Andocides

Andocides (/ˌænˈdɒsɪdiːz/;[1] Greek: Ἀνδοκίδης, Andokides; c. 440 – c. 390 BC) was a logographer (speech writer) in Ancient Greece. He was one of the ten Attic orators included in the "Alexandrian Canon" compiled by Aristophanes of Byzantium and Aristarchus of Samothrace in the third century BC.

Life

Andocides was the son of Leogoras, and was born in Athens around 440 BC.[2] He belonged to the ancient Eupatrid family of the Kerykes, who traced their lineage up to Odysseus and the god Hermes.[3][4][5][6]

In Andocides' youth, he seems to have been employed on various occasions as ambassador to Thessaly, Macedonia, Molossia, Thesprotia, Italy, and Sicily.[7] And although he was frequently attacked for his political opinions,[8] he maintained his ground until, in 415, when he became involved in the charge brought against Alcibiades for having profaned the mysteries and mutilated the Herms on the eve of the departure of the Athenian expedition against Sicily. It appeared particularly likely that Andocides was an accomplice in the latter of these crimes, which was believed to be a preliminary step towards overthrowing the democratic constitution, since the Herm standing close to his house in the phyle Aegeis was among the very few which had not been injured.[9][10]

Andocides was accordingly seized and thrown into prison, but after some time recovered his freedom by a promise that he would turn informer and reveal the names of the real perpetrators of the crime; and on the suggestion of one Charmides or Timaeus,[4][11] he mentioned four, all of whom were put to death. He is said to have also denounced his own father on the charge of profaning the mysteries, but to have rescued him again in the hour of danger - a charge he strenuously denied.[12] But as Andocides was unable to clear himself from the charge, he was deprived of his rights as a citizen, and left Athens.[13][14]

Andocides traveled about in various parts of Greece, and was chiefly engaged in commercial enterprise and in forming connections with powerful people.[15] The means he employed to gain the friendship of powerful men were sometimes of the most disreputable kind; among which a service he rendered to a prince in Cyprus is mentioned in particular.[16]

In 411, Andocides returned to Athens on the establishment of the oligarchic government of the Four Hundred, hoping that a certain service he had rendered the Athenian ships at Samos would secure him a welcome reception.[17] But no sooner were the oligarchs informed of the return of Andocides, than their leader Peisander had him seized, and accused him of having supported the party opposed to them at Samos. During his trial, Andocides, who perceived the exasperation prevailing against him, leaped to the altar which stood in the court, and there assumed the attitude of a supplicant. This saved his life, but he was imprisoned. Soon afterwards, however, he was set free, or escaped from prison.[18][19]

Andocides then went to Cyprus, where for a time he enjoyed the friendship of Evagoras; but, by some circumstance or other, he exasperated his friend, and was consigned to prison. Here again he escaped, and after the restoration of democracy in Athens and the abolition of the Four Hundred, he ventured once more to return to Athens; but as he was still suffering under a sentence of civil disenfranchisement, he endeavored by means of bribes to persuade the prytaneis to allow him to attend the assembly of the people. The latter, however, expelled him from the city.[19] It was on this occasion, in 411, that Andocides delivered the speech still extant "On his return", on which he petitioned for permission to reside at Athens, but in vain. In his third exile, Andocides went to reside in Elis,[16] and during the time of his absence from his native city, his house there was occupied by Cleophon, the leading demagogue.[20]

Andocides remained in exile until after the overthrow of the tyranny of the Thirty by Thrasybulus, when the general amnesty then proclaimed made him hope that its benefit would be extended to him also. He himself says that he returned to Athens from Cyprus,[21] where he claimed to have great influence and considerable property.[22] Because of the general amnesty, he was allowed to remain at Athens, enjoyed peace for the next three years, and soon recovered an influential position. According to Lysias, it was scarcely ten days after his return that he brought an accusation against Archippus or Aristippus, which, however, he dropped on receiving a sum of money. During this period Andocides became a member of the boule, in which he appears to have possessed a great influence, as well as in the popular assembly. He was gymnasiarch at the Hephaestaea, was sent as architheorus to the Isthmian Games and Olympic Games, and was even entrusted with the office of keeper of the sacred treasury.

But in 400, Callias, supported by Cephisius, Agyrrhius, Meletus, and Epichares, urged the necessity of preventing Andocides from attending the assembly, as he had never been formally freed from the civil disenfranchisement. Callias also charged him with violating the laws respecting the temple at Eleusis.[23] The orator pleaded his case in the oration still extant "on the Mysteries" (περὶ τῶν μυστηρίων), in which he argued that he had not been involved in the profanation of the mysteries or the mutilation of the herms, that he had not violated the laws of the temple at Eleusis, that anyway he had received his citizenship back as a result of the amnesty, and that Callias was really motivated by a private dispute with Andocides over inheritance. He was acquitted. After this, he again enjoyed peace until 394, he was sent as ambassador to Sparta respecting the peace to be concluded in consequence of Conon's victory off Cnidus. On his return he was accused of illegal conduct during his embassy. The speech "On the peace with the Lacedaemons" (περὶ τῆς πρὸς Λακεδαιμονίους εἰρήνης), which is still extant, refers to this affair. It was delivered in 393 (though some scholars place it in 391). Andocides was found guilty, and sent into exile for the fourth time. He never returned afterwards, and seems to have died soon after this blow.

