Andover is a town in Essex County, Massachusetts, United States. It was settled in 1642 and incorporated in 1646. As of the 2010 census, the population was 33,201. It is part of the Boston-Cambridge-Quincy, Massachusetts-New Hampshire metropolitan statistical area. Part of the town comprises the census-designated place of Andover. It is twinned with its namesake: Andover, Hampshire, England.
Andover's Town Hall, located in downtown Andover
"Home of America"
|• Type||Open town meeting|
|• Town Manager||Andrew P. Flanagan|
|• Select Board||Laura M. Gregory, Chair|
Ann W. Gilbert, Vice Chair
Daniel A. Koh, Clerk
Christian C. Huntress
Alexander J. Vispoli
|• Total||32.1 sq mi (83.2 km2)|
|• Land||31.0 sq mi (80.3 km2)|
|• Water||1.1 sq mi (2.9 km2)|
|Elevation||180 ft (55 m)|
|• Density||1,007.8/sq mi (389.1/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC-5 (Eastern)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC-4 (Eastern)|
|Area code(s)||351 / 978|
|GNIS feature ID||0619444|
|Website||The Official Website of Andover, Massachusetts|
In 1642, the Massachusetts General Court set aside a portion of land in what is now Essex County for an inland plantation, including parts of what is now Andover, North Andover and South Lawrence. In order to encourage settlement, early colonists were offered three years' immunity from taxes, levies, and services (except military service). The first permanent settlement in the Andover area was established in 1642 by John Woodbridge and a group of settlers from Newbury and Ipswich.
Shortly after they arrived, they purchased a piece of land from the local Pennacook tribal chief Cutshamache for "six pounds of currency and a coat" and on the condition that Roger, a local Pennacook man, would be allowed to plant his corn and take alewives from a local water source. Roger's Brook, a small stream which cuts through the eastern part of town, is named in his honor. In May 1646 the settlement was incorporated as a town and was named Andover. This name was likely chosen in honor of the town of Andover in England, which was near the original home of some of the first residents. The first recorded town meeting was held in 1656 in the home of settler John Osgood in what is now North Andover.
The old burying ground in what is now North Andover marks the center of the early town. Contrary to popular belief, the towns split due to the location of the Old North Church, also located in what is now North Andover. The villagers from the southwestern part of the town were tired of walking all the way to the extreme north of what was then Andover and decided to build their own South Church central to what is now Andover. Early on the general populace was concentrated together around the Old Center (North Andover) for protection from feared Indian attacks, but the Indians were fairly peaceful until the outbreak of King Philip's War. King Philip Six Indian raids occurred between 1676 and with the last in 1698 led by Chief Escumbuit.
During the 1692 Salem witch trials, Andover resident Joseph Ballard asked for help for his wife from several girls in the neighboring Salem Village who were already identifying witches there. After visiting Elizabeth Ballard, the girls claimed that several people in Andover had bewitched her: Ann Foster, her daughter Mary Lacey Sr. and her granddaughter Mary Lacey Jr. During the course of the legal proceedings, more than 40 Andover citizens, mostly women and their children, were formally accused of having made a covenant with the Devil. Three Andover residents, Martha Carrier, Mary Parker, and Samuel Wardwell, were convicted and executed. Five others either pleaded guilty at arraignment or were convicted at trial: Ann Foster, Mary Lacey Sr., and Abigail Faulkner Sr. (daughter of Andover's minister, Francis Dane) in 1692 and Wardwell's wife Sarah and Rev. Dane's granddaughter, Elizabeth Johnson Jr. in 1693. Those who were not executed were granted reprieves by Gov. William Phips, but the convictions remained on their records. In 1713, in response to petitions initiated in 1703 by Abigail Faulkner Sr. and Sarah Wardwell, Massachusetts Governor Joseph Dudley reversed the attainder on the names of those who were convicted in the episode.
By 1705, Andover's population had begun to move southward and the idea of a new meeting house in the south end of town was proposed. This was strongly opposed by the people living near the original meeting house in the north, but the dispute was finally settled in 1709 when the Great and General Court divided Andover into two parishes, North and South. After the division of the two parishes, South Andover established the South Church and South Parish "Burying-Yard," as it was called, with early Andover settler Robert Russell the first to be interred at age 80 in December 1710. But despite this split, the town remained politically one unit.
