmakers established themselves as one of the outstanding craftsman-dynasties in 17th- and 18th-century Paris. Their clocks are signed "Thuret", and distinguishing which member of the Thuret family made a specific clock is sometimes an unrewarding effort.

Isaac II Thuret (1630–1706), one of the first French clockmakers to make pendulum clocks, held the royal appointment. His son Jacques III Thuret (1669–1738), was appointed clockmaker to Louis XIV of France in 1694. A perquisite of the royal appointment was the use of workshops in the Galeries du Louvre, where since the time of Henri IV, the outstanding artists, designers and craftsmen were granted workshop spaces, fostering cross-fertilisation among the arts. As one consequence there are numerous clocks by the Thuret dynasty in cases of rich tortoiseshell and brass marquetry designed by André Charles Boulle; one such remarkable clock by Jacques Thuret or his father is at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Another example, the Barometer Clock, is at the Frick Collection.Jacques III Thuret married a daughter of the royal designer Jean Bérain the Elder, whose designs he assembled and published ; his daughter Suzanne married the painter, draughtsman and engraver Charles François Silvestre.

Tortoiseshell

Tortoiseshell or tortoise shell is a material produced from the shells of the larger species of tortoise and turtle, mainly the hawksbill sea turtle, which is an endangered species largely because of its exploitation for the material. The large size, fine colour and unusual form of the hawksbill's scutes make it especially suitable. The distinctive patterning is referred to in names such as the tortoiseshell cat, several breeds of guinea pig, and the common names of several species of the butterfly genera Nymphalis and Aglais, and some other uses.

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