Andocides appears to have fathered no children, since he is described at the age of 70 as being childless,[24] although the scholiast on Aristophanes mentions Antiphon as a son of Andocides. The large fortune which he had inherited from his father, or acquired in his commercial undertakings, was greatly diminished in the latter years of his life.[25][26]

Oratory

As an orator Andocides does not appear to have been held in very high esteem by the ancients, as he is seldom mentioned, though Valerius Theon is said to have written a commentary on his orations.[27] We do not hear of his having been trained in any of the sophistical schools of the time, and he had probably developed his talents in the practical school of the popular assembly. Hence his orations have no mannerism in them, and are really, as Plutarch says, simple and free from all rhetorical pomp and ornament.[28]

Sometimes, however, his style is diffuse, and becomes tedious and obscure. The best among his orations is that on the Mysteries; but, for the history of the time, all are of the highest importance.

Besides the three orations already mentioned, which are undoubtedly genuine, there is a fourth against Alcibiades (κατὰ Ἀλκιβιάδου), said to have been delivered by Andocides during the ostracism of 415; but it is probably spurious, though it appears to contain genuine historical matter. Some scholars ascribed it to Phaeax, who took part in the ostracism, according to Plutarch. But it is more likely that it is a rhetorical exercise from the early fourth century BC, since formal speeches were not delivered during ostracisms and the accusation or defence of Alcibiades was a standing rhetorical theme.[29] Besides these four orations we possess only a few fragments and some very vague allusions to other orations.[30]

List of extant speeches

  1. On the Mysteries (Περὶ τῶν μυστηρίων "De Mysteriis"). Andocides' defense against the charge of impiety in the profanation of the Eleusinian Mysteries and the mutilation of the Hermae.
  2. On His Return (Περὶ τῆς ἑαυτοῦ καθόδου "De Reditu"). Andocides' plea for his return and removal of civil disabilities.
  3. On the Peace with Sparta (Περὶ τῆς πρὸς Λακεδαιμονίους εἰρήνης "De Pace"). An argument for peace with Sparta.
  4. Against Alcibiades (Κατὰ Ἀλκιβιάδου "Contra Alcibiadem"). Generally considered spurious.

Notes

  1. ^ "Andocides". The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed., Columbia University Press, 2012.
  2. ^ Brill's New Pauly v.Andocides
  3. ^ Pseudo-Plutarch, Lives of the Ten Orators
  4. ^ a b Plutarch, Alcibiades 21
  5. ^ Andocides, De Mysteriis § 141
  6. ^ Andocides, De Reditu § 26
  7. ^ Andocides, Contra Alcibiadem § 41
  8. ^ Andocides, Contra Alcibiadem § 8
  9. ^ Cornelius Nepos, Alcibiades 3
  10. ^ Jan Otto Sluiter, lectiones Andocideae c. 3.
  11. ^ Andocides, De Mysteriis § 48
  12. ^ Andocides, De Mysteriis
  13. ^ Andocides, De Reditu § 25
  14. ^ Chisholm 1911.
  15. ^ Andocides, De Mysteriis § 137
  16. ^ a b Photios I of Constantinople, Bibliotheca
  17. ^ Andocides, De Reditu §§ 11,12
  18. ^ Andocides, De Reditu § 15
  19. ^ a b Lysias, Against Andocides § 29
  20. ^ Andocides, De Mysteriis § 146
  21. ^ Andocides, De Mysteriis § 132
  22. ^ Andocides, De Mysteriis § 4
  23. ^ Andocides, De Mysteriis § 110
  24. ^ Andocides, De Mysteriis §§ 146,148
  25. ^ Andocides, De Mysteriis § 144
  26. ^ Lysias, Against Andocides § 31
  27. ^ Suda, s.v. Θέων
  28. ^ Comp. Dionys. Hal. de Lys. 2, de Thucyd. Jud. 51
  29. ^ Gribble. 1999. Alcibiades and Athens ch.2 app.2
  30. ^ Jan Otto Sluiter, lectiones Andocideae p. 239, &c.
Attribution
  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Andocides". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 965.
  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainLeonhard Schmitz, Leonhard (1870). "Andocides". In Smith, William (ed.). Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. 1. p. 168.

External links

410s BC

This decade witnessed the continuing decline of the Achaemenid Empire, fierce warfare amongst the Greek city-states during the Peloponnesian War, the ongoing Warring States period in Zhou dynasty China, and the closing years of the Olmec civilization (lasting from c. 1200–400 BC) in modern-day Mexico.