For many years Andover was geographically one of the largest towns in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts; in 1826 a third parish was established and West Parish Church was constructed on Reservation Road. In 1854, a measure was passed to divide the town into two separate political units according to the old parish boundaries. The name Andover was assumed by the West and South parishes, while the name North Andover was given to the North Parish. How those names were decided upon is still debated to this day, from the reasons being money being paid to one town to keep the name, to there being a controversy over a fire truck affecting the name change.
Records show that on the morning of April 19, 1775, approximately 350 Andover men marched toward Lexington. Although they did not arrive in time for the battle that day, they did go on to participate in the battle of Bunker Hill two months later and fought in subsequent skirmishes with the Redcoats during the war.
Among the Andover men who were representatives to the Massachusetts Constitutional Convention of 1779–1780 were Colonel Samuel Osgood, Zebadiah Abbot, John Farnum and Samuel Phillips Jr.. Phillips – who would later go on to found Phillips Academy – was later appointed by John Adams to help draft the Massachusetts state constitution.
During the burning of Charlestown (June 17, 1775) Andover townspeople hiked to the top of Holt Hill to witness it. Holt Hill is the highest point in Essex County at 420 ft (130 m) and is currently part of the Charles W. Ward Reservation.
In November 1798, David Brown led a group in Dedham, Massachusetts in setting up a liberty pole with the words, "No Stamp Act, No Sedition Act, No Alien Bills, No Land Tax, downfall to the Tyrants of America; peace and retirement to the President; Love Live the Vice President," referring to then-President John Adams and Vice President Thomas Jefferson. Brown was arrested in Andover, Massachusetts but because he could not afford the $4,000 bail, he was taken to Salem for trial. Brown was tried in June 1799. Brown wanted to plead guilty but Justice Samuel Chase wanted him to name everybody who had helped him or who subscribed to his writings. Brown refused, was fined $480, and sentenced to eighteen months in prison, the most severe sentence then imposed under the Alien and Sedition Acts.
On January 6, 1853, Benjamin "Bennie" Pierce, the 11-year-old son of President-elect Franklin Pierce was killed in a train accident in town. The Boston & Maine noon express, traveling from Boston to Lawrence, was moving at 40 miles per hour when an axle broke. The only coach, in which Franklin Pierce was also riding, went down an embankment and broke in two. (The baggage car and locomotive remained on the track.) Pierce's son Benjamin was the only passenger killed, but it was initially reported that Franklin Pierce was also a fatality.
The anti-slavery movement had many supporters in Andover long before the American Civil War began. William Jenkins - an ardent abolitionist and friend of William Lloyd Garrison - and several others provided stops on the Underground Railroad for runaway slaves. Harriet Beecher Stowe, author of Uncle Tom's Cabin, was a longtime resident. Her home, known as Stowe House, is now owned by Phillips Academy. Her body is buried in Phillips Academy's cemetery. When the Confederate Army shelled Fort Sumter in 1861, a company of 79 volunteers formed. By the time the war ended in 1865, 600 Andover men had served in the Union Army.
In 1919, the American Woolen Company announced plans to build a million dollar mill in the already-existing mill community of Frye Village and rename the region "Shawsheen." The village was completely rebuilt as a "model industrial community" and became the site of the company's headquarters. The mill began operating in 1922 and within two years the village contained more than 200 houses, several community buildings, a few tennis courts, a swimming area, a bowling green, an athletic field and a golf course. The employees rented their homes from the company; the brick structures were reserved for upper management and the wooden buildings for those of lesser position. This industrial utopia, however, was short-lived - by the early 1940s almost all of the houses and administration buildings were in private hands. The mills became a victim of changing technology as synthetic fibers became more popular than wool. The American Woolen Company closed its mills in 1953, and the buildings today house a variety of businesses, homes, and apartments. The village left its mark nationally, however, when its soccer team, the Shawsheen Indians won the national soccer championship in 1925.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 32.1 square miles (83.2 km2), of which 31.0 square miles (80.3 km2) is land and 1.1 square miles (2.9 km2) (3.49%) is water. Significant water areas include the Shawsheen River, Fosters Pond, Pomps Pond, and Haggetts Pond, located in west Andover, which serves as the town's reservoir. Haggetts Pond was originally set apart from other waters, but since the late 1990s has had waters added from the Merrimack River, which constitutes half of the town's northern border, to supplement the growing needs of the town. Andover is also home to the Harold Parker State Forest, the Trustees of Reservations' Charles W. Ward Reservation, as well as a very small portion of Lawrence's Den Rock Park. The town's Conservation Commission and privately non-profit A.V.I.S. (Andover Village Improvement Society) together own around 3000 acres in the town. Other notable reservations in the town include the Harold R. Rafton Reservation and the Deer Jump Reservation (along the banks of the Merrimack). The town is home to many glacial features including drumlins, eskers, and glacial erratics.
