Andhra Pradesh

Andhra Pradesh (/ˌɑːndrə prəˈdɛʃ/) (pronunciation ) is one of the 29 states of India. Situated in the south-east of the country, it is the seventh-largest state in India, covering an area of 162,970 km2 (62,920 sq mi).[7] As per the 2011 census, it is the tenth-most populous state, with 49,386,799 inhabitants. The largest city in Andhra Pradesh is Visakhapatnam. Telugu, one of the classical languages of India,[8] is the major and official language of Andhra Pradesh.[9][10]

The north-western portion of Andhra Pradesh was separated to form the new state of Telangana on 2 June 2014, and Hyderabad, the longtime capital of Andhra Pradesh, was transferred to Telangana as part of the division. However, in accordance with the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014, Hyderabad was to remain the acting capital of both Andhra Pradesh and Telangana states for a period of time not exceeding ten years.[11] The new riverfront de facto capital, Amaravati, is under the jurisdiction of the Andhra Pradesh Capital Region Development Authority (APCRDA).[12]

Andhra Pradesh has a coastline of 974 km (605 mi) – the second-longest coastline among the states of India, after Gujarat – with jurisdiction over almost 15,000 km2 of territorial waters.[7][13] The state is bordered by Telangana in the north-west, Chhattisgarh and Odisha in the north-east, Karnataka in the west, Tamil Nadu in the south, and to the east lies the Bay of Bengal. The small enclave of Yanam, a district of Puducherry, lies to the south of Kakinada in the Godavari delta on the eastern side of the state.[14]

The state is made up of the two major regions of Rayalaseema, in the inland southwestern part of the state, and Coastal Andhra to the east and northeast, bordering the Bay of Bengal.[15][16] The state comprises thirteen districts in total, nine of which are located in Coastal Andhra and four in Rayalaseema. The largest city and commercial hub of the state are Visakhapatnam, located on the Bay of Bengal, with a GDP of US$43.5 billion; the second largest city in the state is Vijayawada, located on the banks of the Krishna River, which has a GDP of US$3 billion (as of 2010).[17][18] The economy of Andhra Pradesh is the seventh-largest state economy in India with 8.70 lakh crore (US$130 billion) in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of 142,000 (US$2,100).[19]

Andhra Pradesh hosted 121.8 million visitors in 2015, a 30% growth in tourist arrivals over the previous year,[20] making it the third most-visited state in India. The Tirumala Venkateswara Temple in Tirupati is one of the world's most visited religious sites, with 18.25 million visitors per year.[21] Other pilgrimage centres in the state include the Mallikarjuna Jyotirlinga at Srisailam, the Srikalahasteeswara Temple at Srikalahasti, the Ameen Peer Dargah in Kadapa, the Mahachaitya at Amaravathi, the Kanaka Durga Temple in Vijayawada, and Prasanthi Nilayam in Puttaparthi. The state's natural attractions include the beaches of Visakhapatnam, hill stations such as the Araku Valley and Horsley Hills, and the island of Konaseema in the Godavari River delta.

Andhra Pradesh
Nandi Lepakshi Temple Hindupur 5
Tirumala 090615
Vizag View from Kailasagiri
Papi Hills Tour Pic 10
Araku valley view
Dhyana Buddha statue
From top, left to right: Nandi at Lepakshi, Venkateswara Temple, Tirumala, skyline view of Visakhapatnam city, Papi Hills, Araku Valley, Dhyana Buddha statue
Anthem: "Maa Telugu Thalliki"
Location of Andhra Pradesh in India
Location of Andhra Pradesh in India
Coordinates: 16°30′N 80°38′E / 16.50°N 80.64°ECoordinates: 16°30′N 80°38′E / 16.50°N 80.64°E
Country India
Statehood1 November 1956
Capital cityAmaravati (de facto)
Hyderabad (de jure)α
Largest cityVisakhapatnam
Districts13
Government
 • BodyGovernment of Andhra Pradesh
 • GovernorE. S. L. Narasimhan
 • Chief MinisterY. S. Jaganmohan Reddy
 • LegislatureBicameral (175 + 58 seats)
 • Parliamentary constituencyRajya Sabha 11
Lok Sabha 25
 • High CourtHigh Court of Andhra Pradesh
Area
 • Total162,970 km2 (62,920 sq mi)
Area rank7th
Population
 (2011)[2]
 • Total49,386,799
 • Rank10th
 • Density308/km2 (800/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Telugu / Andhraite
GDP (2018–19)
 • Total9.70 lakh crore (US$140 billion)
 • Per capita142,054 (US$2,100)
Time zoneUTC+05:30 (IST)
UN/LOCODEAP
Vehicle registrationAP 39
Literacy rate67.41% (2011)
Official languagesTelugu
Coastline974 kilometres (605 mi)
HDI (2017)Increase 0.643[4]
medium · List of Indian states and territories by Human Development Index
Websitewww.aponline.gov.in//
The Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 states that Hyderabad is common capital of both Telangana and Andhra Pradesh states for a period of time not exceeding 10 years.
Symbols of Andhra Pradesh
Emblem
Official Emblem Of Andhra Pradesh.jpeg
Poorna Ghatam [1]
Language
Telugu.svg
Telugu
SongMaa Telugu Thalliki[5]
Dance
Kuchipudi Performer DS.jpg
Kuchipudi[6]
Animal
Antilope cervicapra from velavadar.JPG
Blackbuck[6]
Bird
Rose-ringed Parakeet Psittacula krameri male by Dr. Raju Kasambe DSCN8937 (3).jpg
Rose-ringed parakeet[6]
Flower
Jasminum officinale.JPG
Jasmine[6]
Tree
(Curetis thetis) Indian Sunbeam on a neem tree along Eastern Ghats 04.JPG
Neem[6]

History

Toponomy

A tribe named Andhra was mentioned in Sanskrit texts such as Aitareya Brahmana (800–500 BCE). According to Aitareya Brahmana of the Rig Veda, the Andhra left north India and settled in south India.[22][23][24] The Satavahanas have been mentioned by the names Andhra, Andhrara-jateeya and Andhrabhrtya in the Puranic literature.[25][26] They did not refer themselves as Andhra in any of their coins or inscriptions; it is possible that they were termed as Andhras because of their ethnicity or because their territory included the Andhra region.[27]

Early and medieval history

Telugu talli bomma
Telugu Thalli

Archaeological evidence from places such as Amaravati, Dharanikota, and Vaddamanu suggests that the Andhra region was part of the Mauryan Empire. Amaravati might have been a regional centre for the Mauryan rule. After the death of Emperor Ashoka, Mauryan rule weakened around 200 BCE and was replaced by several smaller kingdoms in the Andhra region.[28]

The Satavahana dynasty dominated the Deccan region from the 1st century BC to the 3rd century.[29] The later Satavahanas made Dharanikota and Amaravathi their capital, which according to the Buddhists is the place where Nagarjuna, the philosopher of Mahayana lived in the 2nd and 3rd centuries.[30] The Andhra Ikshvakus, with their capital at Vijayapuri, succeeded the Satavahanas in the Krishna River valley in the latter half of the 2nd century.[31] Pallavas, who were originally executive officers under the Satavahana kings, were not a recognised political power before the 2nd century AD and were swept away by the Western Chalukyan invasion, led by Pulakesin II in the first quarter of the 7th century CE.[32] After the downfall of the Ikshvakus, the Vishnukundinas were the first great dynasty in the 5th and 6th centuries, and held sway over the entire Andhra country, including Kalinga and parts of Telangana. They played an important role in the history of Deccan during the 5th and 6th century CE, with Eluru, Amaravathi and Puranisangam.[33]

The Salankayanas were an ancient dynasty that ruled the Andhra region between Godavari and Krishna with their capital at Vengi (modern Pedavegi) from 300 to 440 CE.[34] The Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi, whose dynasty lasted for around five hundred years from the 7th century until 1130 C.E., eventually merged with the Chola empire. They continued to rule under the protection of the Chola empire until 1189 C.E. when the kingdom succumbed to the Hoysalas and the Yadavas.[35] The roots of the Telugu language have been seen on inscriptions found near the Guntur district and from others dating to the rule of Renati Cholas in the fifth century CE.[36][37]

Kakatiyas ruled Andhra Pradesh state for nearly two hundred years and constructed several forts. They were succeeded by the Musunuri Nayaks.

The Reddy dynasty (1325–1448 CE) was established by Prolaya Vema Reddi in the early 14th century, who ruled from present day Kondaveedu. Prolaya Vema Reddi was part of the confederation of states that started a movement against the invading Turkic Muslim armies of the Delhi Sultanate in 1323 CE and succeeded in repulsing them from Warangal.[38] They constructed Kondaveedu Fort which they ruled between 1328–1428, before it was taken over by the Gajpathis of Orissa, and later ravaged by the Muslim rulers of the Bahmani kingdom in 1458. The Vijayanagara emperor Krishnadevaraya captured it in 1516. The Golconda Sultans fought for the fort in 1531, 1536 and 1579, and Sultan Quli Qutb Shah captured it in 1579, renaming it Murtuzanagar. Again it was reconquered by Vijayanagarans who overthrew sultanate rule across the entirety of modern-day Andhra Pradesh (excluding Telangana). After this rebellion, the Bahmani sultans launched no further military campaigns outside their kingdoms, because the Marathas soon emerged as the strongest power in India.[39][40][41] Efforts are in progress to classify Kondaveedu Fort as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[42][43] Pemmasani Nayaks, the greatest kings during Vijayanagara times ruled parts of Andhra Pradesh state with Gandikota as capital for nearly three hundred years.[44]

Raaja mahal 1
Rajmahal of Chandragiri Fort

The Vijayanagara Empire originated in the Deccan Plateau region in the early 14th century. It was established in 1336 by Harihara Raya I and his brother Bukka Raya I of the Sangama Dynasty.[45][46] The empire's patronage enabled fine arts and literature to reach new heights in Kannada, Telugu, Tamil, and Sanskrit, while Carnatic music evolved into its current form.[47] The Lepakshi group of monuments are culturally and archaeologically significant as it is the location of shrines dedicated to Shiva, Vishnu, and Veerabhadra which were built during the Vijayanagara Kings' period (1336–1646). The temples are the location of mural paintings of the Vijayanagara kings, Dravidian art, and inscriptions. Near the temple complex is a large granite Nandi bull. On a hillock known as Kurma Saila ('tortoise-shaped hill') are other temples to Papanatheswara, Raghunatha, Srirama, and Durga.[48][49]

The Government of Andhra Pradesh has taken the initiative for including the "Lepakshi Group of Monuments" among the UNESCO World Heritage sites in India.[50][51]

Modern history

Harihara and Bukka, who served as treasury officers of the Kakatiyas of Warangal, founded the Vijayanagara Empire.[52] In 1347 CE, an independent Muslim state, the Bahmani Sultanate, was established in south India by Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah in a revolt against the Delhi Sultanate. The Qutb Shahi dynasty held sway over the Andhra country for about two hundred years from the early part of the sixteenth century to the end of the seventeenth century.[53]

In the early nineteenth century, Northern Circars was ceded to the British East India Company and became part of the Madras Presidency. Eventually, this region emerged as the Coastal Andhra region. Later the Nizam rulers of Hyderabad ceded five territories to the British that eventually became the Rayalaseema region. The Nizams retained control of the interior provinces as the princely state of Hyderabad, acknowledging British rule in return for local autonomy. However, Komaram Bheem, a tribal leader, started his fight against the erstwhile Asaf Jahi Dynasty for the liberation of Hyderabad State.[54] Meanwhile, the French occupied Yanam, in the Godavari delta, and (save for periods of British control) would hold it until 1954. In 1947 Vizianagaram was the largest Hindu princely state in Andhra Pradesh.