== Events ==

=== 419 BC ===

==== By place ====

====== Greece ======

Despite the Peace of Nicias still being in effect, Sparta's King Agis II gathers a strong army at Philus and descends upon Argos by marching at night from the north. His allied Boeotian forces fail him, but he is able to conclude a treaty with Argos.

==== By topic ====

====== Drama ======

Euripides' play Andromache is performed.

Sophocles' play Electra is performed. The play takes its theme from The Libation Bearers by Aeschylus.

=== 418 BC ===

==== By place ====

====== Greece ======

King Agis II of Sparta escapes having his house razed and being fined 100,000 drachmae for his failure to press his advantage by promising more successful outcomes in the future.

The Battle of Mantinea is the largest land battle of the Peloponnesian War (with as many as 10,000 troops on each side). Sparta under King Agis II has a major victory over Argos (and its allies Athens, Ellis and Mantinea), which has broken its treaty with Sparta's King Agis II at the insistence of Alcibiades. Agis II's major victory makes amends with the Spartans for his earlier truce with Argos. The commander of the Athenian forces, Laches, is killed in the battle.

Impressed with the Spartan victory, the inhabitants of Argos change their government from democracy to oligarchy and end their support for Athens in favour of an alliance with Sparta. Many of Argos' allies do the same. Athens becomes increasingly isolated.

Alcibiades urges the Athenians to conquer Syracuse, subdue Sicily and Carthage and thus gain added forces that will enable them to finish the war against Sparta. His bold offensive plan wins the support of the Athenians.

=== 417 BC ===

==== By place ====

====== Greece ======

Following the loss by Athens and its allies in the Battle of Mantinea, a political "tug of war" takes place in Athens. Alcibiades joins forces with Nicias against Hyperbolus, the successor of the demagogue politician Cleon as champion of the common people. Hyperbolus tries to bring about the ostracism of either Nicias or Alcibiades, but the two men combine their influence and induce the Athenian people to expel Hyperbolus instead.

=== 416 BC ===

==== By place ====

====== Greece ======

With the encouragement of Alcibiades, the Athenians take the island of Melos (which has remained neutral during the Peloponnesian War). Its inhabitants are treated with great cruelty by the Athenians, with all the men capable of bearing arms being killed, while the women and children are made slaves.

In Sicily, the Ionian city of Segesta asks for Athenian help from the Dorian city of Selinus (which is supported by the powerful Sicilian city of Syracuse). The people of Syracuse are ethnically Dorian (as are the Spartans), while the Athenians, and their allies in Sicily, are Ionian. The Athenians feel obliged to assist their ally and therefore prepare an armada to attack Sicily.

==== By topic ====

====== Drama ======

The tragedian Agathon wins first prize at the Lenaia.

=== 415 BC ===

==== By place ====

====== Greece ======

Athenian orator and politician, Andocides is imprisoned on suspicion of having taken part in the mutilation of the sacred busts called "Hermae" shortly before the departure of Athens' military expedition to Sicily. These mutilations cause a general panic, and Andocides is induced to turn informer. Andocides' testimony is accepted, and those whom he implicates, including Alcibiades, are condemned to death. Andocides is sent into exile.

The Athenian expedition to Sicily sets sail under Nicias, Lamachus and Alcibiades. After his departure with the armada, Alcibiades is accused of profanity and is recalled to Athens to stand trial.

After learning that he has been condemned to death in absentia, Alcibiades defects to Sparta and Nicias is placed in charge of the Sicilian expedition. The Athenian forces land at Dascon near Syracuse but with little result. Hermocrates heads the Syracusan defence.

Alcibiades openly joins with the Spartans and persuades them to send Gylippus to assist Syracuse and to fortify Decelea in Attica. He also encourages Ionia to revolt against Athens. As a result, a Spartan fleet soon arrives to reinforce their allies in Syracuse and a stalemate ensues.

==== By topic ====

====== Drama ======

Euripides' play The Trojan Women is performed shortly after the massacre by Athenians of the male population of Melos.

=== 414 BC ===

==== By place ====

====== Greece ======

Athens responds to appeals from its general, Nicias, by sending out 73 vessels to Sicily under the command of Demosthenes to assist Nicias and his forces with the siege of Syracuse.

The Athenian army moves to capture Syracuse while the larger fleet of Athenian ships blocks the approach to the city from the sea. After some initial success, the Athenian troops become disorganised in the chaotic night operation and are thoroughly routed by Gylippus, the Spartan commander. The Athenian commander Lamachus is killed. Nicias, although ill, is left in sole charge of the siege of Syracuse.

==== By topic ====

====== Drama ======

Aristophanes' play The Birds is performed.

=== 413 BC ===

==== By place ====

====== Greece ======

After suffering a defeat in which the Athenian commander Lamachus is killed, Demosthenes suggests that they immediately give up the siege of Syracuse and return to Athens, where they are needed to defend against a Spartan invasion of Attica. Nicias refuses, but the Syracusans and Spartans under Hermocrates are able to trap the Athenians in the harbour and the Athenians sustain heavy losses in the Battle of Syracuse. Demosthenes is ambushed by the Syracusans and is forced to surrender. Nicias is soon captured as well, and both are executed, with most of the surviving Athenian soldiers sent to work in the Sicilian quarries.