Andover's town center is located approximately four miles south of the center of Lawrence, and is 22 miles (35 km) north of Boston and 30 miles (48 km) southeast of Manchester, New Hampshire. Andover contains the westernmost point of Essex County, along the Merrimack River. It is bordered by Lawrence to the north, North Andover to the northeast, North Reading and Wilmington to the south, Tewksbury to the southwest. Andover also borders Dracut to the northeast; however, the boundary is within the Merrimack River, and as there are no crossings of the Merrimack within the boundaries of Dracut, one must go through Methuen or nearby Lowell to enter Dracut, as is the case with Dracut's border with Tewksbury.
Andover is the location of the intersection of Interstate 93 and Interstate 495. The town is also served by Route 28, which serves as the main road from north to south through town, as well as Route 133 and Route 125.
Andover has two stops, Ballardvale and Andover along the Haverhill/Reading Line of the MBTA Commuter Rail, providing rail service from Haverhill to Boston's North Station. Andover Station is also near the Third Railroad Station, a former Boston and Maine Railroad station which is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The nearest small plane service is at Lawrence Municipal Airport in North Andover, and national service can be found at both Logan International Airport and Manchester–Boston Regional Airport, both within thirty miles of the town. Several routes of the Merrimack Valley Regional Transit Authority also enter the town, mostly in the north end of town. These include both service to Lawrence as well as a weekday commuter bus to Boston.
Source: United States Census records and Population Estimates Program data.1790–1840[a]
As of the census of 2000, there were 31,247 people, 11,305 households, and 8,490 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,007.8 people per square mile (389.1/km2). There were 11,590 housing units at an average density of 144.3 persons/km2 (373.8 persons/sq mi). The racial makeup of the town was 91.60% White, 0.75% African American, 0.06% Native American, 5.73% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.84% from other races, and 0.99% from two or more races. 1.81% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There are 11,305 households out of which 40.3% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 65.6% were married couples living together, 7.5% have a woman whose husband does not live with her, and 24.9% were non-families. 21.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.74 and the average family size was 3.24.
In the town, the population was spread out with 28.8% under the age of 18, 4.7% from 18 to 24, 27.5% from 25 to 44, 26.8% from 45 to 64, and 12.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.9 males.
According to a 2012 estimate, the median income for a household in the town was $118,324, the median family income was $144,685. Males with full-time year-round jobs had a median income higher than $100,000; for females, the median was $62,532. The per capita income for the town was $53,378. 2.6% of families and 4.2% of the population, including 3.7% of people aged under 18 years and 5.8% of people aged 65 and over, were below the poverty line.
Andover had 217 residents who filed as making at least $1 million in 2011, accounting for one millionaire per every 157 people. The average income for millionaires in Andover was $2,441,000. Using income and other demographic data, Andover ranked 37 out of 490 in a ranking of wealthiest zipcodes in Massachusetts.
|Clerk of Courts:|
|District Attorney:||Jonathan W. Blodgett(D) Eastern District|
|Register of Deeds:||M. Paul Iannuccillo(D) Northern Essex|
|Register of Probate:|
|County Sheriff:||Frank G. Cousins, Jr.(R)|
|State Representative(s):||Tram Nguyen (D) 18th Essex|
Frank A. Moran(D) 17th Essex
|State Senator(s):||Barry Finegold(D) Second Essex & Middlesex|
|Governor's Councilor(s):||Eileen R. Duff 5th District|
|U.S. Representative(s):||Lori Trahan (D) 3rd District|
Seth W. Moulton (D) 6th District
|U.S. Senators:||Elizabeth Warren (D), Ed Markey (D)|
The current town manager of Andover is Andrew P Flanagan.
The Andover Police Department provides full-time general law enforcement for the town. The town is also served by Troop A of the Massachusetts State Police, operating out of the Andover barracks (A-1).
Andover Fire-Rescue provides full-time fire and emergency medical services for Andover. The department has three full-time stations and maintains 4 engines, 2 ladder trucks, 4 ambulances, and 2 forest fire units, as well as miscellaneous vehicles.