India became independent from the United Kingdom in 1947. The Nizam wanted to retain the independence of the Princely Hyderabad State from India, but the people of the region launched a movement to join the Indian Union. The state of Hyderabad was forcibly joined to the Republic of India with Operation Polo in 1948.[55]

Post-independence

Archaeological Museums map of Andhra Pradesh
Archaeological Museums map of Andhra Pradesh

In an effort to gain an independent state based on linguistic identity, and to protect the interests of the Telugu-speaking people of Madras State, Potti Sreeramulu fasted to death in 1952. As Madras became a bone of contention, in 1949 a JVP committee report stated: "Andhra Province could be formed provided the Andhras give up their claim on the city of Madras (now Chennai)". After Potti Sreeramulu's death, the Telugu-speaking area of Andhra State was carved out of Madras State on 1 October 1953, with Kurnool as its capital city.[56] On the basis of the gentlemen's agreement of 1 November 1956, the States Reorganisation Act formed Andhra Pradesh by merging Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking areas of the already existing Hyderabad State.[57] Hyderabad was made the capital of the new state. The Marathi-speaking areas of Hyderabad State merged with Bombay State and the Kannada-speaking areas were merged with Mysore State.

In February 2014, the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 bill was passed by the Parliament of India for the formation of the Telangana state comprising ten districts. Hyderabad will remain as a joint capital for not exceeding ten years.[11] The new state of Telangana came into existence on 2 June 2014 after approval from the President of India.[58] Number of petitions questioning the validity of Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 is long pending for the verdict since April 2014 before the supreme court constitutional bench.[59]

Geography

Andhra Pradesh and Telangana Physical.jpeg

Andhra Pradesh topographical map

Ap-districts

Map of Andhra Pradesh

Srisailam Dam and River Krishna

Krishna River at Srisailam

The state has varied topography ranging from the hills of Eastern Ghats and Nallamala Hills to the shores of Bay of Bengal that supports varied ecosystems, the rich diversity of flora and fauna. There are two main rivers namely, Krishna and Godavari, that flow through the state. The seacoast of the state extends along the Bay of Bengal from Srikakulam to Nellore district.[60] The plains to the east of Eastern Ghats form the Eastern coastal plains. The coastal plains are for the most part of delta regions formed by the Godavari, Krishna, and Penner Rivers. The Eastern Ghats are discontinuous and individual sections have local names. The Eastern Ghats are a major dividing line in the state's geography. The Kadapa Basin[61] formed by two arching branches of the Eastern Ghats is a mineral-rich area. The Ghats become more pronounced towards the south and extreme north of the coast. Most of the coastal plains are put to intense agricultural use. The Rayalaseema region has semi-arid conditions.

Natural vegetation and conservation

Pichavaram Mangrove Forest
Mangrove forest near Kakinada

The Andhra Pradesh Forest Department deals with protection, conservation and management of forests. The total forest cover of the state after the bifurcation is left with an area of 22,862 km2.[62] The forest in the state can be broadly divided into four major biotic provinces.[63] They are:

  1. Deccan Plateau
  2. Central Plateau
  3. Eastern Highland
  4. East Coastal Plains

Eastern Ghats region is home to dense tropical forests, while the vegetation becomes sparse as the Ghats give way to the Deccan Plateau, where shrub vegetation is more common. The vegetation found in the state is largely of dry deciduous types with a mixture of teak, Terminalia, Dalbergia, Pterocarpus, Anogeissus, etc.

The state has many sanctuaries, national parks and zoological parks, such as Coringa, Krishna Wildlife Sanctuary, Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve, Kambalakonda Wildlife Sanctuary, Sri Venkateswara Zoological Park and Indira Gandhi Zoological Park. Atapaka Bird Sanctuary, Nelapattu Bird Sanctuary and Pulicat Lake Bird Sanctuary attract many migratory birds.[64] The state possesses some rare and endemic plants like Cycas beddomei, Pterocarpus santalinus, Terminalia pallida, Syzygium alternifolium, Shorea talura, Shorea tumburgia, Psilotum nudum, etc.[63] The diversity of fauna includes tigers, panthers, hyenas, black bucks, cheetals, sambars, sea turtles and a number of birds and reptiles. The estuaries of the Godavari and Krishna Rivers support rich mangrove forests with fishing cats and otters as keystone species.[63]

Climate

The climate of Andhra Pradesh varies considerably, depending on the geographical region. Summers last from March to June. In the coastal plain, the summer temperatures are generally higher than the rest of the state, with temperature ranging between 20 °C and 41 °C. July to September is the season for tropical rains. About one third of the total rainfall is brought by the northeast monsoon. October and November see low-pressure systems and tropical cyclones form in the Bay of Bengal which, along with the northeast monsoon, bring rains to the southern and coastal regions of the state.

November, December, January, and February are the winter months in Andhra Pradesh. Since the state has a long coastal belt the winters are not very cold. The range of winter temperature is generally 12 °C to 30 °C. Lambasingi in Visakhapatnam district is the only place in South India which receives snowfall because of its location as at 1,000 m (3,300 ft) above the sea level. It is also nicknamed as the Kashmir of Andhra Pradesh and the temperature ranges from 0 °C to 10 °C.[65][66]

Demographics


As of 2011 Census of India, the state had a population of 49,386,799 with a population density of 308/km2 (800/sq mi).

According to Polavaram ordinance bill 2014, 7 mandals of Khammam district in Telangana state merged with Andhra Pradesh to facilitate polavaram project, due to which population of 2,47,515 added to Andhra Pradesh. Thus the final population of Andhra Pradesh in the year 2014, as per census 2011 is 4,96,34,314, with a density of 304.5/km2.

The total population constitute, 70.4% of rural population with 34,776,389 inhabitants and 29.6% of urban population with 14,610,410 inhabitants. Children in the age group of 0–6 years are 5,222,384, constituting 10.6% of the total population, among them 2,686,453 are boys and 2,535,931 are girls. Visakhapatnam district has the largest urban population of 47.5% and Srikakulam district with 83.8%, has the largest rural population, among others districts in the state. The overall population of the state comprises 17.1% of Scheduled Caste and 5.3% of Scheduled Tribe population.[7]

There are 24,738,068 male and 24,648,731 female citizens—a sex ratio of 996 females per 1000 males, higher than the national average of 926 per 1000. The literacy rate of the state stands at 67.41%. However, Post bifurcation from Telangana, the state is expected to reach 91.1% by 2021.[67] West Godavari district has the highest literacy rate of 74.6% and Vizianagaram district has the least with 58.9%.[2][68]

Andhra Pradesh ranks tenth of all Indian States in the Human Development Index scores[69] with a score of 0.416. The National Council of Applied Economic Research district analysis in 2001 reveals that Krishna, West Godavari and Chittoor are the three districts in rural AP with the highest Human Development Index scores in ascending order.

Vizag View from Kailasagiri
Visakhapatnam is the most populous city in Andhra Pradesh, and the 14th-largest city in India.

Languages

The official language of Andhra Pradesh is Telugu.[9][10] The Minister of Tourism and Culture has issued a declaration of the Telugu language as a Classical Language.[8]

Religions

Majority of the people in Andhra Pradesh are Hindus while Muslims constitute a sizeable minority. According to the 2011 census, the major religious groups in the state are Hindus (90.87%), Muslims (7.32%) and Christians (1.38%). Buddhists, Sikhs, Jains and the people who declined to state their religion make up the remaining portion of population.[71]

Sri Kala Hasti

Srikalahasti Temple

Rock-cut Lord --Buddha-- Statue at Bojjanakonda near Anakapalle of Visakhapatnam dist in AP

Rock-cut Buddha statue at Bojjannakonda near Anakapalle, Visakhapatnam.

Hinduism

Venkateswara Temple at Tirupati is the world's second richest temple and is visited by millions of devotees throughout the year. Andhra Pradesh is home to Shankaracharya of Pushpagiri Peetham. Other Hindu saints include Sadasiva Brahmendra, Bhaktha Kannappa, Yogi Vemana, Sathya Sai Baba and Pothuluru Veerabrahmendra.[72]

Mahayana Buddhism

Buddhism spread to Andhra Pradesh early in its history. The Krishna River valley was "a site of extraordinary Buddhist activity for almost a thousand years."[73] The ancient Buddhist sites in the lower Krishna Valley, including Amaravati, Nagarjunakonda and Jaggayyapeta "can be traced to at least the third century BCE, if not earlier."[74]

The region played a central role in the development of Mahayana Buddhism, along with the Magadha-area in northeastern India.[75][76] A.K. Warder holds that "the Mahāyāna originated in the south of India and almost certainly in the Andhra country."[77] According to Xing, "Several scholars have suggested that the Prajnaparamita probably developed among the Mahasamghikas in Southern India probably in the Andhra country, on the Krishna River."[78] The Prajñāpāramitā Sutras belong to the earliest Mahayana Sutras.[79][80]

Administrative divisions

Regions

Andhra Pradesh comprises two regions: Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema.

Districts

It has a total of 13 districts, nine in Coastal Andhra Region and four in Rayalaseema Region.

Revenue divisions

These 13 districts are further divided into 50 revenue divisions. There are as many as 7 revenue divisions in East Godavari, and only 2 in Vizianagaram district.[7][82]

Mandals

The 50 revenue divisions are in turn divided into 671 mandals.[a] Chittoor district has the most mandals with 66 and Vizianagaram has the least with 34.[84]

Cities

There are a total of 31 cities which include, 16 municipal corporations and 14 municipalities. There are two cities with more than one million inhabitants, namely Visakhapatnam and Vijayawada.