Tissaphernes, the Persian satrap of Lydia and Caria, forms an alliance with Sparta. The Spartans, with strategic advice from Alcibiades and limited assistance from the Persians under Pharnabazus, advance almost to the gates of Athens. King Agis II leads the Spartan force that occupies Decelea in Attica.

Archelaus I becomes King of Macedonia following the death of his father, King Perdiccas II. Archelaus seizes the throne after murdering his uncle, his cousin, and his half brother, the legitimate heir.

==== By topic ====

====== Drama ======

Euripides' play Electra is performed.

=== 412 BC ===

==== By place ====

====== Persian Empire ======

The Persians under Darius II see their opportunity to play off one Greek city-state against another and to recover control of the Greek cities of Asia Minor, which have been under Athenian control since 449 BC. The satraps of Asia Minor, Tissaphernes and Pharnabazus, are ordered to collect overdue tribute.

The Spartans sign a treaty of mutual help with the Persian satrap of Lower Asia, Tissaphernes. By the treaty of Miletus, Persia is given complete freedom in western Asia Minor in return for agreeing to pay for seamen to man the Peloponnesian fleet.

====== Greece ======

Alcibiades helps stir up revolts amongst Athens' allies in Ionia, on the west coast of Asia Minor. However, Alcibiades loses the confidence of the Spartans and antagonises their king Agis II. As a result, he flees to the court of the Persian satrap Tissaphernes. Alcibiades advises Tissaphernes to withdraw his support from Sparta while conspiring with the oligarchic party in Athens, as Sparta's allied cities break away in a series of revolts.

The Athenians vote to use their last reserves to build a new fleet.

Clazomenae revolts against Athens. After a brief resistance, however, it again acknowledges the Athenian supremacy.

=== 411 BC ===

==== By place ====

====== Greece ======

June 9 – The democracy of Athens is overthrown by the oligarchic extremists, Antiphon, Theramenes, Peisander and Phrynichus in an effort by the oligarchists to exert more control over the conduct of the war with Sparta and its allies. A "Council of Four Hundred" is set up. The total defeat of the Athenian expedition to Sicily and the consequent revolts of many of the subject-allies has weakened Athenian finances severely; the acknowledged purpose of the revolutionary movement is to revise the constitution to better run Athens' finances. However, its rule is high-handed and the Council of Four Hundred is only able to maintain itself for four months.

When a mutiny breaks out amongst the troops who are fortifying Piraeus (the harbour for Athens), the Council sends Theramenes to quell it. Instead, he puts himself at the head of the mutineers. After Phrynichus, the leader of the extremists, is assassinated, an ensuing meeting of the Athenian Assembly deposes the Council and restores the traditional constitution, but restricts some of the privileges of citizenship to a body called the Five Thousand. The Assembly resumes its old form in being a committee of all citizens.

The Athenian navy under Thrasybulus recalls Alcibiades from Sardis. Alcibiades' election is confirmed by the Athenians at the request of Theramenes. A Spartan fleet in the Hellespont at Cynossema is then defeated by an Athenian fleet commanded by Thrasybulus and Alcibiades.

Antiphon defends himself in a speech Thucydides describes as the greatest ever made by a man on trial for his life. Nevertheless, Antiphon is unable to persuade his accusers and he is executed for treason.

==== By topic ====

====== Literature ======

Euripides' play Iphigenia in Tauris is performed.

Aristophanes' plays Lysistrata and Women Celebrating the Thesmophoria are performed.

=== 410 BC ===

==== By place ====

====== Greece ======

Commanding 20 ships, the Athenian generals Theramenes and Thrasybulus collaborate with Alcibiades and the main Athenian fleet in inflicting a major defeat on the Spartan navy commanded by Mindarus and its supporting Persian land army near Cyzicus on the shore of the Propontis (Sea of Marmara). As a result of its victory in the Battle of Cyzicus, Athens regains control over the vital grain route from the Black Sea.

Alcibiades installs a garrison at Chrysopolis under Theramenes to exact a tithe from all shipping that comes from the Black Sea. This revenue enables the Athenians to put an end to the regime of the Five Thousand and restore their traditional institutions in full. Democracy is restored in Athens. The new demagogue Cleophon dismisses peace overtures made by Sparta.

An Oligarchic revolt in Corcyra is unsuccessful.

====== Cyprus ======

Evagoras re-establishes his family's claim as kings of Salamis which has been under Phoenician control for a number of years.

==== By subject ====

====== Art ======

A relief decoration from the parapet (now destroyed), Nike (Victory) adjusting her sandal is constructed in the Temple of Athena Nike on the Acropolis in Athens and is ready in 407 BC. It is now preserved at the Acropolis Museum in Athens.

