Andes

The Andes or Andean Mountains (Spanish: Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world, forming a continuous highland along the western edge of South America. This range is about 7,000 km (4,300 mi) long, about 200 to 700 km (120 to 430 mi) wide (widest between 18° south and 20° south latitude), and of an average height of about 4,000 m (13,000 ft). The Andes extend from north to south through seven South American countries: Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile and Argentina.

Along their length, the Andes are split into several ranges, separated by intermediate depressions. The Andes are the location of several high plateaus – some of which host major cities such as Quito, Bogotá, Cali, Arequipa, Medellín, Sucre, Mérida and La Paz. The Altiplano plateau is the world's second-highest after the Tibetan plateau. These ranges are in turn grouped into three major divisions based on climate: the Tropical Andes, the Dry Andes, and the Wet Andes.

The Andes Mountains are the world's highest mountain range outside Asia. The highest mountain outside Asia, Argentina's Mount Aconcagua, rises to an elevation of about 6,961 m (22,838 ft) above sea level. The peak of Chimborazo in the Ecuadorian Andes is farther from the Earth's center than any other location on the Earth's surface, due to the equatorial bulge resulting from the Earth's rotation. The world's highest volcanoes are in the Andes, including Ojos del Salado on the Chile-Argentina border, which rises to 6,893 m (22,615 ft).

The Andes are also part of the American Cordillera, a chain of mountain ranges (cordillera) that consists of an almost continuous sequence of mountain ranges that form the western "backbone" of North America, Central America, South America and Antarctica.

Aconcagua 13
Aconcagua
Andes
Cordillera de los Andes
The Andes mountain range as seen from a plane, between Santiago de Chile and Mendoza, Argentina, in summer. The large icefield corresponds to the southern slope of San José volcano (left) and Marmolejo (right). Tupungato at their right.
Highest point
PeakAconcagua (Las Heras Department, Mendoza, Argentina)
Elevation6,961 m (22,838 ft)
Coordinates32°S 70°W / 32°S 70°WCoordinates: 32°S 70°W / 32°S 70°W
Dimensions
Length7,000 km (4,300 mi)
Width50 km (31 mi)
Naming
Native nameAnti  (Quechua)
Geography
Andes
Map of South America showing the Andes running along the entire western part (roughly parallel to the Pacific coast) of the continent
Countries

Etymology

The etymology of the word Andes has been debated. The majority consensus is that it derives from the Quechua word anti, which means "east"[1] as in Antisuyu (Quechua for "east region"),[1] one of the four regions of the Inca Empire.

Geography

ARG-2016-Aerial-Tierra del Fuego (Ushuaia)–Valle Carbajal 01
Aerial view of Valle Carbajal in the Fuegian Andes

The Andes can be divided into three sections:

  1. The Southern Andes (south of Llullaillaco) in Argentina and Chile;
  2. The Central Andes in Peru, and Bolivia; and
  3. The Northern Andes in Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador.

In the northern part of the Andes, the isolated Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta range is often considered to be part of the Andes.[2] The term cordillera comes from the Spanish word "cordel",[3] meaning "rope". The Andes range is about 200 km (124 mi) wide throughout its length, except in the Bolivian flexure where it is about 640 kilometres (398 mi) wide. The Leeward Antilles islands Aruba, Bonaire, and Curaçao, which lie in the Caribbean Sea off the coast of Venezuela, were thought to represent the submerged peaks of the extreme northern edge of the Andes range, but ongoing geological studies indicate that such a simplification does not do justice to the complex tectonic boundary between the South American and Caribbean plates.[4]

Geology

Geology of the Andes
Orogenies
Pampean • Famatinian • Gondwanide • Andean
Fold-thrust belts

Marañón • Central Andean • Patagonian

Batholiths
Antioquia • Cordillera Blanca • Peruvian Coastal • Vicuña Mackenna • Elqui-Limarí • Colangüil • Chilean Coastal • North Patagonian • South Patagonian
Subducted structures