Government and politics

Guntur District Court, India
District Court, Guntur
Eluru District Collector Office
West godavari district Collectorate Complex,Eluru

Legislative Assembly of Andhra Pradesh is the lower house of the state and legislative council of andhra pradesh is the upper house with 58 members. In the Parliament of India, Andhra Pradesh has 11 seats in the Rajya Sabha, and 25 seats in the Lok Sabha.[85] There are a total of 175 Assembly constituencies in the state. East Godavari district has the most number of constituencies with 19 and Vizianagaram district has the least with 9 assembly seats.[86] Whereas, the legislative council of the state has 58 seats, which is one-third of total assembly seats.[87]

Until 1962, the CPI, along with socialist parties namely Praja Socialist Party and Krishi Lok Party played an important role in the 1950s. In the 1967 state assembly elections, all socialist parties were eliminated and CPI lost opposition party status. The first Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh was Neelam Sanjiva Reddy who later served as President of India.[88][89]

In 1983, the Telugu Desam Party (TDP) won the state elections and N.T. Rama Rao became the chief minister of the state for the first time. This broke the longtime single party monopoly enjoyed by the INC from 1956 until 1982. Nandamuri Taraka Rama Rao is the founder of Telugu Desam party and served as the first chief minister from the party. The 1989 elections ended the rule of NTR, with the INC party returning to power with Marri Chenna Reddy at the helm. He was replaced by Janardhan Reddy in 1990, who was replaced by Kotla Vijaya Bhaskara Reddy in 1992.

N. Chandrababu Naidu held the record for the longest-serving chief minister (1995 to 2004).[90] In 1994, Andhra Pradesh gave a mandate to the Telugu Desam Party again, and NTR became the chief minister again. Nara Chandrababu Naidu, the son-in-law of NTR, came to power with the backing of a majority of the MLAs. The Telugu Desam Party won both the assembly and Lok Sabha election in 1999 under the leadership of Chandrababu Naidu.

In what would be the last elections held in the unified state, Telugu Desam Party got a mandate in their favour in the residuary (new)state. Nara Chandrababu Naidu, the chief of Telugu Desam Party became Chief Minister on 8 June 2014, for the new state of Andhra Pradesh.[91]

Economy

Vizagcity
Visakhapatnam is an important commercial hub of the state
Visakhapatnam view from Vizag seaport
Visakhapatnam Skyline, overlooking seaport

Andhra Pradesh was ranked eighth among other Indian states in terms of GSDP for the financial year 2014–2015. The GSDP at current prices was 5,200.3 billion (US$75 billion) and at constant prices was 2,645.21 billion (US$38 billion).[92] The domestic product of agriculture sector accounts for 545.99 billion (US$7.9 billion) and Industrial sector for 507.45 billion (US$7.3 billion). The service sector of the state accounts more percentage of the GSDP with a total of 1,305.87 billion (US$19 billion).[93] In the 2010 list by Forbes magazine, there were several from Andhra Pradesh among the top 100 richest Indians.[94]

Agriculture

Konaseema greenery 1

Lush green farms in Konaseema, East Godavari

Map of Sugar industries in Andhra Pradesh

Map of Sugar industries in Andhra Pradesh

Andhra Pradesh economy is mainly based on agriculture and livestock. Four important rivers of India, the Godavari, Krishna, Penna, and Thungabhadra flow through the state and provide irrigation. 60 percent of population is engaged in agriculture and related activities. Rice is the major food crop and staple food of the state. It is an exporter of many agricultural products and is also known as "Rice Bowl of India".[95][96] The state has three Agricultural Economic Zones in Chittoor district for mango pulp and vegetables, Krishna district for mangoes, Guntur district for chilies.[97]

Besides rice, farmers also grow jowar, bajra, maize, minor millet, coarse grain, many varieties of pulses, oil seeds, sugarcane, cotton, chili pepper, mango nuts and tobacco. Crops used for vegetable oil production such as sunflower and peanuts are popular. There are many multi-state irrigation projects under development, including Godavari River Basin Irrigation Projects and Nagarjuna Sagar Dam.[98]

Livestock and poultry is also another profitable business, which involves rearing cattle in enclosed areas for commercial purposes. The state is also a largest producer of eggs in the country and hence, it is nicknamed as "Egg Bowl of Asia".[99][100]

Fisheries contribute 10% of total fish and over 70% of the shrimp production[101] of India. The geographical location of the state allows marine fishing as well as inland fish production. The most exported marine exports include Vannamei shrimp[102] and are expected to cross $1 billion in 2013–2014.[103]

Infrastructure

Andhra Pradesh is investing in building infrastructure in the state such as highways and making every service of the government digital.National Highway 16 (India) passes through Andhra Pradesh. The highways in the state are also being widened. APSFL is an initiative of the government of Andhra Pradesh to set up an optical fiber network throughout the thirteen districts of Andhra Pradesh. This network provides Internet connectivity, telephony and IPTV with fiber to private and corporate users of Andhra Pradesh.[104] The state also has seaports such as Visakhapatnam Port, Krishnapatnam Port for import and export and a shipyard for building ships at Visakhapatnam. Major airports in the state are Visakhapatnam, Vijayawada and Tirupati with Visakhapatnam, Tirupati and Vijayawada being international airports.

Industrial sector

Satyam campus in Visakhapatnam
Tech Mahindra Development Centre, Visakhapatnam

The industrial sector of the state includes some of the key sectors like Pharma, Automobile, Textiles etc. Sricity located in Chittoor district is an integrated business city which is home to firms including PepsiCo, Isuzu Motors, Cadbury India, Kellogg's, Colgate-Palmolive, Kobelco etc.[105] The PepsiCo firm has its largest plant in India at Sri City.[106] The state is also emerging as destination for Automobile industry which already hosts companies including Ashok Leyland in Krishna district, Hero Motors in Chittoor district, Kia Motors in Anantapur district.

The state is also emerging in information technology and biotechnology. The IT/ITES revenues of Visakhapatnam is at 14.45 billion (US$210 million) in 2012–2013. The development of IT in Tier-II and Tier-III cities like Vijayawada, Kakinada and Tirupati is also improving. In the fiscal year 2012–2013, Vijayawada's IT/ITeS revenues were 1,153 million (US$17 million) crore. Tirupati with 693 million (US$10 million) and Kakinada with 615 million (US$8.9 million) stand next.[107] For the benefit of state i.e., After separating Telangana from andhra, people of andhra protested for special status during the month of January in 2017

Resources

Andhra Pradesh is one of the storehouses of mineral resources in India. Andhra Pradesh with varied geological formations, contain rich and variety of industrial minerals and building stones.[108]

Andhra Pradesh is listed top in the deposit and production of mica in India. Minerals found in the state include limestone, reserves of oil and natural gas, manganese, asbestos, iron ore, ball clay, fire clay, gold diamonds, graphite, dolomite, quartz, tungsten, steatitic, feldspar, silica sand. It has about one-third of India's limestone reserves and is known for large exclusive deposits of barytes and galaxy granite in the international market.[108]

Mining

Mining is identified as one of the growth engines for the overall development of industry and infrastructure. The Tummalapalle Uranium mine in Andhra has confirmed 49,000 tonnes of ore and there are indications that it could hold reserves totalling three times its current size. 700 million tonnes of metal grade Bauxite deposits in proximity to Visakhapatnam Port.

Reliance Industries Limited struck nine trillion cubic feet of gas reserves in the KG basin, 150 km (93 mi) off the Andhra Pradesh coast near Kakinada. Discovery of large quantity of natural gas in KG Basin is expected to provide rapid economic growth.[109] During the year 2016, nearly 134 trillion cubic feet of methane hydrate deposits were explored in KG basin whose extraction is adequate to impart energy security for many decades to India.[110]

Power plants

Rayalaseema Thermal Power Station
Rayalaseema Thermal Power Station

The state is a pioneer nationwide in solar power generation. APGENCO is the power generating company owned by the state.[111] The state has become power surplus with excess power generation being exported to other states.[112]

Thermal (natural gas and coal based) and renewable power plants totalling to 21,000 MW were installed in the state by the year 2015. Local power plants of 9,600 MW capacity only are supplying electricity in the state which includes Simhadri Super Thermal Power Plant (2000 MW) of NTPC, Vizag Thermal Power Station (1040 MW), Rayalaseema Thermal Power Station (1650 MW), Sri Damodaram Sanjeevaiah Thermal Power Station (1600 MW), Vijayawada Thermal Power Plant (1760 MW), etc. Hydel power plants are having a capacity of 1671 MW.[113]

Culture

Andhra Pradesh has rich culture and heritage.[114] Kuchipudi, the state dance originated in the village of Kuchipudi in Krishna district, had entered the Guinness World Records for performing Mahabrinda Natyam with a total of 6,117 dancers in Vijayawada.[115] It had thirteen geographical indications in categories of agricultural handicrafts, foodstuff and textiles as per Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999.[116] It increased to fifteen with the addition of Banaganapalle Mangoes[117] and Bandar laddu.[118] The other GI tagged goods are, Bobbili Veena, Budithi Bell and Brass Craft, Dharmavaram Handloom Pattu Sarees and Paavadas, Guntur Sannam, Kondapalli Toys, Machilipatnam Kalamkari, Mangalagiri Sarees and Fabrics, Srikalahasti Kalamkari, Tirupati Laddu, Uppada Jamdani Sari and Venkatagiri Sari.[116]

Arts, crafts and artifacts

Kondapalli toys at a house in Vijayawada
Kondapalli Toys at a house in Vijayawada

Machilipatnam and Srikalahasti Kalamkari are the two unique textile art forms practised in India.[119] There are also other notable handicrafts present in the state, like the soft limestone idol carvings of Durgi.[120] Etikoppaka in Visakhapatnam district is notable for its Lac industry, producing lacquered wooden.[121][122]

The state has many museums, which features a varied collection of ancient sculptures, paintings, idols, weapons, cutlery and inscriptions, and religious artifacts such as the Amaravati Archaeological Museum,[123] Visakha Museum and Telugu Cultural Museum in Visakhapatnam displays the history of the pre-Independence and the Victoria Jubilee Museum in Vijayawada with large collection of artifacts.

