Andijan

Andijan (sometimes spelled Andizhan in English) (Uzbek: Andijon / Андижон / ئەندىجان; Persian: اندیجان‎, Andijân/Andīǰān; Russian: Андижан, Andižan) is a city in Uzbekistan. It is the administrative, economic, and cultural center of Andijan Region. Andijan is located in the south-eastern edge of the Fergana Valley near Uzbekistan's border with Kyrgyzstan.

Andijan is one of the oldest cities in the Fergana Valley. In some parts of the city, archeologists have found items dating back to the 7th and 8th centuries. Historically, Andijan was an important city on the Silk Road. The city is perhaps best known as the birthplace of Babur who, following a series of setbacks, finally succeeded in laying the basis for the Mughal dynasty in the Indian Subcontinent and became the first Mughal emperor.

Andijan is an important industrial city in the country. Manufactured goods produced in the city include chemicals, domestic appliances, electronics, foodstuffs, furniture, plows, pumps, shoes, spare parts for farming machines, various engineering tools, and wheelchairs.

Andijan

Andijon/Андижон
City
Devonaboy Jome Mosque in Andijan
Navoi Square (Formerly Bobur Square) - Where 2005 Massacre Took Place - Andijon - Uzbekistan (7544000842)
Chapel in Andijan 02
Andijan state university
Last Friday of Ramadan, Andijan
Panorama of Navoi Square (Formerly Bobur Square) - Where 2005 Massacre Took Place - Andijon - Uzbekistan - 01 (7543269364)
Andijan is located in Uzbekistan
Andijan
Andijan
Location in Uzbekistan
Coordinates: 40°47′N 72°20′E / 40.783°N 72.333°ECoordinates: 40°47′N 72°20′E / 40.783°N 72.333°E
CountryFlag of Uzbekistan.svg Uzbekistan
RegionAndijan Region
First mention10th century
Area
 • Total74.3 km2 (28.7 sq mi)
Elevation
500 m (1,600 ft)
Population
 (2014)
 • Total403,900
 • Density5,400/km2 (14,000/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+5 (UZT)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+5 (not observed)
Postal code
170100[1]
Area code(s)+998 74[1]
Websitewww.andijan.uz

History

Toponymy

The origin of the name of the city is uncertain. Arab geographers of the 10th century referred to Andijan as "Hindijaan," "Hindaghan," or "Handigan" meaning - "The city of Hindus or Hindu Temples".[2] The traditional explanation links the name of the city to the Turkic tribal names.[3]

Early and recent history

Andijan is one of the oldest cities in the Fergana Valley. In some parts of the city, archeologists have found items dating back to the 7th and 8th centuries.[3] Historically, Andijan was an important city on the Silk Road.[4]

The city is perhaps best known as the birthplace of Babur who, following a series of setbacks, finally succeeded in laying the basis for the Mughal dynasty in the Indian Subcontinent and became the first Mughal emperor.[5]

After the formation of the Khanate of Kokand in the 18th century, the capital was moved from Andijan to Kokand. In the mid-19th century, the Russian Empire began occupying the area of present-day Central Asia. In 1876, the Russians conquered the Khanate of Kokand and the city of Andijan along with it.

Andijan was the center and flashpoint of the Andijan Uprising of 1898 in which the followers of Sufi leader Madali Ishan attacked the Russian barracks in the city, killing 22 and injuring 16-20 more. In retaliation, 18 of the participants were hanged and 360 exiled.[6]

On 16 December 1902, much of the city was leveled by a severe earthquake which destroyed up to 30,000 homes in the region and killed as many as 4,500 residents.[4][7] After Soviet rule was established in Andijan in 1917, the city quickly became an important industrial city in the Uzbek SSR.

Modern history

During the Soviet demarcation of Central Asia, Andijan was separated from its historical hinterland as the Ferghana Valley was divided among three separate Soviet republics. Andijan itself became part of the Uzbek SSR.

During World War II, many Soviet citizens were evacuated to Andijan and the surrounding towns. Of the Jewish refugees fleeing Nazi-occupied Poland and banished by the Soviets to Siberia and Central Asia, some relocated to Andijan starting in 1941.

In the 1990s, Andijan and the surrounding region became politically unstable. Poverty and an upsurge in Islamic fundamentalism produced tensions in the region. The town, and the region as a whole, suffered a severe economic decline following the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. Repeated border closures badly damaged the local economy, worsening the already widespread poverty of Andijan's inhabitants.