Aluk Plate (formerly) • Antarctic Plate • Carnegie Ridge • Chile Rise • Farallon Plate (formerly) • Juan Fernández Ridge • Nazca Plate • Nazca Ridge

Faults

Dolores-Guayaquil • Cordillera Blanca • Cochabamba • Domeyko • El Tigre • San Ramón • Liquiñe-Ofqui • Magallanes-Fagnano

Andean Volcanic Belt

Northern Zone • Peruvian flat-slab • Central Zone • Pampean flat-slab • Southern Zone • Patagonian Gap • Austral Zone

Terranes

Arequipa-Antofalla • Mejillonia • Chilenia • Chaitenia • Chiloé Block • Cuyania • Pampia • Patagonia • Fitz Roy • Madre de Dios

The Andes are a MesozoicTertiary orogenic belt of mountains along the Pacific Ring of Fire, a zone of volcanic activity that encompasses the Pacific rim of the Americas as well as the Asia-Pacific region. The Andes are the result of tectonic plate processes, caused by the subduction of oceanic crust beneath the South American Plate. It is the result of a convergent plate boundary between the Nazca Plate and the South American Plate The main cause of the rise of the Andes is the compression of the western rim of the South American Plate due to the subduction of the Nazca Plate and the Antarctic Plate. To the east, the Andes range is bounded by several sedimentary basins, such as Orinoco, Amazon Basin, Madre de Dios and Gran Chaco, that separate the Andes from the ancient cratons in eastern South America. In the south, the Andes share a long boundary with the former Patagonia Terrane. To the west, the Andes end at the Pacific Ocean, although the Peru-Chile trench can be considered their ultimate western limit. From a geographical approach, the Andes are considered to have their western boundaries marked by the appearance of coastal lowlands and a less rugged topography. The Andes Mountains also contain large quantities of iron ore located in many mountains within the range.

The Andean orogen has a series of bends or oroclines. The Bolivian Orocline is a seaward concave bending in the coast of South America and the Andes Mountains at about 18° S.[5][6] At this point, the orientation of the Andes turns from Northwest in Peru to South in Chile and Argentina.[6] The Andean segment north and south of the orocline have been rotated 15° to 20° counter clockwise and clockwise respectively.[6][7] The Bolivian Orocline area overlaps with the area of maximum width of the Altiplano Plateau and according to Isacks (1988) the orocline is related to crustal shortening.[5] The specific point at 18° S where the coastline bends is known as the "Arica Elbow".[8] Further south lies the Maipo Orocline or Maipo Transition Zone located between 30° S and 38°S with a break in trend at 33° S.[9] Near the southern tip of the Andes lies the Patagonian orocline.[10]

Orogeny

The western rim of the South American Plate has been the place of several pre-Andean orogenies since at least the late Proterozoic and early Paleozoic, when several terranes and microcontinents collided and amalgamated with the ancient cratons of eastern South America, by then the South American part of Gondwana.

The formation of the modern Andes began with the events of the Triassic when Pangaea began the break up that resulted in developing several rifts. The development continued through the Jurassic Period. It was during the Cretaceous Period that the Andes began to take their present form, by the uplifting, faulting and folding of sedimentary and metamorphic rocks of the ancient cratons to the east. The rise of the Andes has not been constant, as different regions have had different degrees of tectonic stress, uplift, and erosion.

Tectonic forces above the subduction zone along the entire west coast of South America where the Nazca Plate and a part of the Antarctic Plate are sliding beneath the South American Plate continue to produce an ongoing orogenic event resulting in minor to major earthquakes and volcanic eruptions to this day. In the extreme south, a major transform fault separates Tierra del Fuego from the small Scotia Plate. Across the 1,000 km (620 mi) wide Drake Passage lie the mountains of the Antarctic Peninsula south of the Scotia Plate which appear to be a continuation of the Andes chain.