The grave stele of Hegeso is made and is finished about -ten years later (approximate date). It is now preserved at the National Archaeological Museum in Athens.

415 BC

Year 415 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Tribunate of Cossus, Vibulanus, Volusus and Cincinnatus (or, less frequently, year 339 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 415 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Agatharchus

Agatharchus or Agatharch (Ancient Greek: Ἀγάθαρχος) was a self-taught painter from Samos who lived in the 5th century BC. He is said by Vitruvius to have invented scene-painting, and to have painted a scene (scenam fecit) for a tragedy which Aeschylus exhibited. Hence some writers, such as Karl Woermann, have supposed that he introduced perspective and illusion into painting.However, as this appears to contradict Aristotle's assertion that scene-painting was introduced by Sophocles, some scholars understand Vitruvius to mean merely that Agatharchus constructed a stage. But the context shows clearly that perspective painting must be meant, for Vitruvius goes on to say that Democritus and Anaxagoras, carrying out the principles laid down in a treatise written by Agatharchus, wrote on the same subject, showing how, in drawing, the lines ought to be made to correspond, according to a natural proportion, to the figure which would be traced out on an imaginary intervening plane by a pencil of rays proceeding from the eye, as a fixed point of sight, to the several points of the object viewed.

It was probably not till towards the end of Aeschylus's career that scene-painting was introduced, and not till the time of Sophocles that it was generally made use of; which may account for what Aristotle says.Agatharchus was therefore the first painter known to have used graphical perspective on a large scale, although rare occurrences of perspective do appear in vase painting around the middle of the 6th century BC. He is also said to have led the way for later painters, such as Apollodorus.Agatharchus was a contemporary of Alcibiades and Zeuxis, and was often singled out for the ease and rapidity with which he finished his works. Plutarch and Andocides at greater length tell an anecdote of Alcibiades having inveigled Agatharchus to his house and kept him there for more than three months in strict durance, compelling him to paint it. The speech of Andocides above referred to seems to have been delivered after the destruction of Melos (416 BC) and before the expedition to Sicily (415 BC); so that from the above data the age of Agatharchus may be accurately fixed.

Agyrrhius

Agyrrhius (Greek: Ἀγύρριος) was a native of Collytus in Attica, whom Andocides calls "the noble and the good" (τὸν καλὸν κἀγαθὸν) after being in prison many years for embezzlement of public money. He obtained around 395 BC the restoration of the Theorica, and also tripled the pay for attending the assembly, though he reduced the allowance previously given to the comic writers. By this expenditure of the public revenue Agyrrhius became so popular that he was appointed general (strategos) in 389.

Alcibiades

Alcibiades, son of Cleinias (c. 450–404 BC), from the deme of Scambonidae, was a prominent Athenian statesman, orator, and general. He was the last famous member of his mother's aristocratic family, the Alcmaeonidae, which fell from prominence after the Peloponnesian War. He played a major role in the second half of that conflict as a strategic advisor, military commander, and politician.

During the course of the Peloponnesian War, Alcibiades changed his political allegiance several times. In his native Athens in the early 410s BC, he advocated an aggressive foreign policy and was a prominent proponent of the Sicilian Expedition, but he fled to Sparta after his political enemies brought charges of sacrilege against him. In Sparta, he served as a strategic adviser, proposing or supervising several major campaigns against Athens. In Sparta too, however, Alcibiades soon made powerful enemies and felt forced to defect to Persia. There he served as an adviser to the satrap Tissaphernes until his Athenian political allies brought about his recall. He then served as an Athenian general (Strategos) for several years, but his enemies eventually succeeded in exiling him a second time.

Scholars have argued that had the Sicilian expedition been under Alcibiades's command instead of that of Nicias, the expedition might not have met its eventual disastrous fate. In the years when he served Sparta, Alcibiades played a significant role in Athens's undoing; the capture of Decelea and the revolts of several critical Athenian subjects occurred either at his suggestion or under his supervision. Once restored to his native city, however, he played a crucial role in a string of Athenian victories that eventually brought Sparta to seek a peace with Athens. He favored unconventional tactics, frequently winning cities over by treachery or negotiation rather than by siege. Alcibiades's military and political talents frequently proved valuable to whichever state currently held his allegiance, but his propensity for making powerful enemies ensured that he never remained in one place for long; and by the end of the war that he had helped to rekindle in the early 410s, his days of political relevance were a bygone memory.

Andocides (disambiguation)

Andocides or Andokides (Ancient Greek: Ἀνδοκίδης) may refer to:

Andocides, one of the Attic orators

Andocides, a sixth-century potter whose wares were decorated by the Andokides painter

Axiochus (Alcmaeonid)

Axiochus of Scambonidae, son of Alcibiades (II) (Greek: Ἀξίοχος Ἀλκιβιάδου Σκαμβωνίδης, Axíochos Alkibiádou Skambōnídēs; mid-5th century – late 5th century BCE) was an ancient Athenian political figure and aristocrat of the Alcmaeonidae family. He was the uncle and cohort of the famous general and statesman Alcibiades (III), whom he accompanied in domestic and foreign affairs. This association led to his recurrence within ancient literature, including works attributed to Plato and Lysias.