May 2005 massacre

On 13 May 2005, Uzbekistan's military opened fire on a mass of people who were protesting against poor living conditions and corrupt government.[8][9][10] The estimates of those killed on 13 May range from 187, the official count of the government, to several hundred.[8][11] A defector from the SNB alleged that 1,500 were killed.[12] The bodies of many of those who died were allegedly hidden in mass graves following the massacre.[13]

The Uzbek government at first stated that the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan organized the unrest and that the protesters were members of Hizb ut-Tahrir.[14] Critics have argued that the radical Islamist label has been just a pretext for maintaining a repressive regime in the country.

Whether troops fired indiscriminately to prevent a colour revolution or acted legitimately to quell a prison break is also disputed.[15][16][17][18] Another theory is that the dispute was really an inter-clan struggle for state power.[10] The Uzbek government eventually acknowledged that poor economic conditions in the region and popular resentment played a role in the uprising.[19]

Panorama of Navoi Square where the 2005 massacre took place
Panorama of Navoi Square where the 2005 massacre took place

Geography

Andijan is located 450 metres (1,480 ft) above sea level in the south-eastern edge of the Fergana Valley near Uzbekistan's border with Kyrgyzstan.[3] By road it is 22 kilometres (14 mi) northeast of Asaka and 68.6 kilometres (42.6 mi) southeast of Namangan.[20] Andijonsoy flows along the city.

Climate

Andijan has a cold semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification BSk) with cold winters and hot summers, rendering a very continental nature, although winters are milder than one might expect for a location in Central Asia. Rainfall is generally light and erratic. Summers are particularly dry.

Demographics

In 2000, Andijan had a population of 333,400.[3] Representatives of many ethnic groups can be found in the city. Uzbeks are the largest ethnic group, followed by Tajiks.

Historical population
YearPop.±%
189757,000—    
1939105,000+84.2%
1959161,000+53.3%
1970188,000+16.8%
1985275,000+46.3%
2000333,400+21.2%
Source: [3][4][22]

Economy

Andijan has been an important craft and trade center in the Fergana Valley since the 15th century. After annexation by the Russians in 1876, the economy of the city started to grow significantly. Several industrial plants were built in Andijan after the city was connected with Russia with a railway line in 1889.[22] Several hospitals, pharmacies, banks, and printing houses were established in the city during that period. After Soviet rule was established in late December 1917, both light and heavy industries developed significantly. Andijan became the first city in Uzbekistan to be fully supplied with natural gas.[22]

Andijan remains an important industrial city in independent Uzbekistan. There are 48 large industrial plants and about 3,000 small and medium enterprises in the city.[3] Manufactured goods produced in the city include chemicals, domestic appliances, electronics, foodstuffs, furniture, plows, pumps, shoes, spare parts for farming machines, various engineering tools, and wheelchairs. Andijan is also home to over 50 international companies, five of which produce spare parts for GM Uzbekistan.

Education

There are four higher education institutions in Andijan City. The Andijan Medical Institute is the largest of the four. The city is also home to four colleges, one academic lyceum, 21 vocational schools, 47 secondary schools, three music and art schools, nine sports schools, and 86 kindergartens.[22]

Notable people

  • Nodira (1792–1842) — a poet and stateswoman[24]
  • Choʻlpon (1897–1938) — an influential poet, playwright, novelist, and literary translator[25]
  • Abbos Bakirov (1910–1974) — a film actor and director, People's Artist of Uzbekistan (1939)[26]
  • Halima Nosirova (1913–2003) — an influential opera singer, People's Artist of Uzbekistan (1937)[27]
  • Mukarram Turgʻunboyeva (1913–1978) — dancer, People's Artist of Uzbekistan (1937); generally regarded as the founder of modern Uzbek stage dance[28]
  • Fotima Boruxova (1916–2009) — opera singer, People's Artist of Uzbekistan (1950)[29]
  • Shahodat Rahimova (1919–1979) — singer and actress, People's Artist of Uzbekistan (1940)[30]
  • Muhammad Yusuf (1954–2001) — poet and a member of the Supreme Assembly of Uzbekistan, People's Poet of Uzbekistan (1998)[31]