On September 13, 2018, several gas lines suffered leakage due to high pressure in the tubes of Columbia Gas of Massachusetts, a subsidiary of NiSource. As a result, several fires and explosions occurred, homes were evacuated. At the conclusion of this event, over 70 houses suffered from gas-related explosions in the Andover-Lawrence area. Dozens of people were injured and one 18 year old Lawrence resident was killed.
Amos Abbott (September 10, 1786, Andover, Massachusetts – November 2, 1868, Andover, Massachusetts) was a United States Congressman from Massachusetts.
Son of Jeduthan Abbott (1749–1810) and Hannah Poor (1754–1823), he was born in Andover, Massachusetts. He Married Ester West (1796-?) on December 6, 1812. They had two children Alfred Amos Abbott, and Elizabeth Amos Abbott.
He worked as a merchant, a highway surveyor, a market clerk, town clerk, town treasurer, a member of the school committee, a business executive. In 1833, he was one of the founders of the Boston & Portland railway, which later changed its name to the Boston & Maine Railroad, and served as its director from 1834 to 1841. He was a member of the Massachusetts House of Representatives from 1835 to 1837 and in 1843. He was a member of the Massachusetts Senate from 1840 to 1842.
Abbott was elected as a Whig to the United States Congress, serving from March 4, 1843 to March 3, 1849.
Following his term in Congress, he returned to his earlier mercantile activities and served as the postmaster in Andover, where he died, aged 82.Andover High School (Massachusetts)
Andover High School (formerly Punchard High School) is a high school in the town of Andover, Massachusetts. Andover High School's principal is Mr. Philip T. Conrad. It is the only public high school in the Andover Public Schools district. The school adopted a new 7+H schedule in the 2017-18 school year, which received wide criticism from students and parents alike.Benjamin Abbot House
The Benjamin Abbot House or Abbot Homestead is a historic house at 9 Andover Street in Andover, Massachusetts, USA. The house was built in 1711, and is one of the oldest in Andover. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975.Brooks School
Brooks School is a private, co-educational, preparatory, secondary school in North Andover, Massachusetts on the shores of Lake Cochichewick.Cochichewick River
The Cochichewick River, also known as Cochichewick Brook, is a 1.6-mile-long (2.6 km) stream in North Andover, Massachusetts, that drains water from Lake Cochichewick into the Merrimack River.Greater Lawrence Technical School
Established in 1965, Greater Lawrence Technical School
is a four-year regional technical high school, located in Andover, Massachusetts, United States. It serves the communities of Andover, Lawrence, Methuen, and North Andover.Haggetts Pond
Haggetts Pond is the reservoir for the town of Andover, Massachusetts, United States. It is located in the western part of the town and also lends its name to a road. The Merrimack River is connected to the pond to add volume to the reservoir.
It is bordered by Route 133 on the south. Not far to the northwest is Interstate 495; to the northeast is Interstate 93. Haggetts Pond is located at 42°38′36″N 71°12′18″W.
Permissible activities include walking, hiking, jogging biking and fishing. Only registered rowboats are allowed on the reservoir and fishing must be done from either the shoreline or a rowboat (no hip waders). Canoeing or kayaking, windsurfing, sailing, ice skating and ice fishing are prohibited. Swimming, bathing, wading and pets in the water are also prohibited.
Hiking trails, some converted out of a former railway (the Lowell and Lawrence Railroad), encircle the pond.
The Pond also gives its name to a road (Haggetts Pond Road) that starts to the west of the pond itself. Haggetts Pond Road transverses Route 133, but the vast majority of its length is on the side north of the pond. (Of the 245 houses on Haggetts Pond Road, 240 of them are on the north side.)Harold Parker State Forest
Harold Parker State Forest is a publicly owned forest with recreational features encompassing more than 3,300 acres (1,300 ha) in the towns of Andover, North Andover, North Reading, and Middleton, Massachusetts. Ponds, swamps, rolling hills, glacial erratics and rocky outcroppings can be found in the state forest, which features more than 35 miles (56 km) of backwoods roads and trails as well as remnants of 18th-century farming and milling operations. It is managed by the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation.Lake Cochichewick
Lake Cochichewick is a lake in North Andover, Massachusetts that collects water from Weir Hill and other local uplands. Its overflow drains into the Cochichewick River, which joins the Merrimack.