Literature

Nannayya, Tikkana and Yerrapragada form the trinity who translated the Sanskrit epic Mahabharata into Telugu language. Nannayya wrote the first treatise on Telugu grammar called Andhra Shabda Chintamani in Sanskrit, as there was no grammatical work in Telugu prior to that.[124] Pothana is the poet who composed the classic Srimad Maha Bhagavatamu, a Telugu translation of Sri Bhagavatam. Vemana is notable for his philosophical poems. The Vijayanagara emperor Krishnadevaraya wrote Amuktamalyada. Telugu literature after Kandukuri Veeresalingam is termed as Adhunika Telugu Sahityam (Modern Telugu literature). He is known as Gadya Tikkana and was the author of Telugu social novel, Satyavati Charitam. Jnanpith Award holders from the state include Viswanatha Satyanarayana. The Andhra Pradesh native and revolutionary poet Sri Sri brought new forms of expressionism into Telugu literature.[125]

Art and cinema

Prathiksha Kashi
Kuchipudi dance

Many composers of Carnatic music like Annamacharya, Kshetrayya, and Bhadrachala Ramadas were of Telugu descent. Modern Carnatic music composers and singers like Ghantasala, Sujatha Puligella and M. Balamuralikrishna are also of Telugu descent. The Telugu film industry hosts many music composers and playback singers such as S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, P. Susheela, S. Janaki and P. B. Sreenivas. Folk songs are very important and popular in the many rural areas of the state. Forms such as the Burra katha and Poli are still performed today.[126] Harikathaa Kalakshepam (or Harikatha) involves the narration of a story, intermingled with various songs relating to the story. Harikatha was originated in Andhra.[127] Burra katha is an oral storytelling technique with the topic be either a Hindu mythological story or a contemporary social issue.[128] Rangasthalam is an Indian theatre in the Telugu language, based predominantly in Andhra Pradesh.[129] Gurazada Apparao wrote the play Kanyasulkam in 1892, often considered the greatest play in the Telugu language.[130] C. Pullaiah is cited as the father of Telugu theatre movement.[131][132]

The Telugu film industry is largely based in Hyderabad and Visakhapatnam. The Telugu film culture (also known as "Tollywood") is the second-largest film industry in India next to the Bollywood film industry.[133] Film producer D. Ramanaidu holds a Guinness Record for the most films produced by a person.[134] In the years 2005, 2006 and 2008, the Telugu film industry produced the largest number of films in India, exceeding the number of films produced in Bollywood.[135][136] The industry holds the Guinness World Record for the largest film production facility in the world.[137]

Cuisine

Vegetarian Andhra Meal
Vegetarian Andhra meal, served on important occasions

Telugu people's traditional sweet Pootharekulu originated from Atreyapuram village, Andhra Pradesh.

Tourism

Ananta Padmanabha Swami Temple
Undavalli Caves, is a monolithic example of Indian rock-cut architecture and one of the finest testimonials to ancient viswakarma sthapathis.

The state has several beaches in its coastal districts such as, Rushikonda, Mypadu, Suryalanka etc.;[138] caves such as, Borra Caves,[139] Indian rock-cut architecture depicting Undavalli caves[140] and the country's second longest caves named as Belum Caves.[141] The valleys and hills include, Araku Valley, Horsley Hills, Papi Hills etc.[142] Arma Konda peak located in Visakhapatnam district is the highest peak in Eastern Ghats.

The state is home to various religious pilgrim destinations such as, Tirumala Temple, Simhachalam Temple, Annavaram, Srisailam temple, Kanaka Durga Temple, Amaravati, Srikalahasti, Shahi jamia masjid in Adoni, Gunadala Church in Vijayawada, Buddhist centres at Amaravati, Nagarjuna Konda etc.,[143] and many more as well.

Transport

The state is well connected to other states through road and rail networks. It is also connected to other countries by means of airways and seaports as well. With a long seacoast along the Bay of Bengal, it also has many ports for sea trade. The state has one of the largest railway junctions at Vijayawada and one of the largest seaports at Visakhapatnam.

Roads

Rps20160709 141628
Vijayawada-Guntur Expressway section of NH-16

The state has a total road network of 53,403 km (33,183 mi), of which 6,401 km (3,977 mi) of National highways, 14,722 km (9,148 mi) of state highways and 32,280 km (20,060 mi) of district roads.[144] NH 16, with a highway network of around 1,000 km (620 mi) in the state, is a part of Golden Quadrilateral Project undertaken by National Highways Development Project. It also forms part of AH 45 which comes under the Asian Highway Network.

The state government owned Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (APSRTC) is the major public bus transport, which runs thousands of buses connecting different parts of the state. Pandit Nehru Bus Station (PNBS) in Vijayawada is one of the largest bus terminals in Asia.[145]

Railways

Andhra Pradesh [146] has a total broad gauge railway route of 3703.25 km and has no metre gauge railway.[147] The rail density of the state is 16.59 per 1,000 km (620 mi), compared to an all India average of 20.[148] The Howrah–Chennai main line which runs through the state is proposed to be upgraded into a high-speed rail corridor through the Diamond Quadrilateral project of the Indian Railways.[149][150]

The railway network spans two zones, further subdivided into divisions – Vijayawada, Guntur and Guntakal railway divisions of South Central Railway zone.,[151] and Waltair railway division of East Coast Railway zone.[152] There is a demand for creating a unified zone for the state based out of Visakhapatnam.

There are three A1 and twenty three A-category railway stations in the state.[153] Visakhapatnam railway station has been declared the cleanest railway station in the country.[154] The railway station of Shimiliguda was the first highest broad gauge railway station in the country.[155]

Airports

Map of Airports and airstrips of Andhra Pradesh
Map of airports and airstrips of Andhra Pradesh

Visakhapatnam Airport, is the only airport in the state with operating international flights while Vijayawada Airport at Gannavaram has launched an international flight to Singapore, recently.[156] The state has four other domestic airports, Rajamahendravaram Airport at Madhurapudi, Cuddapah Airport, a privately owned, public use airport at Puttaparthi, and Tirupati Airport located in the city of Tirupati. There are also 16 small air strips located in the state.[157]

Seaports Map of Andhra Pradesh
Seaports Map of Andhra Pradesh
(click on the image for maximum view)

Sea ports

Andhra Pradesh has one of the country's largest port at Visakhapatnam in terms of cargo handling.[158] The other famous ports are Krishnapatnam Port (Nellore), Gangavaram Port and Kakinada Port. Gangavaram Port is a deep seaport which can accommodate ocean liners up to 200,000–250,000 DWT.[159] There are 14 notified non-major ports at Bheemunipatnam, S.Yanam, Machilipatnam, Nizampatnam, Vadarevu etc.[160][161]

Education and research

Universities Map of Andhra Pradesh
Universities Map of Andhra Pradesh.
Guntur-Agri-University
Agriculture University, Guntur.

Andhra Pradesh has an overall literacy rate of 67.41% as per the 2011 Indian census.[2] The primary and secondary school education is imparted by government, aided and private schools, under the administration of the state School Education Department.[162][163] These schools include Municipal, Andhra Pradesh Residential, Andhra Pradesh Social Welfare Residential, Zilla Parishad, aided and unaided private schools.[164][165] There a total of 6,864,201 students[166] enrolled in 61,529 schools.[167] The mediums of instruction are Telugu, English, Urdu, Hindi, Kannada, Odia and Tamil.[168]

The Directorate of Government Examinations of the state administers the conduct of Secondary School Certificate examination.[169] 652,374 candidates took the 2016 exam and recorded a pass percentage of 94.52% for regular and 55.47% by private candidates.[170]

Higher education in the state is administered by the Department of Higher Education.[171] The central universities are All India Institute of Medical Sciences, IIM Visakhapatnam, IIT Tirupati, NIT Tadepalligudem, IIITDM Kurnool,[172] Indian Institute of Petroleum and Energy,[173]NIDV, Central University of Andhra Pradesh, IIIT Sri City, IISER Tirupati, Agriculture University, Guntur and IIFT Kakinada. The Government of Andhra Pradesh established Rajiv Gandhi University of Knowledge Technologies (RGUKT) in 2008 to cater to the education needs of the rural youth of Andhra Pradesh.[174] As per the University Grants Commission, GITAM, K L University and Vignan University are the Deemed Universities in the state.[175] There are 18 state universities in the districts providing higher education in horticulture, law, medical, technology, Vedic and veterinary.[176] Andhra University is the oldest of the universities in the state, established in 1926.[177][178]

Research

Research institutes have been set up by the central state government. Naval Science & Technological Laboratory (NSTL), National Institute of Oceanography, Visakhapatnam (NIO), School of Planning and Architecture at Vijayawada is an autonomous research institute under Ministry of Human Resource Development of Government of India, National Atmospheric Research Laboratory carry out fundamental and applied research in atmospheric and space sciences,[179] Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Tirupati,[180] Society for Applied Microwave Electronics Engineering and Research, Visakhapatnam Central Tobacco Research Institute, Rajahmundry under control of ICAR (Indian Council of Agriculture Research) conducts fundamental and applied research on Tobacco for the benefit of the farming community,[181] Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research (IIOPR) at Pedavegi near Eluru in West Godavari district serves as a centre for conducting and co-ordinating research on all aspects of oil palm conservation, improvement, production, protection, post-harvest technology and transfer of technology,[182] CCRH Regional Research Institute at Gudivada, Clinical Research Institute at Tirupati and National Institute of Oceanography[183] at Visakhapatnam are some of them.[184]

Space research organisation

Satish Dhawan Space Centre, also known as Sriharikota Range (SHAR), at barrier island of Sriharikota in Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh is a satellite launching station operated by Indian Space Research Organisation.[185] It is India's primary orbital launch site. India's lunar orbiter Chandrayaan-1 was launched from the centre at 6:22 AM IST on 22 October 2008.[186]

Sports

The Sports Authority of Andhra Pradesh is the governing body which looks after the infrastructure development in cricket, field hockey, association football, Skating, Olympic weightlifting, chess, water sports, tennis, badminton, table tennis, cycling, etc.[187]

Cricket is one of the most popular sports in the state. The ACA-VDCA Stadium in Visakhapatnam is the home to Andhra Pradesh cricket team. The venue regularly hosts international as well as domestic matches. Notable cricketers from Andhra Pradesh include former Indian captain Mohammad Azharuddin, Maharajkumar of Vizianagram, M. V. Narasimha Rao, M. S. K. Prasad, V. V. S. Laxman, Tirumalasetti Suman, Arshad Ayub, Ambati Rayudu, Venkatapathy Raju, Sravanthi Naidu, Yalaka Venugopal Rao and Hanuma Vihari. Humpy Koneru, from Gudivada in Krishna district, is an Indian chess Grandmaster.