References

  1. ^ a b "Andijan". SPR (in Russian). Retrieved 3 April 2014.
  2. ^ Pospelov, E. M. (1998). Geographical Names of the World. Toponymic Dictionary (in Russian). Moscow: Russkie slovari. p. 36. ISBN 5-89216-029-7.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Ziyayev, Baxtiyor (2000–2005). "Andijon". Oʻzbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi (in Uzbek). Toshkent: Oʻzbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi.
  4. ^ a b c "Andijon". Ensiklopedik lugʻat (in Uzbek). 1. Toshkent: Oʻzbek sovet ensiklopediyasi. 1988. pp. 42–43. 5-89890-002-0.
  5. ^ Manz, Beatrice Forbes (1987). "Central Asian Uprisings in the Nineteenth Century: Ferghana under the Russians". Russian Review. 46 (3): 267–281. doi:10.2307/130563. JSTOR 130563.
  6. ^ Khalid, Adeeb (1998). The Politics of Muslim Cultural Reform: Jadidism in Central Asia. Comparative studies on Muslim societies. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 59. ISBN 0-520-21355-6.
  7. ^ Kislov, D. (13 July 2007). "Paging through old journals: Evidence of the 1902 Andijan Earthquake". Ferghana (in Russian). Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  8. ^ a b "Preliminary findings on the events in Andijan, Uzbekistan, 13 May 2005". Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe. Warsaw. 20 June 2005. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  9. ^ Beehner, Lionel (June 26, 2006). "Documenting Andijan". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  10. ^ a b Burnashev, Rustam; Irina Chernykh. "Changes in Uzbekistan's military policy after the Andijan Events". China and Eurasia Forum Quarterly. 5 (I): 67–73.
  11. ^ Usmanova, Dilya. "Uzbekistan: Andijan - A policeman's account". Institute for War and Peace Reporting. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  12. ^ Donovan, Jeffrey (1 September 2008). "Former Uzbek spy accuses government of massacres, seeks asylum". RFE/RL. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  13. ^ "The Andijan massacre a year after". Columbia Radio News. 10 June 2007. Archived from the original on 10 June 2007. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  14. ^ "Border situation between Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan returns to normal". ReliefWeb. 26 May 2005. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  15. ^ C. J. Chivers; Ethan Wilensky-Lanford (17 May 2005). "Uzbeks say troops shot recklessly at civilians". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  16. ^ "Uzbek troops clash with protesters". CNN. 13 May 2005. Archived from the original on 13 August 2007. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  17. ^ "Uzbekistan: 'Bullets were falling like rain'". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  18. ^ Chivers, C. J. (23 May 2005). "Toe tags offer clues to Uzbeks' uprising". Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  19. ^ "Uzbekistan: Karimov reappraises Andijon". RFE/RL. 19 October 2006. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  20. ^ "Andijan". Google Maps. Retrieved 8 April 2014.
  21. ^ "Climate normals for Andijan". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
  22. ^ a b c d Moʻminov, Ibrohim, ed. (1971). "Andijon". Oʻzbek sovet ensiklopediyasi (in Uzbek). 1. Toshkent. pp. 359–360.
  23. ^ Muhammadjonov, Abdulahad; Abdugʻafurov, Abdurashid (2000–2005). "Bobur". Oʻzbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi (in Uzbek). Toshkent: Oʻzbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi.
  24. ^ Qodirova, Mahbuba (2000–2005). "Nodira". Oʻzbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi (in Uzbek). Toshkent: Oʻzbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi.
  25. ^ Karimov, Naim (2000–2005). "Choʻlpon". Oʻzbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi (in Uzbek). Toshkent: Oʻzbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi.
  26. ^ "Bakirov Abbos". Oʻzbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi (in Uzbek). Toshkent: Oʻzbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi. 2000–2005.
  27. ^ "Nosirova Halima". Oʻzbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi (in Uzbek). Toshkent: Oʻzbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi. 2000–2005.
  28. ^ Qodirov, Muhsin (2000–2005). "Turgʻunboyeva Mukarram". Oʻzbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi (in Uzbek). Toshkent: Oʻzbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi.
  29. ^ "Boruxova Fotima". Oʻzbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi (in Uzbek). Toshkent: Oʻzbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi. 2000–2005.
  30. ^ "Rahimova Shahodat". Oʻzbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi (in Uzbek). Toshkent: Oʻzbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi. 2000–2005.
  31. ^ "Muhammad Yusuf". Oʻzbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi (in Uzbek). Toshkent: Oʻzbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi. 2000–2005.
  32. ^ "Ilatov, Robert (Personal Information)". The Knesset. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
  33. ^ "Chagayev Ruslan Shamilevich". Oʻzbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi (in Uzbek). Toshkent: Oʻzbekiston milliy ensiklopediyasi. 2000–2005.