The regions immediately east of the Andes experience a series of changes resulting from the Andean orogeny. Parts of the Sunsás Orogen in Amazonian craton disappeared from the surface of earth being overridden by the Andes.[11] The Sierras de Córdoba, where the effects of the ancient Pampean orogeny can be observed, owe their modern uplift and relief to the Andean orogeny in the Tertiary.[12] Further south in southern Patagonia the onset of the Andean orogeny caused the Magallanes Basin to evolve from being an extensional back-arc basin in the Mesozoic to being a compressional foreland basin in the Cenozoic.[13]

Volcanism

Central Andes Mountains, Salar de Arizaro, Argentina
This photo from the ISS shows the high plains of the Andes Mountains in the foreground, with a line of young volcanoes facing the much lower Atacama Desert

The Andes range has many active volcanoes distributed in four volcanic zones separated by areas of inactivity. The Andean volcanism is a result of subduction of the Nazca Plate and Antarctic Plate underneath the South American Plate. The belt is subdivided into four main volcanic zones that are separated from each other by volcanic gaps. The volcanoes of the belt are diverse in terms of activity style, products and morphology. While some differences can be explained by which volcanic zone a volcano belongs to, there are significant differences inside volcanic zones and even between neighbouring volcanoes. Despite being a type location for calc-alkalic and subduction volcanism, the Andean Volcanic Belt has a large range of volcano-tectonic settings, such as rift systems and extensional zones, transpressional faults, subduction of mid-ocean ridges and seamount chains apart from a large range of crustal thicknesses and magma ascent paths, and different amount of crustal assimilations.

Ore deposits and evaporates

The Andes Mountains host large ore and salt deposits and some of their eastern fold and thrust belt acts as traps for commercially exploitable amounts of hydrocarbons. In the forelands of the Atacama desert some of the largest porphyry copper mineralizations occurs making Chile and Peru the first and second largest exporters of copper in the world. Porphyry copper in the western slopes of the Andes has been generated by hydrothermal fluids (mostly water) during the cooling of plutons or volcanic systems. The porphyry mineralization further benefited from the dry climate that let them largely out of the disturbing actions of meteoric water. The dry climate in the central western Andes has also led to the creation of extensive saltpeter deposits which were extensively mined until the invention of synthetic nitrates. Yet another result of the dry climate are the salars of Atacama and Uyuni, the first one being the largest source of lithium today and the second the world's largest reserve of the element. Early Mesozoic and Neogene plutonism in Bolivia's Cordillera Central created the Bolivian tin belt as well as the famous, now depleted, deposits of Cerro Rico de Potosí.

Climate and hydrology

Andes1a
Central Andes
Andes bolivianos
Bolivian Andes

The climate in the Andes varies greatly depending on latitude, altitude, and proximity to the sea. Temperature, atmospheric pressure and humidity decrease in higher elevations. The southern section is rainy and cool, the central section is dry. The northern Andes are typically rainy and warm, with an average temperature of 18 °C (64 °F) in Colombia. The climate is known to change drastically in rather short distances. Rainforests exist just miles away from the snow-covered peak Cotopaxi. The mountains have a large effect on the temperatures of nearby areas. The snow line depends on the location. It is at between 4,500 and 4,800 m (14,800 and 15,700 ft) in the tropical Ecuadorian, Colombian, Venezuelan, and northern Peruvian Andes, rising to 4,800–5,200 m (15,700–17,100 ft) in the drier mountains of southern Peru south to northern Chile south to about 30°S, then descending to 4,500 m (14,760 ft) on Aconcagua at 32°S, 2,000 m (6,600 ft) at 40°S, 500 m (1,640 ft) at 50°S, and only 300 m (980 ft) in Tierra del Fuego at 55°S; from 50°S, several of the larger glaciers descend to sea level.[14]

The Andes of Chile and Argentina can be divided in two climatic and glaciological zones: the Dry Andes and the Wet Andes. Since the Dry Andes extend from the latitudes of Atacama Desert to the area of Maule River, precipitation is more sporadic and there are strong temperature oscillations. The line of equilibrium may shift drastically over short periods of time, leaving a whole glacier in the ablation area or in the accumulation area.