Karnam Malleswari, the first female Indian to win an Olympic medal, hails from Srikakulam district of Andhra Pradesh. She won the bronze medal on 19 September 2000, in the 69 kg category with a lift of 240 kg.[188]

Krishnam Raju Gadiraju of Bhimavaram, Andhra Pradesh, is a four-time world record holder. He is a speedsolver and Unicyclist.[189]

Pullela Gopichand is a former Indian badminton player. He won the All England Open Badminton Championships in 2001, becoming the second Indian to win after Prakash Padukone.[190][191][192]

Cherukuri Lenin (1985 or 1986 – 24 October 2010) was an Indian archer and coach who won a silver medal at the Asian Grand Prix in Malaysia, and was a National Archery Coach.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Guntur mandal was divided into Guntur East and Guntur West[83]

References

  1. ^ "SOCIO ECONOMIC SURVEY 2016–17" (PDF). AP State Portal. Government of Andhra Pradesh. p. 3. Archived (PDF) from the original on 30 June 2018. Retrieved 30 June 2018.
  2. ^ a b c d "Demography" (PDF). Official portal of Andhra Pradesh Government. Government of Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 10 June 2014.
  3. ^ "Andhra Pradesh Budget Analysis 2018–19" (PDF). PRS Legislative Research. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 March 2018. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
  4. ^ "Sub-national HDI – Area Database". Global Data Lab. Institute for Management Research, Radboud University. Archived from the original on 23 September 2018. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
  5. ^ Maitreyi, M. L. Melly (14 December 2017). "No official State song for WTC". The Hindu. The Hindu Group. Archived from the original on 13 December 2017. Retrieved 1 June 2018.
  6. ^ a b c d e "Andhra Pradesh gets new state bird, state flower". Deccan Chronicle. 31 May 2018. Archived from the original on 1 June 2018. Retrieved 1 June 2018.
  7. ^ a b c d "AP Socio-economic Survey 2016–17" (PDF). Official website of Government of Andhra Pradesh. Government of Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 June 2017.
  8. ^ a b "Classical Language". Press Information Bureau. Archived from the original on 19 August 2014. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
  9. ^ a b "Telugu Language". AP State Portal. Government of India. Archived from the original on 19 June 2015. Retrieved 19 June 2015.
  10. ^ a b "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 47th report (July 2008 to June 2010)" (PDF). Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. pp. 122–126. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 May 2012. Retrieved 16 February 2012.
  11. ^ a b "The Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014" (PDF). India Code Legislative Department. Ministry of Law and Justice. 1 March 2014. p. 2. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 14 July 2015.
  12. ^ "Capital City be named as "Amaravati"" (PDF). Andhra Pradesh Capital Region Development Authority. Municipal Administration & Urban Development Department – Andhra Pradesh. 23 April 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 May 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
  13. ^ "Length of coastline" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 September 2016. Retrieved 26 August 2016.
  14. ^ "Yanam of Puducherry". Gov.t of Yanam. Archived from the original on 13 May 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
  15. ^ Jammanna, Akepogu; Sudhakar, Pasala (2016). Dalits' Struggle for Social Justice in Andhra Pradesh (1956–2008): From Relays to Vacuum Tubes. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 156. ISBN 978-1-4438-4496-3. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  16. ^ Rajeev, M (11 October 2015). "Rayalaseema in a state of discontent". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 8 December 2015.
  17. ^ "India's top 15 cities with the highest GDP". Yahoo Finance. 15 July 2014. Archived from the original on 7 June 2014. Retrieved 15 July 2014.
  18. ^ Nicole Bippen (17 February 2014). "The 10 Richest Indian Cities". The Richest. Archived from the original on 21 June 2014. Retrieved 15 July 2014.
  19. ^ "Andhra Pradesh Budget Analysis 2016–17" (PDF). PRS Legislative Research. Archived (PDF) from the original on 30 November 2016. Retrieved 19 November 2016.
  20. ^ PTI (28 March 2016). "30% growth in AP tourist arrivals". The Hindu Business Line. Archived from the original on 30 June 2018. Retrieved 28 January 2017.
  21. ^ "World's Most-Visited Sacred Sites". Travel + Leisure. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 28 January 2017.
  22. ^ Dance Dialects of India. Ragini Devi. Motilal Bansarsi Dass. 1990. ISBN 978-81-208-0674-0. Archived from the original on 9 December 2015. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
  23. ^ "History of Andhra Pradesh". Government of Andhra Pradesh. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 16 July 2012. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
  24. ^ Ancient and medieval history of Andhra Pradesh. P. Raghunadha Rao. Sterling Publishers, 1993. 1993. p. iv. ISBN 9788120714953. Archived from the original on 27 July 2014. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
  25. ^ Sailendra Nath Sen (1999). Ancient Indian History and Civilization. New Age International. pp. 172–176. ISBN 9788122411980. Archived from the original on 23 March 2017. Retrieved 29 January 2017.
  26. ^ Sudhakar Chattopadhyaya (1974). Some Early Dynasties of South India. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 17–56. ISBN 9788120829411.
  27. ^ Carla M. Sinopoli (2001). "On the edge of empire: form and substance in the Satavahana dynasty". In Susan E. Alcock (ed.). Empires: Perspectives from Archaeology and History. Cambridge University Press. pp. 166–168. ISBN 978-0-521-77020-0.
  28. ^ Akira Shimada (2012). Early Buddhist Architecture in Context: The Great St?pa at Amar?vat? (ca. 300 BCE-300 CE). BRILL. pp. 33–40. ISBN 978-90-04-23283-9. Archived from the original on 23 December 2016. Retrieved 14 October 2016.
  29. ^ Charles Higham (2009). Encyclopedia of Ancient Asian Civilizations. Infobase Publishing. p. 299. ISBN 978-1-4381-0996-1. Archived from the original on 9 June 2016. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
  30. ^ David M. Knipe (2015). Vedic Voices: Intimate Narratives of a Living Andhra Tradition. Oxford University Press. pp. 8–9. ISBN 978-0-19-026673-8. Archived from the original on 9 April 2017. Retrieved 14 October 2016.
  31. ^ Subramanian, K. R. (1989). Buddhist Remains in Andhra and the History of Andhra Between 225 and 610 A.D. Asian Educational Services. ISBN 9788120604445.
  32. ^ Ancient and medieval history of Andhra Pradesh. P. Raghunadha Rao. Sterling Publishers, 1993. 1993. p. 68. ISBN 9788120714953. Archived from the original on 27 July 2014. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
  33. ^ "History outline of Andhra Pradesh" (PDF). Board of Intermediate Education, Government of Andhra Pradesh. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 July 2017. Retrieved 4 May 2017.
  34. ^ Sen, Sailendra Nath (1 January 1999). Ancient Indian History and civilization By S. N. Sen. ISBN 9788122411980.
  35. ^ "About Eastern Chalukyas – Official AP State Government Portal – AP State Portal". Archived from the original on 17 June 2016. Retrieved 27 May 2016.
  36. ^ "Age of Telugu language". The Hindu. 20 December 2007. Archived from the original on 3 September 2015. Retrieved 31 July 2013.
  37. ^ Salomon, Richard (1998). Indian epigraphy : a guide to the study of inscriptions in Sanskrit, Prakrit, and the other Indo-Aryan languages (1. publ. ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-19-509984-3.
  38. ^ The History of Andhras, Durga Prasad ("Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 March 2007. Retrieved 23 January 2015.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  39. ^ "Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 15 1931". Kondaveedu. Digital South Asia Library. p. 393. Archived from the original on 13 June 2010. Retrieved 20 October 2009.
  40. ^ Sewell, Robert (1884). Lists of inscriptions, and sketch of the dynasties of Southern India, Archaeological Survey of India. Kondaveedu Reddy Chiefs…. E. Keys at the Government Press. pp. 187–188. Archived from the original on 17 March 2015. Retrieved 21 October 2009.
  41. ^ "Kondaveedu fort likely to get UNESCO heritage status". Archived from the original on 18 February 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2017.
  42. ^ Burgess, James (1872). Indian antiquary, Volume 1. Popular Prakashan.
  43. ^ Reporter, Staff (18 October 2015). "Stone from Gandikota fort to be used". Archived from the original on 6 May 2018. Retrieved 26 September 2017 – via www.thehindu.com.
  44. ^ By James Mansel Longworth page 204
  45. ^ edited by J C morris page 261
  46. ^ Historians such as P. B. Desai (History of Vijayanagar Empire, 1936), Henry Heras (The Aravidu Dynasty of Vijayanagara, 1927), B.A. Saletore (Social and Political Life in the Vijayanagara Empire, 1930), G.S. Gai (Archaeological Survey of India), William Coelho (The Hoysala Vamsa, 1955) and Kamath (Kamath 2001, pp. 157–160)
  47. ^ "Andhra Pradesh eyes Unesco tag for its heritage sites". 15 April 2017. Archived from the original on 4 December 2017. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
  48. ^ Gopal, B. Madhu; Gopal, B. Madhu (20 March 2017). "Move to get world heritage status for Sankaram" – via www.thehindu.com.
  49. ^ "The Lepakshi heritage". www.thehindubusinessline.com.
  50. ^ Voice, Amaravati. "Lepakshi May Get World Heritage Status". www.amaravativoice.com. Archived from the original on 4 December 2017. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
  51. ^ Sewell, Robert; Nunes, Fernão; Paes, Domingos (1900). "Origin of the Empire (A.D. 1336)". A Forgotten Empire (Vijayanagar): A contribution to the history of India. S. Sonnenschein & co ., ltd.
  52. ^ Richards, J. F. (1975). "The Hyderabad Karnatik, 1687–1707". Modern Asian Studies. 9 (2): 241–260. doi:10.1017/S0026749X00004996.
  53. ^ "Tributes paid to Telangana martyrs". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 18 September 2005. Archived from the original on 3 December 2014. Retrieved 14 July 2015.
  54. ^ "HYDERABAD: The Holdout". Time. 30 August 1948. Archived from the original on 22 May 2010. Retrieved 20 May 2010.
  55. ^ "Post-Independence Era, then and now". aponline.gov.in. Archived from the original on 20 December 2013. Retrieved 3 August 2013.
  56. ^ "Know Hyderabad: History". Pan India Network. 2010. Archived from the original on 21 September 2010. Retrieved 5 October 2010.
  57. ^ "Telangana state formation gazette". The New Indian Express. Archived from the original on 6 July 2014. Retrieved 14 May 2014.
  58. ^ "Supreme court refers Telangana petitions to constitution bench". NDTV. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 17 February 2016.
  59. ^ "Andhra Pradesh Fact File" (PDF). Official portal of Andhra Pradesh Government. AP state portal. p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 June 2016. Retrieved 1 July 2014.
  60. ^ "Kadapa basin". Directorate General of Hydrocarbons. Archived from the original on 6 June 2014. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
  61. ^ "Forests in AP facts". AP Forest department. Archived from the original on 7 May 2015. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
  62. ^ a b c "Natural vegetation and wildlife". AP Forest Department. Archived from the original on 4 July 2014. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
  63. ^ "The List of Wetlands of International Importance" (PDF). The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. The Secretariat of the Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar, Iran, 1971). p. 20. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 April 2012. Retrieved 5 June 2014.
  64. ^ Ganguly, Nivedita (17 September 2014). "Lambasingi set to become tourist hotspot". The Hindu. Visakhapatnam. Archived from the original on 3 September 2015. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
  65. ^ "Lambasingi records 2º c". Deccan Chronicle. Visakhapatnam. 16 December 2013. Archived from the original on 13 July 2015. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
  66. ^ "Literacy rate dismal in Telangana". 5 February 2016. Archived from the original on 22 August 2017. Retrieved 25 October 2017 – via www.thehindu.com.
  67. ^ "INDIA AT A GLANCE : CENSUS 2011". The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Archived from the original on 22 September 2014. Retrieved 9 August 2014.
  68. ^ "Human Development Report 2007" (PDF). APonline.gov.in. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 September 2010. Retrieved 15 August 2010.
  69. ^ "Language – India, States and Union Territories" (PDF). Census of India 2011. Office of the Registrar General. pp. 13–14. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 November 2018. Retrieved 29 September 2018.
  70. ^ a b "Census of India – Religious Composition". Government of India, Ministry of Home Affairs. Archived from the original on 13 September 2015. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
  71. ^ "Sri Potuluri Veera Brahmendra Swami". Mihira.com. Archived from the original on 20 November 2008. Retrieved 29 November 2008.
  72. ^ Davidson, Ronald. Tibetan Renaissance. Columbia 2005, pp. 29.
  73. ^ Padma, Sree. Barber, Anthony W. Buddhism in the Krishna River Valley of Andhra. SUNY Press 2008, pg. 2.
  74. ^ Padma, Sree. Barber, Anthony W. Buddhism in the Krishna River Valley of Andhra. SUNY Press 2008, p.1
  75. ^ Peter Harvey (2013), An Introduction to Buddhism: Teachings, History and Practices, Cambridge University Press, p.108
  76. ^ Warder, A.K. Indian Buddhism. 2000. p. 313
  77. ^ Guang Xing. The Concept of the Buddha: Its Evolution from Early Buddhism to the Trikaya Theory. 2004. pp. 65–66
  78. ^ Williams, Paul. Buddhist Thought. Routledge, 2000, pages 131.
  79. ^ Williams, Paul. Mahayana Buddhism: The Doctrinal Foundations 2nd edition. Routledge, 2009, pg. 47.
  80. ^ "Population of AP districts(2011)". ap.gov.in. p. 14. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 March 2015. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
  81. ^ "Part-I State Administrative Divisions 2001–2011" (PDF). Census of India. p. 6. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 January 2015. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
  82. ^ India, The Hans (31 March 2018). "Guntur urban divided into east, East mandals". www.thehansindia.com. Guntur. Retrieved 26 April 2019.
  83. ^ "Administrative and Geographical Profile" (PDF). msmehyd.ap.nic.in. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 September 2016. Retrieved 3 September 2016.
  84. ^ "Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly". Archived from the original on 1 April 2005.
  85. ^ "DELIMITATION OF PARLIAMENTARY AND ASSEMBLY CONSTITUENCIES ORDER, 2008" (PDF). Election Commission of India. pp. 16–28. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 October 2010. Retrieved 11 October 2014.
  86. ^ "Overview". AP Legislature. Government of Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original on 19 May 2015. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
  87. ^ "The Hindu, November 25, 2012". Chennai, India. 25 November 2012. Archived from the original on 20 December 2013. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