External links

2005 Andijan unrest

The 2005 Andijan unrest occurred when Uzbek Interior Ministry (MVD) and National Security Service (SNB) troops fired into a crowd of protesters in Andijan in the Republic of Uzbekistan on 13 May 2005. Estimates of those killed on 13 May range from 187, the official count of the government, to several hundred. A defector from the SNB alleged that 1,500 were killed. The bodies of many of those who died were allegedly hidden in mass graves following the massacre.The Uzbek government at first said the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan organised the unrest and the protesters were members of Hizb ut-Tahrir. Critics argue that the Islamist radical label is just a pretext for maintaining a repressive regime in the country. Whether troops fired indiscriminately to prevent a colour revolution or acted legitimately to quell a prison break is also disputed. A third theory is that the dispute was really an inter-clan struggle for state power. The Uzbek government eventually acknowledged that poor economic conditions in the region and popular resentment played a role in the uprising.It was claimed that calls from Western governments for an international investigation prompted a major shift in Uzbek foreign policy favouring closer relations with Asian nations, although the Uzbek government is known to have close ties with the U.S. government, and the Bush administration had declared Uzbekistan to be vital to US security because it hired out a large military base to US military forces. The Uzbek government ordered the closing of the United States air base in Karshi-Khanabad and improved ties with the People's Republic of China and Russia, who supported the regime's response in Andijan.

2010 Uzbek League

The 2010 Uzbek League season was the 19th season of top level football in Uzbekistan since independence in 1992.

Bunyodkor were the defending champions from the 2009 campaign.

2014 Uzbek League

The 2014 Uzbek League was the 23rd season of top level football in Uzbekistan since independence in 1992. Bunyodkor were the defending champions from the 2013 campaign.

2016 Uzbek League

The 2016 Uzbek League was the 25th season of top level football in Uzbekistan since 1992. Pakhtakor were the defending champions from the 2015 campaign.

2016 Uzbekistan Cup

The 2016 Uzbekistan Cup is the 24th season of the annual Uzbek football Cup competition. The competition started on 14 March 2016 and ended in November 2016.

The cup winner is guaranteed a place in the 2017 AFC Champions League.

Aleksandr Averyanov (footballer, born 1948)

Aleksandr Nikolayevich Averyanov (Russian: Александр Николаевич Аверьянов; born 1 October 1948 in Vladivostok) is a Soviet and Russian professional football coach and a former player.

Aleksei Petrushin

Aleksei Alekseyevich Petrushin (Russian: Алексей Алексеевич Петрушин; born 29 January 1952) is a Russian professional football coach and a former player.

Andijan Region

Andijan Region (Uzbek: Andijon viloyati/Андижон вилояти, ئەندىجان ۋىلايەتى) is a region of Uzbekistan, located in the eastern part of the Fergana Valley in far eastern Uzbekistan. It borders with Kyrgyzstan, Fergana Region and Namangan Region. It covers an area of 4,200 km2. The population is estimated to be around 2,756,400 thus making Andijan Region the most densely populated region of Uzbekistan.

The name Andijan has originated from the Persian word of اندکان Andakan.

The traditional etymology connects the name with the Turk, ethnonym Gandhi (Gandhi Turks), known from pre-Islamic period.Andijan Region is divided into 14 administrative districts. The capital is the city of Andijan.

The climate is a typically continental climate with extreme differences between winter and summer temperatures.

Natural resources include deposits of petroleum, natural gas, ozokerite and limestone. As with other regions of Uzbekistan, it is famous for its very sweet melons and watermelons, but cultivation of crops can be accomplished exclusively on irrigated lands. Main agriculture includes cotton, cereal, viticulture, cattle raising and vegetable gardening.

Industry includes metal processing, chemical industry, light industry, food processing. The first automobile assembly plant in Central Asia was opened in Asaka in Andijan Region by the Uzbek-Korean joint venture, UzDaewoo, which produces Nexia and Tico cars and the Damas minibus.

Anjudan

Anjudan (Persian: انجدان‎, also Romanized as Anjedān; also known as Andījān, Anjidān, and Injadān) is a village in Amanabad Rural District, in the Central District of Arak County, Markazi Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 446, in 154 families. it situated near the major Shi'i centres of Qumm and Kashan in Iran, to which the Nizari Ismaili Imamate was transferred during the late 14th century CE. Owing to the village’s name, Ismaili history between the 14th and 15th centuries is dubbed the “Anjudan period”.

Asaka, Uzbekistan

Asaka (Uzbek: Asaka/Aсака; Russian: Aсака) is a city and the administrative center of Asaka District in eastern Uzbekistan, located in the southeastern edge of the Fergana Valley near Uzbekistan's border with Kyrgyzstan.

Asaka underwent rapid industrialization during the Soviet era. Currently, it is the second biggest industrial city in Andijan Region, the first being Andijan. Asaka is home to the first automobile assembly plant in Central Asia, namely GM Uzbekistan (formerly UzDaewooAuto).