In the high Andes of central Chile and Mendoza Province, rock glaciers are larger and more common than glaciers; this is due to the high exposure to solar radiation.[15]

Though precipitation increases with the height, there are semiarid conditions in the nearly 7,000-metre (23,000 ft) highest mountains of the Andes. This dry steppe climate is considered to be typical of the subtropical position at 32–34° S. The valley bottoms have no woods, just dwarf scrub. The largest glaciers, as e.g. the Plomo glacier and the Horcones glaciers, do not even reach 10 km (6.2 mi) in length and have an only insignificant ice thickness. At glacial times, however, c. 20,000 years ago, the glaciers were over ten times longer. On the east side of this section of the Mendozina Andes, they flowed down to 2,060 m (6,760 ft) and on the west side to about 1,220 m (4,000 ft) above sea level.[16][17] The massifs of Cerro Aconcagua (6,961 m (22,838 ft)), Cerro Tupungato (6,550 m (21,490 ft)) and Nevado Juncal (6,110 m (20,050 ft)) are tens of kilometres away from each other and were connected by a joint ice stream network. The Andes' dendritic glacier arms, i.e. components of valley glaciers, were up to 112.5 km (69.9 mi) long, over 1,250 m (4,100 ft) thick and overspanned a vertical distance of 5,150 m (16,900 ft). The climatic glacier snowline (ELA) was lowered from 4,600 m (15,100 ft) to 3,200 m (10,500 ft) at glacial times.[16][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25]

Flora

20100116 Sonso 002
Laguna de Sonso tropical dry forest in Northern Andes

The Andean region cuts across several natural and floristic regions due to its extension from Caribbean Venezuela to cold, windy and wet Cape Horn passing through the hyperarid Atacama Desert. Rainforests and tropical dry forests[26] used to encircle much of the northern Andes but are now greatly diminished, especially in the Chocó and inter-Andean valleys of Colombia. Opposite of the humid Andean slopes are the relatively dry Andean slopes in most of western Peru, Chile and Argentina. Along with several Interandean Valles, they are typically dominated by deciduous woodland, shrub and xeric vegetation, reaching the extreme in the slopes near the virtually lifeless Atacama Desert.

About 30,000 species of vascular plants live in the Andes, with roughly half being endemic to the region, surpassing the diversity of any other hotspot.[27] The small tree Cinchona pubescens, a source of quinine which is used to treat malaria, is found widely in the Andes as far south as Bolivia. Other important crops that originated from the Andes are tobacco and potatoes. The high-altitude Polylepis forests and woodlands are found in the Andean areas of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and Chile. These trees, by locals referred to as Queñua, Yagual and other names, can be found at altitudes of 4,500 m (14,760 ft) above sea level. It remains unclear if the patchy distribution of these forests and woodlands is natural, or the result of clearing which began during the Incan period. Regardless, in modern times the clearance has accelerated, and the trees are now considered to be highly endangered, with some believing that as little as 10% of the original woodland remains.[28]

Fauna

Tunki Tanpupata
A male Andean cock-of-the-rock, a species found in humid Andean forests and the national bird of Peru
Ausangate-hillside-MT
Herds of alpacas near Ausangate mountain

The Andes are rich in fauna: With almost 1,000 species, of which roughly 2/3 are endemic to the region, the Andes are the most important region in the world for amphibians.[27] The diversity of animals in the Andes is high, with almost 600 species of mammals (13% endemic), more than 1,700 species of birds (about 1/3 endemic), more than 600 species of reptile (about 45% endemic), and almost 400 species of fish (about 1/3 endemic).[27]