  88. ^ "The Hindu, on the election and Presidency". Chennai, India. 15 June 2012. Archived from the original on 15 October 2015. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
  89. ^ "Length of time as Chief Minister". Archived from the original on 10 September 2014. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
  90. ^ "CBN to be sworn as CM of Andhra on June 8th". Deccan-Journal. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 2 June 2014.
  91. ^ "Indian states by GDP". Statistics Times. Archived from the original on 16 February 2016. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
  92. ^ "Economy" (PDF). Official portal of Andhra Pradesh Government. AP state portal. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 July 2014. Retrieved 21 June 2014.
  93. ^ "India's Richest". Forbes. 29 September 2010. Archived from the original on 22 October 2013. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
  94. ^ Appaji Reddem. "Rice bowl of India". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 30 August 2014. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
  95. ^ India Today. ABC-CLIO. 30 September 2011. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-313-37462-3. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
  96. ^ "United AP stood second in agri exports". The Hindu. Vijayawada. 17 January 2016. Archived from the original on 17 January 2016. Retrieved 17 January 2016.
  97. ^ "Irrigation Projects". Press Information Bureau. Ministry of Water Resources. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
  98. ^ "Socio Economic Survey 2013–2014" (PDF). AP State Portal. Government of Andhra Pradesh. p. 3. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 April 2015. Retrieved 27 June 2015.
  99. ^ Mohanty, Muktikanta (2010). Macmillan's General Knowledge Manual 2010. Macmillan. p. 72. ISBN 978-0-230-32874-7. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
  100. ^ Special Correspondent. "AP top producer of shrimp: MPEDA". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 28 February 2013. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
  101. ^ "Vannamei Hatcheries". Coastal Aquaculture Authority. Archived from the original on 3 June 2014. Retrieved 16 July 2014.
  102. ^ "The $ Billion Andhra Shrimp exports". viscan.in. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
  103. ^ "AP Fiber Grid Vision". apsfl.in. Archived from the original on 31 October 2018. Retrieved 31 October 2018.
  104. ^ "Firms in sricity". Sricity.in. Archived from the original on 9 May 2015. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
  105. ^ V Rishi Kumar (3 April 2015). "PepsiCo inaugurates new facility at Sri City". Business Line. Hyderabad. Archived from the original on 13 July 2015. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
  106. ^ "IT/ITES revenues". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 23 April 2014. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
  107. ^ a b "Industrial & Fertilizer minerals" (PDF). Geological Survey of India portal. CGPB Committee-IV. pp. 17–44. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 October 2013. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
  108. ^ "Krishna Godavari Basin: Oil & Gas Resource". kgbasin.in. Archived from the original on 19 June 2014. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
  109. ^ "ONGC hydrates discovery may be 4 times bigger than RIL's gas find". Archived from the original on 1 July 2016. Retrieved 7 September 2016.
  110. ^ "APGENGO overview". APGENCO. Archived from the original on 12 August 2014. Retrieved 19 June 2014.
  111. ^ "Davos Visit will Boost Andhra Pradesh's Image, Says Naidu". The New Indian Express. Vijayawada. 26 January 2016. Archived from the original on 13 February 2016. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
  112. ^ "Salient features of A.P.TransCo / A.P.GenCo / DisComs" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 May 2016. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
  113. ^ Varma, P. Sujatha. "'Andhra Pradesh has a very rich culture, heritage'". The Hindu. Retrieved 5 June 2017.
  114. ^ Rao, G.V.R. Subba. "6,117 Kuchipudi dancers put A.P. in Guinness book". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 26 December 2016. Retrieved 18 April 2017.
  115. ^ a b "State Wise Registration Details of G.I Applications (15th September, 2003 – Till Date)" (PDF). Geographical Indication Registry. p. 1. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 September 2017. Retrieved 5 May 2017.
  116. ^ "Banaganapalle mangoes finally get GI tag". deccanchronicle.com/. 4 May 2017. Archived from the original on 5 May 2017. Retrieved 13 May 2017.
  117. ^ Naidu, T. Appala. "Bandar laddu gets GI tag". The Hindu. Retrieved 13 May 2017.
  118. ^ "Kalamkari: Craft of the matter". mid-day. Archived from the original on 31 January 2016. Retrieved 26 January 2016.
  119. ^ "Durgi Stone Craft". Cesdeva. Archived from the original on 4 December 2013. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
  120. ^ "Etikoppaka Vizag". Andhra Pradesh Tourism. Archived from the original on 28 November 2016. Retrieved 11 March 2016.
  121. ^ Sarma, Rani (20 December 2015). "The lac industry of Etikoppaka – An art form to cherish". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 25 December 2015. Retrieved 11 March 2016.
  122. ^ "Archaeological Museum, Amaravati – Archaeological Survey of India". Asi.nic.in. Archived from the original on 29 September 2011. Retrieved 19 August 2010.
  123. ^ Gopavaram, Padmapriya; Subrahmanyam, Korada (2011). "1". A Comparative Study of Andhrasabdachintamani And Balavyakaranam. Hyderabad: University of Hyderabad.
  124. ^ "Telugu Literature". Archived from the original on 8 April 2014. Retrieved 8 April 2014.
  125. ^ Manorma Sharma (2007). Musical Heritage of India. APH. pp. 19–32. ISBN 978-81-313-0046-6.
  126. ^ Thoomati Donappa. Telugu Harikatha Sarvasvam. OCLC 13505520.
  127. ^ "Burrakatha loses sheen sans patronage". The Times of India. 14 January 2013. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
  128. ^ "Nandi Natakotsavam Awards". India Scanner. 8 October 2010. Archived from the original on 17 March 2012. Retrieved 13 October 2012.
  129. ^ 20th Century Telugu Luminaries, Potti Sriramulu Telugu University, Hyderabad, 2005
  130. ^ Narasimham, M. L. (7 November 2010). "SATI SAVITHRI (1933)". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 13 November 2010. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
  131. ^ Bhagwan Das Garg (1996). So many cinemas: the motion picture in India. Eminence Designs. p. 86. ISBN 978-81-900602-1-9. Archived from the original on 21 May 2016. Retrieved 17 February 2017.
  132. ^ "The Telugu film industry". Preethi's Web. Archived from the original on 15 July 2014. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
  133. ^ Ramakrishnan, Sathyalaya (11 September 2010). "Prestigious 'Phalke" award conferred to Veteran Film producer D Rama Naidu". Asian Tribune. Archived from the original on 23 May 2012. Retrieved 8 October 2011.
  134. ^ "Tollywood loses to Bollywood on numbers". The Times of India. 2 October 2010. Archived from the original on 13 July 2015. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
  135. ^ "Telugu film industry enters new era". Business Line. 6 November 2007. Archived from the original on 3 February 2014. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
  136. ^ "Largest film studio". Guinnessworldrecords.com. Archived from the original on 19 January 2014. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
  137. ^ "Andhra Pradesh to develop beach front locations – Times of India". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 13 December 2016. Retrieved 13 May 2017.
  138. ^ Bhattacharjee, Sumit. "Natural world heritage status for Borra Caves sought". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 16 January 2017. Retrieved 13 May 2017.
  139. ^ ":::- WELCOME TO GUNTUR DISTRICT OFFICIAL WEBSITE -". Archived from the original on 27 June 2016. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
  140. ^ "Film tourism to boost Kurnool economy". deccanchronicle.com/. 3 February 2017. Archived from the original on 13 March 2017. Retrieved 13 May 2017.
  141. ^ "Tourist destinations in AP". Andhra Pradesh Tourism Department. Archived from the original on 6 August 2010. Retrieved 5 June 2014.
  142. ^ "The Templenet Encyclopedia – Temples of Andhra Pradesh". Archived from the original on 9 May 2008. Retrieved 26 February 2009.
  143. ^ "4000-km Andhra Pradesh highways to be maintained by private companies". The New Indian Express. Vijayawada. 6 May 2018. Archived from the original on 26 April 2019. Retrieved 26 April 2019.
  144. ^ "citi-Charter". Apsrtc.gov.in. Archived from the original on 17 September 2010. Retrieved 19 August 2010.
  145. ^ "AP Budget 2018–19 Highlights – Sakshi". Archived from the original on 8 March 2018. Retrieved 28 February 2018.
  146. ^ "Statewise Length of Railway Lines and Survey For New Railway Lines". pib.nic.in. Archived from the original on 5 January 2018. Retrieved 4 January 2018.
  147. ^ "Infrastructure – Connectivity – Rail". apedb.gov.in. Andhra Pradesh Economic Development Board. Archived from the original on 29 June 2018. Retrieved 30 June 2018.
  148. ^ "Bullet Train Corridors". Archived from the original on 16 September 2017.
  149. ^ "Diamond Quadrilateral". Archived from the original on 12 June 2017.
  150. ^ "State-wise Route Kilometerage". South Central Railway. Archived from the original on 6 February 2011. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
  151. ^ "ECoR – WALTAIR DIVISION". eastcoastrailwaywaltairdivision.blogspot.in. Archived from the original on 20 April 2017. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
  152. ^ "Statement showing category-wise No.of stations" (PDF). South Central Railway. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 January 2016. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
  153. ^ "Vizag billed the cleanest rail station". The Hindu. Special Correspondent. 18 May 2017. ISSN 0971-751X. Archived from the original on 4 January 2018. Retrieved 4 January 2018.CS1 maint: others (link)
  154. ^ BHATTACHARJEE, SUMIT. "Hidden 100 – 58 tunnels. 84 bridges. Welcome to Araku Valley". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 9 June 2017. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
  155. ^ "Vijayawada airport to go International". Archived from the original on 11 January 2018. Retrieved 10 January 2018.
  156. ^ "Airports" (PDF). AP State Portal. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
  157. ^ "Vizag port info". vizagport. Archived from the original on 11 November 2012. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
  158. ^ "Capacity of port". gangavaram port. Archived from the original on 21 February 2014. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
  159. ^ "Andhra Pradesh: Opening up ports". Andhra Pradesh Department of Ports. Archived from the original on 29 September 2014. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
  160. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 10 September 2017. Retrieved 10 September 2017.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  161. ^ "School Education Department" (PDF). School Education Department, Government of Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 March 2016. Retrieved 12 April 2017.
  162. ^ "The Department of School Education – Official AP State Government Portal". www.ap.gov.in. Archived from the original on 13 April 2017. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  163. ^ Nagaraju, M.T.V (2004). Study Habits of Secondary School Students. Discovery Publishing House. p. 75. ISBN 978-81-7141-893-0. Retrieved 14 March 2016.
  164. ^ "Constitution of Working Groups" (PDF). Commissioner and Director of School Education. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 October 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  165. ^ "Student Information". Commissionerate of School Education. Archived from the original on 22 May 2015. Retrieved 13 May 2017.
  166. ^ "GIS Coordinates". Commissionerate of School Education. Archived from the original on 6 May 2017. Retrieved 13 May 2017.
  167. ^ "Statistics of SSC 2015 Results". Board of Secondary Education Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original on 7 November 2016. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
  168. ^ "Andhra Pradesh SSC Class 10 results 2016 likely to be declared today at 12 pm". ummid.com. Archived from the original on 6 May 2016. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
  169. ^ "SSC Public Examinations March 2016" (PDF). Board of Intermediate Education. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 May 2017. Retrieved 13 May 2017.
  170. ^ "The Department of Higher Education – Andhra Pradesh Portal | AP State Portal". www.ap.gov.in. Archived from the original on 18 April 2017. Retrieved 2 May 2017.
  171. ^ Tutika, Kiranmai (19 October 2016). "VIT at Amaravati". The Hans India. Archived from the original on 16 January 2017. Retrieved 13 May 2017.
  172. ^ Sarma, Ch. R. S (13 April 2017). "National status for Indian Institute of Petroleum and Energy hailed". The Hindu Business Line. Retrieved 13 May 2017.
  173. ^ "Rajiv Gandhi University of Knowledge Technologies". Rgukt.in. Archived from the original on 7 October 2011. Retrieved 8 October 2011.
  174. ^ "Deemed University". University Grants Commission. Archived from the original on 9 May 2017. Retrieved 13 May 2017.
  175. ^ "State University". University Grants Commissiom. Archived from the original on 12 May 2017. Retrieved 13 May 2017.
  176. ^ Correspondent,, Special. "Old-timers recollect glorious days of AU". The Hindu. Retrieved 2 May 2017.
  177. ^ "Statistical Profile of Universities in Andhra Pradesh" (PDF). Andhra Pradesh State Council of Higher Education. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 December 2017. Retrieved 13 May 2017.
  178. ^ "NARL". National Atmospheric Research Laboratory. Archived from the original on 6 June 2014. Retrieved 5 June 2014.
  179. ^ "IISER Tirupati". IISER Tirupati. Archived from the original on 14 February 2016. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
  180. ^ "CTRI Rajahmundry". Archived from the original on 28 April 2016.
  181. ^ "IIOPR". Archived from the original on 28 April 2016.
  182. ^ "National Institute Of Oceanography(NIO) – HOME". Archived from the original on 13 August 2016. Retrieved 16 August 2016.
  183. ^ "ccrh". Archived from the original on 4 May 2016.
  184. ^ "SHAR". Archived from the original on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 15 May 2014.
  185. ^ "Chandrayaan 1". Archived from the original on 8 February 2014. Retrieved 15 May 2014.
  186. ^ "Sports Authority of Andhra Pradesh". SAAP. Archived from the original on 4 April 2014. Retrieved 5 April 2014.
  187. ^ "Karnam Malleswari at Olympics". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 30 July 2014. Retrieved 29 June 2014.
  188. ^ "He can solve Rubik's Cube underwater". timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Archived from the original on 13 December 2017. Retrieved 25 December 2017.
  189. ^ "Pulella Gopichand". mapsofindia.com. Archived from the original on 13 February 2009. Retrieved 7 February 2010.
  190. ^ "P Gopichand". The Times of India. 11 December 2002. Archived from the original on 21 August 2009. Retrieved 7 February 2010.
  191. ^ "Pullela Gopichand – The Founder". Gopichand Badminton Academy. Archived from the original on 24 February 2010. Retrieved 7 February 2010.