Callias III

Callias (Greek: Kαλλίας) was an ancient Athenian aristocrat and political figure. He was the son of Hipponicus and the daughter of Megacles (she later married Pericles), an Alcmaeonid and the third member of one of the most distinguished Athenian families to bear the name of Callias. He was regarded as infamous for his extravagance and profligacy.

Historians sometimes designate him "Callias III" to distinguish him from his grandfather Callias II and from his grandfather's grandfather Callias ("Callias I").

Classical Literature of Greece

This is a list of most influential Greek authors of antiquity (by alphabetic order):

From c.VII B.C- c.VII A.D

Aeschines-Rhetorics

Aeschylus - Tragedy

Aesop - Fables

Alcaeus of Mytilene-Lyric Poetry

Alcman-Lyric Poetry

Anacreon-Lyric Poetry

Anaxagoras-Philosophy

Anaximander-Philosophy, Mathematics

Anaximenes-Philosophy, Mathematics

Andocides-Rhetorics

Anthony the Great-Theology

Antiphon-Rhetorics

Apollodorus of Carystus-Comedy

Aristophanes - Comedy

Archimedes - Mathematics, Geometry

Aristotle - Philosophy, Physics, Biology

Aratus - Poetry, Astronomy

Arrian - History

Athanasius of Alexandria-Theology

Bacchylides-Lyric Poetry

Chionides-Comedy

Chrysippus-Philosophy

Claudius Ptolemy -Geography, Astronomy

Clement of Alexandria-Theology, Philosophy

Democritus - Philosophy, Chemistry

Demosthenes - Rhetorics, Politics

Dinarchus-Rhetorics

Dinon-History

Diodorus - History

Diogenes Laërtius - History of Philosophy

Duris of Samos-History

Epicurus-Philosophy

Epimenides of Knossos - Philosophy, Philosophical poetry

Eubulus (poet)-Comedy

Euclid of Megara - Mathematics, Geometry

Euripides - Tragedy

Evagrius Ponticus-Theology

Gorgias - Philosophy

Hegemon of Thasos-Comedy

Heraclitus-Philosophy

Herodotus of Halicarnassus - History

Hesiod - Epic Poetry

Hippocrates of Cos - Medicine

Homer - Epic Poetry

Hypereides-Rhetorics

Iamblichus-Philosophy

Ibycus of Rhegium-Lyric Poetry

Irenaeus-Theology, Philosophy

Isaeus-Rhetorics, Logography

Isocrates-Rhetorics

Justin the Martyr-Theology, Philosophy

Leucippus-Philosophy, Atomism

Luke the Evangelist-Theology, Medicine, History

Lycurgus of Athens-Rhetorics

Lysias-Logography, Rhetorics

Maximus the Confessor-Theology, Philosophy

Menander - Comedy

Melissus of Samos-Philosophy

Nicomachus of Gerasa-Mathematics

Origen-Theology, Philosophy

Papias of Hierapolis-Theology

Parmenides-Philosophy

Pherecydes of Leros-Mythography, Logography

Philo of Alexandria-Theology, Philosophy

Pindar - Lyrical Poetry

Plato - Philosophy

Plutarch - History, Biography, Philosophy

Posidippus (comic poet)-Comedy

Protagoras - Philosophy

Pythagoras of Samos-Philosophy, Mathematics, Religion (No works)

Sappho of Lesbos-Lyric Poetry

Simonides-Lyric Poetry

Socrates-Philosophy (No Works)

Solon - Politics, Philosophy

Stesichorus-Lyric Poetry

Strattis-Comedy

Thales of Miletus-Philosophy, Mathematics, Astronomy, Physics

Theocritus - Bucolic poetry

Theopompus-History

Thucydides - History

Xenarchus of Seleucia-Philosophy, Philology

Xenophanes- Philosophy, Theology

Xenophon - History

Zeno of Citium-Philosophy

Zeno of Elea-Philosophy

Cleophon (politician)

Cleophon (Greek: Kλεoφῶν, Kleophōn; died 405 BC) was an Athenian politician and demagogue who was of great influence during the Peloponnesian War. He was a staunch democrat and vehement opponent of the oligarchs; his sparring with Critias rated a mention in Aristotle's Rhetoric.

On three separate occasions, he inspired the citizens of Athens to reject the Spartans' attempts to make peace; once after the Athenian victory at Cyzicus (410 BC), again after the Athenian victory at Arginusae (406 BC), and once again after the decisive Spartan naval victory at Aegospotami (405 BC). During Lysander's ensuing siege, the tide of opinion turned against the democrats, and the oligarchs used the opportunity to rid themselves of their rival. One of their members, Satyrus, brought a charge against Cleophon of neglect of military duty, leading to his arrest. Since it was by no means certain that Cleophon could be convicted of this, the commissioner for the publication of the Athenian laws, Nicomachus, was persuaded by bribery or partisanship to exhibit a "law" allowing the oligarch-dominated Boule to oversee Cleophon's trial by lot-chosen jury. The oligarchs used this assessorship (συνδικάζειν) over the jurors to ensure the conviction of Cleophon and his death sentence.