The vicuña and guanaco can be found living in the Altiplano, while the closely related domesticated llama and alpaca are widely kept by locals as pack animals and for their meat and wool. The crepuscular (active during dawn and dusk) chinchillas, two threatened members of the rodent order, inhabit the Andes' alpine regions.[29][30] The Andean condor, the largest bird of its kind in the Western Hemisphere, occurs throughout much of the Andes but generally in very low densities.[31] Other animals found in the relatively open habitats of the high Andes include the huemul, cougar, foxes in the genus Pseudalopex,[29][30] and, for birds, certain species of tinamous (notably members of the genus Nothoprocta), Andean goose, giant coot, flamingos (mainly associated with hypersaline lakes), lesser rhea, Andean flicker, diademed sandpiper-plover, miners, sierra-finches and diuca-finches.[31]

Lake Titicaca hosts several endemics, among them the highly endangered Titicaca flightless grebe[31] and Titicaca water frog.[32] A few species of hummingbirds, notably some hillstars, can be seen at altitudes above 4,000 m (13,100 ft), but far higher diversities can be found at lower altitudes, especially in the humid Andean forests ("cloud forests") growing on slopes in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and far northwestern Argentina.[31] These forest-types, which includes the Yungas and parts of the Chocó, are very rich in flora and fauna, although few large mammals exist, exceptions being the threatened mountain tapir, spectacled bear and yellow-tailed woolly monkey.[29]

Birds of humid Andean forests include mountain-toucans, quetzals and the Andean cock-of-the-rock, while mixed species flocks dominated by tanagers and furnariids commonly are seen – in contrast to several vocal but typically cryptic species of wrens, tapaculos and antpittas.[31]

A number of species such as the royal cinclodes and white-browed tit-spinetail are associated with Polylepis, and consequently also threatened.[31]

Human activity

The Andes Mountains form a north-south axis of cultural influences. A long series of cultural development culminated in the expansion of the Inca civilization and Inca Empire in the central Andes during the 15th century. The Incas formed this civilization through imperialistic militarism as well as careful and meticulous governmental management.[33] The government sponsored the construction of aqueducts and roads in addition to preexisting installations. Some of these constructions are still in existence today.

Devastated by European diseases to which they had no immunity and civil wars, in 1532 the Incas were defeated by an alliance composed of tens of thousands of allies from nations they had subjugated (e.g. Huancas, Chachapoyas, Cañaris) and a small army of 180 Spaniards led by Francisco Pizarro. One of the few Inca sites the Spanish never found in their conquest was Machu Picchu, which lay hidden on a peak on the eastern edge of the Andes where they descend to the Amazon. The main surviving languages of the Andean peoples are those of the Quechua and Aymara language families. Woodbine Parish and Joseph Barclay Pentland surveyed a large part of the Bolivian Andes from 1826 to 1827.

Cities

La Paz Skyline
La Paz, Bolivia is the highest capital city in the world

In modern times, the largest cities in the Andes are Bogotá, Colombia, with a population of about eight million, Santiago, Chile, and Medellin, Colombia and Cali. Lima is a coastal city adjacent to the Andes and is the largest city of all Andean countries. It is the seat of the Andean Community of Nations.

La Paz, Bolivia's seat of government, is the highest capital city in the world, at an elevation of approximately 3,650 m (11,975 ft). Parts of the La Paz conurbation, including the city of El Alto, extend up to 4,200 m (13,780 ft).

Other cities in or near the Andes include Arequipa, Cusco, Huancayo, Cajamarca, Juliaca, Huánuco, Huaraz, and Puno in Peru; Quito, Cuenca, Ambato, Loja, Riobamba, and Ibarra in Ecuador; Cochabamba, Oruro, Sucre, and Tarija in Bolivia; Calama and Rancagua in Chile; Armenia, Cúcuta, Bucaramanga, Ibagué, Pereira, Pasto, Palmira, Popayán, Tunja, Villavicencio, and Manizales in Colombia; and Barquisimeto, San Cristóbal, Mérida, and Valera in Venezuela and Mendoza, Tucumán, Salta, and San Juan in Argentina. The cities of Caracas, Valencia, and Maracay are in the Venezuelan Coastal Range, which is a debatable extension of the Andes at the northern extreme of South America.