External links

Government
General information
2014 Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly election

The Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly election, 2014 took place on 30 April and 7 May 2014 to elect members to the legislatures of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh. It was held concurrently with the Indian general election. The results were declared on 16 May 2014. The Telugu Desam Party led by N. Chandrababu Naidu won a majority of the 175 seats in the rump Andhra Pradesh, while Telangana Rashtra Samithi led by K. Chandrasekhar Rao won in the new state of Telangana.

Amaravati

Amaravati is the de facto capital city of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The planned city is located on the southern banks of the Krishna river in Guntur district, within the Andhra Pradesh Capital Region, being built on a 217 sq km riverfront designed to have 51% of green spaces and 10% of water bodies. The word "Amaravati" derives from the historical Amaravathi village, the ancient capital of the Satavahana dynasty. The foundation stone was laid on 22 October 2015, at Uddandarayunipalem area by the Prime Minister, Narendra Modi. The metropolitan area of Guntur and Vijayawada are the major conurbations of Amaravati.Amaravati is being constructed to serve as the new capital city of Andhra Pradesh, after Telangana was split off as a separate state in 2014. The former capital city, Hyderabad, is now located inside Telangana. A new capital city had to be either assigned or constructed on the remaining territory of Andhra Pradesh and Amaravati was finally chosen as that. For a transitional period of no more than 10 years, Hyderabad could continue to serve as the residence of Andhra Pradesh's official state institutions; thus, they are required to move to the newly constructed capital of Amaravati by 2024.

As of October 2016, the majority of departments and officials of the Andhra Pradesh State Government are now functioning from interim facilities located in the Velagapudi area of Amaravati, with only a skeleton staff remaining behind in Hyderabad. Since April 2016, the office of the Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh started its operations from Velagapudi. The Andhra Pradesh Legislature remained in Hyderabad until March 2017, when it relocated to newly constructed interim legislative buildings in Velagapudi.

Andhra Pradesh Board of Secondary Education

Board of Secondary Education of Andhra Pradesh also known as the Directorate of Government Examinations. It was established in 1953 and functions as an autonomous body under the Andhra Pradesh's Department of Education.The board regulates and supervises the system of Secondary education in Andhra Pradesh State. It executes and governs various activities that include devising of courses of study, prescribing syllabus, conducting examinations, granting recognitions to schools and, providing direction, support and leadership for all secondary educational institutions under its jurisdiction.

Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly

The Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly is the lower house of the Andhra Pradesh Legislature. The Legislative Assembly of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh consists of 176 members, of which 175 are elected by adult universal suffrage and a first-past-the-post system, one member from Anglo-Indian community is appointed by the Governor, as directed by Article 333 of the Twenty-third Amendment of the Constitution of India. The duration of the Assembly is five years from the date appointed for its first meeting, unless it has been decided to dissolve the Assembly sooner. The Legislative Assembly's main functions include legislation, overseeing of administration, passing of budget, and airing of public grievances. The structure of the assembly is Bicameral and holds three sessions annually: the Budget, Monsoon and Winter sessions.

The Legislative Assembly took up residence in the interim Legislative Assembly Building in Amaravati beginning in the 2016 Budget session. The new building has systems for automatic speech translation and an automatic vote recording system.

Government of Andhra Pradesh

Government of Andhra Pradesh is the government for the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is an elected government with 175 MLAs elected to the legislative assembly for a 5-year term Government of Andhra Pradesh is a democratically elected body that governs the State of Andhra Pradesh, India. The state government is headed by the Governor of Andhra Pradesh as the nominal head of state, with a democratically elected Chief Minister as the real head of the executive. The governor who is appointed for five years appoints the Chief Minister and his Council of Ministers. Even though the governor remains the ceremonial head of the state, the day-to-day running of the government is taken care of by the Chief Minister and his Council of Ministers in whom a great deal of legislative powers is vested. The state government maintains its capital at Amaravati and is seated at the Government Secretariat or the Sachivalayam.

K. Chandrashekar Rao

Kalvakuntla Chandrashekhar Rao (born 17 February 1954) better known and abbreviated as K.C.R., is an Indian politician and the first Chief Minister of Telangana, a new state formed by the division of Andhra Pradesh in 2014. He is the leader and Founder of the Telangana Rashtra Samithi, a regional party in India. He is a Member of the Legislative Assembly (Telangana) from the Gajwel constituency of Siddipet District in Telangana. Previously, he served as the Member of the Legislative Assembly (Andhra Pradesh) from Siddipet and also as the Member of Parliament from Mahbubnagar, Karimnagar and Medak. He took oath as the first Chief Minister of the new state of Telangana on 2 June 2014. He went for early elections in 2018, when his cabinet recommended to dissolve the legislative lower house, Nine months before the completion of his term. He again took oath as the Chief Minister of Telangana for the second term on 13th December 2018.