Cleophon was made the object of satire by the comic poet Plato in an eponymous play (now lost), and by Aristophanes in The Frogs. Both made fun of Cleophon's Thracian origins and accent: since his father is known to have been an Athenian citizen, his mother is conjectured to have been Thracian and Plato of his low Athenian birth (Andocides says that Cleophon was a harp-maker by trade, and Aelian comments on the poverty of his early life).

Cydathenaeum

Cydathenaeum or Kydathenaion (Greek: Κυδαθήναιον) was one of the demes in ancient Athens. It belonged in the phyle (tribe) Pandionis.

Eryximachus

Eryximachus, son of Acumenus (; Greek: Ἐρυξίμαχος Ἀκουμένου Eruxímachos Akouménou; c. 448 – late 5th century or early 4th century BCE) was an ancient Athenian physician who is best remembered for his prominent role in Plato's Symposium. It is likely that he was indicted in the mutilation of the Herms, a domestic Athenian conflict during the Peloponnesian War.

Justus Hermann Lipsius

Justus Hermann Lipsius (9 May 1834, Leipzig – 5 September 1920, Leipzig) was a German classical philologist. He was the brother of theologian Richard Adelbert Lipsius.

He studied theology and philology at the University of Leipzig (1850–1856), where he later served as an associate professor (1869-1877) and full professor (1877-1914) of classical philology. In 1891/92 he was university rector.He was editor of Andocides (1888) and of Demosthenes, "De corona oratio" (1884), reviser of Moritz Hermann Eduard Meier and Georg Friedrich Schömann's "Der attische Process" (two volumes, Berlin, 1883, 1887) and of Schömann's "Griechische Altertümer" (two volumes, Berlin, 1897, 1901), and author of "Attisches Recht und Rechtsverfassung" (1905–1912). He wrote numerous philological papers and edited "Leipziger Studien zur klassischen Philologie".

Leon of Salamis

Leon of Salamis (; Greek: Λέων) was a historical figure, mentioned in Plato's Apology, Xenophon's Hellenica and Andocides' On the Mysteries (1.94). This Leon may also be the renowned Athenian general Leon of the Peloponnesian War.

Moritz Hermann Eduard Meier

Moritz Hermann Eduard Meier (1 January 1796 – 5 December 1855) was a German classical philologist, born at Glogau.At the age of 24, he became an associate professor at the University of Greifswald. In 1825, he was named professor of classical philology at the University of Halle, where he remained until his death.

Friedrich August Wolf, and especially Wolf's famous pupil, August Boeckh, whose classic work on the public economy of Athens appeared in 1817, had a great influence on Meier. His own first important publication dealt with a question in the legal antiquities of Athens, "Historia Juris Attici de Bonis Damnatorum", etc. (Berlin, 1819); but his greatest work was written in collaboration with G. F. Schömann, "Der Attische Process" (Berlin, 1824); and was crowned by the Berlin Royal Academy. This treatise, now revised by J. H. Lipsius (Berlin 1883-87), remains the standard work on Athenian legal procedure.

Meier also prepared an edition of Demosthenes "Against Meidias" and published many papers on subjects relating to classical antiquity, especially Andocides and Theophrastus — these were collected after his death in "Opuscula" (1861-63). Much of his energy, however, while resident at Halle, was spent on editorial duties, as he was an editor of the Halle "Allgemeine Zeitung" for many years, and also co-editor of the "Allgemeine Encyclopädie der Wissenschaften und Künste" from 1830 to 1855.

Orator

An orator, or oratist, is a public speaker, especially one who is eloquent or skilled.

Phaeax (orator)

Phaeax (Greek: Φαίαξ) was an Athenian orator and statesman. The son of Erasistratus, his date of his birth is not known, but he was a contemporary of Nicias and Alcibiades. Plutarch (Alcib. 13) says, that he and Nicias were the only rivals whom Alcibiades feared when he entered upon public life.

In 422 BC, Phaeax, with two others, was sent as an ambassador to Italy and Sicily, to endeavor to persuade the Magna Graecian allies of the Athenians and the other Siceliotes to aid the Leontines against the Syracusans. He succeeded with Camarina and Agrigentum, but his failure at Gela led him to abandon the attempt as hopeless. On his way back he assisted the Athenian cause among the states of Italy. (Thucyd. v. 4, 5.) According to Theophrastus (ap. Plut.) it was Phaeax, and not Nicias, with whom Alcibiades united for the purpose of ostracizing Hyperbolus. Most authorities, however, are of the view that it was Nicias. (Plut. l.c. Nic. 11, Aristid. 7.)