Buloqboshi

Buloqboshi (also spelled as Bulakbashy, Uzbek: Buloqboshi, Булоқбоши, Russian: Булакбаши) is an urban-type settlement in Andijan Region, Uzbekistan. It is the administrative center of Buloqboshi District.

Districts of Uzbekistan

The regions of Uzbekistan are divided into districts (tuman). The districts are listed by region, in the general direction from west to east. Names often transliterated from Russian.

European route E007

E 007 is a European B class road in Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan, connecting the cities Tashkent – Kokand – Andijan – Osh – Irkeshtam

FC Andijon

FC Andijon (Uzbek: Андижон профессионал футбол клуби or Andijon professional futbol klubi, English: professional football club Andijan) is an Uzbekistani football club based in Andijan. the club plays in Uzbek League.

Galima Bukharbaeva

Galima Bukharbaeva (born 7 July 1974, Tashkent) is an Uzbek journalist known for her reporting on state authoritarianism and her eyewitness account of the 2005 Andijan massacre.

National Security Service (Uzbekistan)

The National Security Service (Uzbek Milliy Xavfsizlik Xizmati, MXX; in Russian Служба национальной безопасности, СНБ, often romanised as SNB) is the national intelligence agency of the government of Uzbekistan. It was created as a successor to the KGB following the collapse of the Soviet Union, and retains the same responsibilities and a similar range of functional units, including paramilitary police and special forces. The SNB was a rival of the Interior Ministry until 2005, when it was brought under its control.

The SNB is described by Amnesty International and the Institute for War and Peace Reporting as a secret police force.

Oltinkoʻl, Andijan Region

Oltinkoʻl (Uzbek: Oltinko‘l, Олтинкўл, Russian: Алтынкуль) is a village in Andijan Region, Uzbekistan. It is administrative center of Oltinko‘l District. The village population in 1989 year was 3697 people.

Paxtaobod

Paxtaobod (also spelled as Pakhtaabad, Uzbek: Paxtaobod, Пахтаобод, Russian: Пахтаабад) is a town in Andijan Region, Uzbekistan. It is the administrative center of Paxtaobod District. The town population in 1989 year was 18991 people.

Qorasuv

Qorasuv (also transliterated as Korasuv, Karasu, Kara-Soo, Kara-Sui; Uzbek: Qorasuv / Қорасув; Russian: Карасу) is a town in Qo‘rg‘ontepa District of Andijan Region in eastern Uzbekistan, about 50 km from the district capital of Andijan. The town's name means "black water" in Uzbek (qora - black, suv - water). It lies in the politically volatile and religiously conservative Fergana Valley, along the border with Kyrgyzstan. In 1989 it had a population of 19,500.

It is essentially one town with Kara-Suu in Kyrgyzstan, but is separated from the latter by a Soviet-era border which today is tightly controlled by Uzbekistan. Korasuv was the second town in Uzbekistan to be sealed off during the Andijan massacre in spring 2005, when some 6,000 people fled across the border. A border town, it is an important market town, especially for cottonseed oil trading.

Climate data for Andijan
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 3.2
(37.8)
6.3
(43.3)
14.6
(58.3)
23.2
(73.8)
28.7
(83.7)
33.8
(92.8)
34.7
(94.5)
32.6
(90.7)
28.5
(83.3)
21.3
(70.3)
13.0
(55.4)
5.6
(42.1)
20.5
(68.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) −1.9
(28.6)
0.9
(33.6)
8.4
(47.1)
16.4
(61.5)
21.7
(71.1)
26.2
(79.2)
27.2
(81.0)
24.7
(76.5)
19.6
(67.3)
12.8
(55.0)
6.0
(42.8)
0.7
(33.3)
13.6
(56.4)
Average low °C (°F) −5.8
(21.6)
−3.3
(26.1)
3.3
(37.9)
10.2
(50.4)
14.8
(58.6)
18.3
(64.9)
19.5
(67.1)
17.1
(62.8)
11.9
(53.4)
6.3
(43.3)
0.9
(33.6)
−2.8
(27.0)
7.5
(45.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 26
(1.0)
33
(1.3)
37
(1.5)
28
(1.1)
21
(0.8)
8
(0.3)
6
(0.2)
2
(0.1)
4
(0.2)
26
(1.0)
22
(0.9)
25
(1.0)
238
(9.4)
Average relative humidity (%) 84 81 72 62 54 46 50 57 60 68 77 86 66
Mean monthly sunshine hours 87.7 100.6 151.7 206.3 277.2 334.3 357.7 339.3 289.7 216.6 139.6 77.4 2,578.1
Source: NOAA (1961-1990)[21]
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