List of chief ministers of Andhra Pradesh

The Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh is the chief executive of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. As per the Constitution of India, the Governor of Andhra Pradesh is the state's de jure head, but de facto executive authority rests with the chief minister. Following elections to the Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly, the governor usually invites the party (or coalition) with a majority of seats to form the government. The governor appoints the chief minister, whose council of ministers are collectively responsible to the assembly. Given that he has the confidence of the assembly, the chief minister's term is for five years and is subject to no term limits.Andhra Pradesh was created in 1956 by the merger of the Telangana region of Hyderabad State into Andhra State. Two chief ministers each from the Indian National Congress party had served these predecessor states. The first Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh was Neelam Sanjiva Reddy, later the sixth President of India. Including him, 13 out of 16 chief ministers belonged to the Congress party. Among these P. V. Narasimha Rao, who went on to become the ninth Prime Minister of India. The remaining three chief ministers were from the Telugu Desam Party, including N. Chandrababu Naidu the longest-serving Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh (over eleven years). Naidu is also the current incumbent, serving since 8 June 2014, a few days after Telangana was officially carved out of Andhra Pradesh into a separate state. Naidu resigned on 23 May after failing to secure a majority in 2019 Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly election, but was asked to continue as a careteker till his successor is sworn in. Y. S. Jaganmohan Reddy is the Chief Minister-elect and is expected to be sworn in on 30 May.

List of cities in Andhra Pradesh by population

This article is about list of cities in Andhra Pradesh state of India. The statistical data is based on 2011 Census of India, conducted by The Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, under Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India.

List of cities in India by population

The following tables are the list of cities in India by population. Often cities are bifurcated into multiple regions (municipalities) which results in creation of cities within cities which may figure in the list. The entire work of this article is based on Census of India, 2011, conducted by the Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, under Ministry of Home Affairs (India), Government of India.

List of constituencies of the Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly

The Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly (Vidhan Sabha) currently has 175 constituencies out of which 29 constituencies are reserved for Scheduled Castes candidates and 7 constituencies are reserved for Scheduled tribes candidates.

List of districts in Andhra Pradesh

The state of Andhra Pradesh is divided into 13 administrative districts spread across two unofficial regions - Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema. Coastal Andhra is divided into 9 districts: East Godavari, West Godavari, Krishna, Guntur, Prakasam, Sri Potti Sri Ramulu Nellore, Srikakulam, Vizianagaram, and Visakhapatnam. Rayalaseema comprises 4 districts: Kurnool, Chittoor, YSR Kadapa and Anantapur.

Anantapur district in Rayalaseema is the largest district in area and Srikakulam district in Uttarandhra is the smallest. East Godavari district is the most populous while Vizianagaram district is the least populous. The districts are further divided into two or more revenue divisions and Mandals for administrative purposes.

List of mandals in Andhra Pradesh

The article lists all the mandals in the 13 districts of Andhra Pradesh. The state comprises 676 mandals, of which Chittoor district (66 mandals), has the most number of mandals and Vizianagaram district (34 mandals) has the least number of mandals in the state.

N. Chandrababu Naidu

Nara Chandrababu Naidu (born 20 April 1950) is an Indian politician who was the former Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh serving since 2014. He was the first chief minister of the state since it was divided. Previously he served as Chief Minister of esrtwhile united Andhra Pradesh from 1994 to 2004, before the state was divided, and as the Leader of the opposition in the United Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly from 2004 to 2014. He is currently the National President of Telugu Desam Party.Naidu has won a number of awards, including IT Indian of the Millennium from India Today, Business Person of the Year by The Economic Times, South Asian of the Year from Time Asia and membership in the World Economic Forum's Dream Cabinet. Naidu chaired the National IT Panel under the NDA government and was described as one of the "hidden seven", working wonders around the world, by Profit (Oracle Corporation's monthly magazine).

N. T. Rama Rao

Nandamuri Taraka Rama Rao (28 May 1923 – 18 January 1996), popularly known as NTR, was an Indian actor, producer, director, editor and politician who served as Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh for seven years over three terms. He is widely regarded as one of the best actors of Indian cinema . NTR received three National Film Awards for co-producing Thodu Dongalu (1954) and Seetharama Kalyanam (1960) under National Art Theater, Madras, and for directing Varakatnam (1970). NTR has received the erstwhile Rashtrapati Awards for his performance(s) in the films Raju Peda (1954) and Lava Kusa (1963). He garnered the Nandi Award for Best Actor for Kodalu Diddina Kapuram in 1970, and the Inaugural Filmfare Award for Best Actor – Telugu in 1972 for Badi Panthulu.NTR made his debut as an actor in a Telugu social film Mana Desam, directed by L. V. Prasad in 1949. He gained popularity in the 1950s when he became well known for his portrayals of Hindu deities, especially Krishna and Rama, roles which have made him a "messiah of the masses". He later became known for portraying antagonistic characters and Robin Hood-esque hero characters in films. In total, he starred in 300 films, and has become one of the most prominent figures in the history of Telugu cinema. He was voted "Greatest Indian Actor of All Time" in a CNN-IBN national poll conducted in 2013 on the occasion of the Centenary of Indian Cinema.He starred in such films as Patala Bhairavi (1951), which premiered at the first India International Film Festival, held in Mumbai on 24 January 1952, Malliswari (1951), premiered at Asia Pacific Film Festival, the enduring classics Mayabazar (1957) and Nartanasala (1963), featured at Afro Asian film festival in Jakarta. All the four films were included in CNN-IBN's list of "Hundred greatest Indian films of all time".He co-produced Ummadi Kutumbam, nominated by Film Federation of India as one of its entries to the 1968 Moscow Film Festival.

Besides Telugu, he has also acted in a few Tamil films. Widely recognised for his portrayal of mythological characters, NTR was one of the leading method actors of Indian cinema, He was referred to in the media as Viswa Vikhyatha Nata Sarvabhouma. He was awarded the Padma Shri by the Government of India in 1968, recognizing his contribution to Indian cinema.

After his career in films, NTR entered politics. He founded the Telugu Desam Party (TDP) in 1982 and served three tumultuous terms as Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh between 1983 and 1995. He was known as an advocate of Andhra Pradesh's distinct cultural identity, distinguishing it from the erstwhile Madras State with which it was often associated. At the national level, he was instrumental in the formation of the National Front, a coalition of non-Congress parties which governed India from 1989 until 1990.

Nirmala Sitharaman

Nirmala Sitharaman (born 18 August 1959) is an Indian politician of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), serving as the Minister of Defence of India since 2017 and has served as Member of the Rajya Sabha, upper house of the Indian Parliament, since 2016. Sitharaman is India's second female defence minister. She has served as the Minister of State for Finance and Corporate Affairs under the Ministry of Finance and the Minister for Commerce and Industry with independent charge. Prior to that, she has served as a national spokesperson for the BJP.

Pawan Kalyan

Konidela Kalyan Babu, better known by his stage name Pawan Kalyan, is an Indian film actor, producer, director, screenwriter, writer, philanthropist and politician. His film works are predominantly in Telugu cinema. He is the youngest brother of popular actor Chiranjeevi . Kalyan made his acting debut in the 1996 Telugu film Akkada Ammayi Ikkada Abbayi. In 1998, he starred in Tholi Prema, which won the National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Telugu for that year.

He is known for his works in the films Gokulamlo Seetha, Suswagatam, Tholi Prema,Thammudu, Badri, Kushi, Jalsa and Gabbar Singh, for which he received the Filmfare Award for Best Actor – Telugu, and Attarintiki Daredi, which became one of the highest grossing Telugu films of all time. He was listed 26th in 2013, 69th in 2017 and 24th in 2018 respectively in the Forbes India list of top 100 Celebrities .. He produces films under the banners Anjana Productions and Pawan Kalyan Creative Works.

In March 2014 he entered into politics, founding the Jana Sena Party. During that period, Pawan Kalyan was listed by Google as the most searched Indian celebrity politician on Google Search.Pawan Kalyan was widely known for his philanthropic work. He founded a charitable trust called Common Man Protection Force (CMPF). This trust was known to assist citizens who fall under EWS in states of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh. He was also invited to Harvard University in Boston,USA to deliver a speech in 14th edition of India Conference 2017 along with Madhavan.

Savitri (actress)

Savitri Ganesan (born Nissankara Savitri; 4 January 1936 – 26 December 1981) was an Indian film actress, playback singer, dancer, director and producer known for her works primarily in Telugu cinema and Tamil cinema. She is also known for her works in Kannada, Malayalam and bollywood. Savitri's first significant role was in the 1952 Telugu film Pelli Chesi Choodu. In 1960, she received the Rashtrapati Award for her performance in the Telugu film Chivaraku Migiledi. In 1968, she produced and directed the Telugu film Chinnari Papalu, for which she received the state Nandi Award for Best Feature Film (Silver). She often referred as "Mahanati" and "Nadigaiyar Thilagam".

Savitri was honored with "women in cinema" at the 30th International Film Festival of India. Her Tamil works include Kalathur Kannamma (1959), Pasamalar (1961), Pava Mannippu (1961), Paarthal Pasi Theerum (1962), Karpagam (1963), Karnan (1963), Kai Koduttha Dheivam, Navarathri (1964), and Thiruvilaiyadal (1965). In 2018, Nag Ashwin directed the biographical film Mahanati which chronicles the life of Savitri, essayed by Keerthy Suresh.

Telugu Desam Party

Telugu Desam Party (translation: Party of the Telugu Land), abbreviated as TDP, is a regional political party active in the southern states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. The party was founded by N.T. Ramarao on 29 March 1982. After 1995, the party is headed by N. Chandrababu Naidu, former Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh. The party's headquarters is located at NTR Bhavan in Hyderabad.

N. T. Rama Rao became the 10th Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh in 1983, within nine months of the party's formation, thus forming the first non-Congress government in Andhra Pradesh. TDP was the first regional party to become the main opposition party in 8th Lok Sabha from 1984 to 1989.On 16 March 2018, Telugu Desam Party (TDP) led by its leader N. Chandrababu Naidu walked out of Prime Minister Narendra Modi's coalition NDA over financial support and Special Status for Andhra Pradesh.

Y. S. Jaganmohan Reddy

Yeduguri Sandinti Jaganmohan Reddy (born 21 December 1972), is an Indian politician from Andhra Pradesh, who is the founder and leader of YSR Congress Party, and Leader of opposition in the Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly since 16 May 2014. He is the son of the former Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh, Y. S. Rajasekhara Reddy.

He started his political career by campaigning for Indian National Congress in 2004 elections in Kadapa District, and in the 2009 elections he was elected as Member of Parliament from Kadapa constituency as a member of the Indian National Congress.

Population Trend 
CensusPop.
196135,983,000
197143,503,00020.9%
198153,550,00023.1%
199166,508,00024.2%
200175,727,00013.9%
201184,665,53311.8%
Includes Telangana.
Source:Census of India[2]
State agencies of Andhra Pradesh
Public Sector Undertakings
Boards
Institutions
Nodal Agencies
State of Andhra Pradesh
Topics
Regions
Districts
Million-plus cities
Cities
(population over 1 lakh)
Tourism
Related lists
States
Union Territories

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.