Brooks School, a private co-educational prep school, is located on the shores of the lake.Merrimack College
Merrimack College is a private American college in the Roman Catholic tradition located in North Andover, Massachusetts.The college was founded in 1947 by the Order of St. Augustine with an initial goal to educate World War II veterans. The college has grown to encompass 220 acres campus and almost 40 buildings. The library is named after Rev. Vincent A. McQuade, the founder of the college.Moses T. Stevens
Moses Tyler Stevens (October 10, 1825 in North Andover, Massachusetts – March 25, 1907) was an American textile manufacturer and a U.S. Representative from Massachusetts.National Register of Historic Places listings in Andover, Massachusetts
This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Andover, Massachusetts.
This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Andover, Massachusetts, United States. The locations of National Register properties and districts for which the latitude and longitude coordinates are included below, may be seen in a Google map.Essex County, of which Andover is a part, is the location of 461 properties and districts listed on the National Register. Andover itself is the location of 51 of these properties and districts listed on the National Register.
This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted June 14, 2019.North Andover, Massachusetts
North Andover is a town in Essex County, Massachusetts, United States. At the 2010 census the population was 28,352.Rumbo (newspaper)
Rumbo is a free weekly bilingual newspaper published in Lawrence, Massachusetts, United States, covering the Merrimack Valley and southern New Hampshire.Samuel Osgood
Samuel Osgood (February 3, 1747 – August 12, 1813) was an American merchant and statesman born in Andover, Massachusetts, currently a part of North Andover, Massachusetts. His family home still stands at 440 Osgood Street in North Andover and his home in New York City, the Samuel Osgood House, served as the country's first Presidential mansion. He served in the Massachusetts and New York State legislatures, represented Massachusetts in the Continental Congress and was the fourth Postmaster General of the United States (the first under the current Constitution), serving during George Washington's first term.
In 1812, he was elected the first president of the newly formed City Bank of New York, which later became Citibank, predecessor of today's Citigroup.Samuel Phillips Jr.
Samuel Phillips Jr. (February 5, 1752 – February 10, 1802) was an American merchant, manufacturer, politician, and the founder of Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts. Phillips is considered a pioneer in American education.Shawsheen River
The Shawsheen River is a 26.7-mile-long (43.0 km) tributary of the Merrimack River in northeast Massachusetts. The name has had various spellings. According to Bailey's history of Andover, the spelling Shawshin was the most common in the old records, although Shawshine, Shashin, Shashine, Shashene, Shawshene, and later, Shawsheen, are found. The name, says Bailey, is said to mean "Great Spring".The river runs generally northward through the towns of Bedford, Billerica, Wilmington, Tewksbury, Andover, and Lawrence, where it joins the Merrimack. Like its parent, the river has played an important role in the development of the area, including industrial development, with many mills built to take advantage of the river's power. Today there are trails and parks located along several sections of the river, and a preservation effort is carried out by the Shawsheen River Watershed Association.
In June 2001, the Merrimack River Watershed Council determined that the Shawsheen River failed to meet water quality standards. This situation was largely attributed to stormwater runoff via town, private and state storm drain systems. As a result of increased pollutants, major portions of the Shawsheen River are now listed as impaired waters on the 303(d) list of the Clean Water Act.The removal of the Marland Place Dam (originally built in the 1700s) and Balmoral Dam (originally built in the 1920s) allowed alewife and blueback herring to spawn upstream to the Ballardvale Dam in spring 2017, for the first time in over 200 years.The Stevens–Coolidge Place
The Stevens–Coolidge Place, formerly known as Ashdale Farm, is a garden and historic home located on 91 acres (37 ha) at 139 Andover Street in North Andover, Massachusetts. Helen Stevens Coolidge's family first acquired the farm in 1729, and from 1914 to 1962 it was her summer home with husband John Gardner Coolidge, diplomat, descendant of Thomas Jefferson, and nephew of Isabella Stewart Gardner. It is now a nonprofit museum operated by The Trustees of Reservations.
Between 1914 and 1918, architect Joseph Everett Chandler remodeled two late-Federal period farmhouses to form today's house. Chandler also enhanced the design of the landscape, which eventually included a perennial garden, a kitch and flower garden, and a rose garden (all in the Colonial Revival style). A potager garden (kitchen garden in the French style) with a brick serpentine wall and a greenhouse complex were also built. The house's collections include Asian artifacts including Chinese porcelain, American furniture, and European decorative arts.Weir Hill
Weir Hill Reservation (historically pronounced “wire hill”) is a 194-acre (0.79 km2) public park located in the town of North Andover, Massachusetts. The Trustees of Reservations owns and maintains the property.
Municipalities and communities of Essex County, Massachusetts, United States
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