Transportation

Cities and large towns are connected with asphalt-paved roads, while smaller towns are often connected by dirt roads, which may require a four-wheel-drive vehicle.[34]

Pico Humboldt y su glaciar
Venezuelan Andes in Mérida

The rough terrain has historically put the costs of building highways and railroads that cross the Andes out of reach of most neighboring countries, even with modern civil engineering practices. For example, the main crossover of the Andes between Argentina and Chile is still accomplished through the Paso Internacional Los Libertadores. Only recently the ends of some highways that came rather close to one another from the east and the west have been connected.[35] Much of the transportation of passengers is done via aircraft.

However, there is one railroad that connects Chile with Peru via the Andes, and there are others that make the same connection via southern Bolivia. See railroad maps of that region.

There are multiple highways in Bolivia that cross the Andes. Some of these were built during a period of war between Bolivia and Paraguay, in order to transport Bolivian troops and their supplies to the war front in the lowlands of southeastern Bolivia and western Paraguay.

For decades, Chile claimed ownership of land on the eastern side of the Andes. However, these claims were given up in about 1870 during the War of the Pacific between Chile, the allied Bolivia and Peru, in a diplomatic deal to keep Peru out of the war. The Chilean Army and Chilean Navy defeated the combined forces of Bolivia and Peru, and Chile took over Bolivia's only province on the Pacific Coast, some land from Peru that was returned to Peru decades later. Bolivia has been a completely landlocked country ever since. It mostly uses seaports in eastern Argentina and Uruguay for international trade because its diplomatic relations with Chile have been suspended since 1978.

Because of the tortuous terrain in places, villages and towns in the mountains—to which travel via motorized vehicles is of little use—are still located in the high Andes of Chile, Bolivia, Peru, and Ecuador. Locally, the relatives of the camel, the llama, and the alpaca continue to carry out important uses as pack animals, but this use has generally diminished in modern times. Donkeys, mules, and horses are also useful.

Agriculture

Peruvianterracefarmers
Peruvian farmers sowing maize and beans

The ancient peoples of the Andes such as the Incas have practiced irrigation techniques for over 6,000 years. Because of the mountain slopes, terracing has been a common practice. Terracing, however, was only extensively employed after Incan imperial expansions to fuel their expanding realm. The potato holds a very important role as an internally consumed staple crop. Maize was also an important crop for these people, and was used for the production of chicha, important to Andean native people. Currently, tobacco, cotton and coffee are the main export crops. Coca, despite eradication programmes in some countries, remains an important crop for legal local use in a mildly stimulating herbal tea, and, both controversially and illegally, for the production of cocaine.

Irrigation

Women irrigators in the Andes
Irrigating land in the Peruvian Andes

In unirrigated land, pasture is the most common type of land use. In the rainy season (summer), part of the rangeland is used for cropping (mainly potatoes, barley, broad beans and wheat).

Irrigation is helpful in advancing the sowing data of the summer crops which guarantees an early yield in the period of food shortage. Also, by early sowing, maize can be cultivated higher up in the mountains (up to 3,800 m (12,500 ft)). In addition it makes cropping in the dry season (winter) possible and allows the cultivation of frost resistant vegetable crops like onion and carrot.[36]

Mining

The Andes rose to fame for their mineral wealth during the Spanish conquest of South America. Although Andean Amerindian peoples crafted ceremonial jewelry of gold and other metals, the mineralizations of the Andes were first mined in large scale after the Spanish arrival. Potosí in present-day Bolivia and Cerro de Pasco in Peru were one of the principal mines of the Spanish Empire in the New World. Río de la Plata and Argentina[37] derive their names from the silver of Potosí.