In the "Lives of the Ten Orators" (Andoc.) there is mention of a contest between Phaeax and Andocides, and a defence of the latter against the former. It is difficult to say exactly when this content took place. Andocides did not come into notice until after the affair of the mutilation of the Hermae.

Phaeax was an engaging personality, but had no great abilities as a speaker. According to Eupolis (ap. Plut. Alcib. 13) he was a fluent talker, but quite unable to speak. (Comp. A. Gellius, N. A. i. 15.) Aristophanes gives a description of his style of speaking (Equit. 1377, etc.), from which it would seem that, on one occasion, he was brought to trial for some capital offence and acquitted.

There has been a good deal of controversy regarding the speech against Alcibiades, commonly attributed to Andocides, which Taylor maintained to be prepared by Phaeax. Plutarch (Alcib. 13), according to the opinion of most editors, speaks of an oration against Alcibiades, as prepared by Phaeax. It seems likely that he was referring to the very oration which is extant, the passage which he quotes (though not quite accurately) being found in the speech in question, which could not have been written by Andocides, as the author speaks of the rival claim of himself, Nicias, and Alcibiades being decided by ostracism. There are, however, strong reasons for believing that it is the product of some rhetorician writing in the name of Phaeax. The style does not at all resemble what the notice in Aristophanes would lead us to expect; and the writer betrays himself by various inaccuracies. If then the speech was written as if by Phaeax, and reliance can be placed on the biographical notices in it (which are in part at least borne out by good authorities), Phaeax was subject to being tried for his life four times, and each time he was acquitted (§ 8, 36. Comp. Aristoph. l.c.). He was sent as ambassador to Thessaly, Macedonia, Molossia, and Thesprotia, besides Sicily and Italy, and was awarded various prizes. (Taylor, Led. Lys. c. 6; Valckenaer, Advers. ap. Sluiter, Lect. Andoc. pp. 17–26; Ruhnken, Hist. Crit. Orat. Gr. Opusc. p. 321, et seq.; Becker, Andokides, pp. 13 et seq., 83-108; and especially Meier, Comment. de Andocidis quae vulgo fertur oratione contra Alcibiadem.)

Phaedrus (Athenian)

Phaedrus (), son of Pythocles, of the Myrrhinus deme (Greek: Φαῖδρος Πυθοκλέους Μυρρινούσιος, Phaĩdros Puthocléous Murrinoúsios; c. 444 – 393 BC), was an ancient Athenian aristocrat associated with the inner-circle of the philosopher Socrates. He was indicted in the profanation of the Eleusinian mysteries in 415 during the Peloponnesian War, causing him to flee Athens.

He is best remembered for his depiction in the dialogues of Plato. His philosophically erotic role in his eponymous dialogue and the Symposium inspired later authors, from the ancient comedic playwright Alexis to contemporary philosophers like Robert M. Pirsig and Martha Nussbaum.

Theodorus of Byzantium

Theodorus (Greek: Θεόδωρος) was a Greek sophist and orator of the late 5th century BC, born of Byzantium.

Theodorus is noted by Plato in his ironic survey of oratory in the Phaedrus for mentioning "confirmation and further confirmation", and calls Theodorus "that most excellent artist in words." Phaedrus responds in turn by calling Theodorus "worthy." Quintillian references Plato's usage in his history of Oratory in the third book of the Instiutio Oratoria. The Loeb translation of the passage gives us the perhaps more appropriate reading of "word-artificer" for Plato's witticism. Diogenes Laërtius refers to him in a similarly cursorial manner.Aristotle places him beside Tisias and Thrasymachus as the key movers in the history of rhetoric. Quoting the W. A. Pickard-Cambridge text: "For it may be that in everything, as the saying is 'the first start is the main part'... This is in fact what has happened in regard to rhetorical speeches and to practically all the other arts: for those who discovered the beginnings of them advanced them in all only a little way, whereas the celebrities of to-day are the heirs (so to speak) of a long succession of men who have advanced them bit by bit, and so have developed them to their present form, Tisias coming next after the first founders, then Thrasymachus after Tisias, and Theodorus next to him, while several people have made their several contributions to it: and therefore it is not to be wondered at that the art has attained considerable dimensions." The later Peripatetic school seems not to have been so kind. Dionysius of Halicarnassus, writing of the school in his era, 30 BC, states that "It is important that they should not assume that all the principles of rhetoric are covered in Peripatetic philosophy, and that nothing significant has been discovered by Theodorus, Thrasymachus, Antiphon and their associates..." Some commentators conclude from the passage that Theodorus is linked significantly with Antiphon and Thrasymachus. Elsewhere, Dionysius speaks of him as antiquated, careless and superficial. Cicero describes him as excelling rather in the theory than the practice of his art.The Byzantine Suda quotes the Phaedrus again in referencing Theodorus, with the translation giving the curious variation of "Daedalus of words." The Suda provides a brief listing of his works, declaring him the author of Against Thrasybulus, and Against Andocides, and other unspecified works.

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