Currently, mining in the Andes of Chile and Peru places these countries as the first and third major producers of copper in the world. Peru also contains the 4th largest goldmine in the world: the Yanacocha. The Bolivian Andes produce principally tin although historically silver mining had a huge impact on the economy of 17th century Europe.

There is a long history of mining in the Andes, from the Spanish silver mines in Potosí in the 16th century to the vast current porphyry copper deposits of Chuquicamata and Escondida in Chile and Toquepala in Peru. Other metals including iron, gold and tin in addition to non-metallic resources are important.

Huasos Maulinos - Rugendas

Chilean huasos, 19th century

Macchupicchu

The mountain Huayna Picchu overlooks the Inca estate (land) of Machu Picchu.

Peaks

This list contains some of the major peaks in the Andes mountain range. The highest peak is Aconcagua of Argentina (see below).

Argentina

Bariloche- Argentina

Llao Llao Hotel with the Andes in the background, in the city of Bariloche, Argentina

Aconcagua 13

The Aconcagua, Argentina, the highest mountain in the Americas

Fitz Roy Chalten Argentina Todor Bozhinov 2013

El Chaltén or Mount Fitz Roy, Argentina

162 - Fitz Roy - Janvier 2010

El Chaltén or Mount Fitz Roy, Argentina

Border between Argentina and Chile

Bolivia

Illampu-from-Ancohuma

Illampu, Bolivia

Illimani La Paz

Illimani, Bolivia

Nevado Sajama

Sajama, Bolivia

Huayna Potosí La Paz Bolivia

Wayna Potosí, Bolivia

Border between Bolivia and Chile

Laguna Verde Bolivia

Licancabur, Bolivia/Chile

Parinacota

Parinacota, Bolivia/Chile

Chile

Santiago Skyline

Santiago de Chile on the western slopes of a snowcapped Andes

Massif Reflected

View of Cuernos del Paine in Torres del Paine National Park

Colombia

Volcan Nevado del Ruiz

Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia

Volcan Huila 9-12-2008 (1)

Nevado del Huila, Colombia

Ecuador

EL CAYAMBE DESDE EL AVION

Cayambe, Ecuador

Volcán El Altar - Riobamba Ecuador

El Altar, Ecuador

Cotopaxi

Cotopaxi, Ecuador

Andes Mountains South America Photograph 017

Andes near Otavalo, Ecuador

Historic Center of Quito - World Heritage Site by UNESCO - Photo 186

Pichincha Volcano, an active stratovolcano in the Ecuadorian Andes, photographed from the Historic Center of Quito

Andes Mountains South America Photograph 022

Imbabura Volcano, Ecuador, an inactive stratovolcano

Peru

Alpamayo

Alpamayo, Peru

Chachani and Misti

Chachani and El Misti, Peru

Nevadohuandoy

Huandoy, Peru

Yerupaja Grande

Yerupaja, Peru

Venezuela

PicoBolivar2

Pico Bolívar, Venezuela

Pico Humboldt 2

Pico Humboldt, Venezuela

Pico El Leon

Pico El León, Venezuela

Glacial Pico Humboldt 4

Snow in the Pico Humboldt, Venezuela

Pico Pan de Azúcar 1

Pico Pan de Azúcar, Venezuela

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Teofilo Laime Ajacopa, Diccionario Bilingüe Iskay simipi yuyayk'ancha, La Paz, 2007 (Quechua–Spanish dictionary)
  2. ^ "Mountains, biodiversity and conservation". www.fao.org. Retrieved 2019-01-28.
  3. ^ "CORDILLERA". etimologias.dechile.net. Retrieved 2015-12-27.
  4. ^ Miller, Meghan S.; Levander, Alan; Niu, Fenglin; Li, Aibing (2008-06-23). "Upper mantle structure beneath the Caribbean-South American plate boundary from surface wave tomography" (PDF). Journal of Geophysical Research. 114 (B1): B01312. Bibcode:2009JGRB..114.1312M. doi:10.1029/2007JB005507. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-06-05. Retrieved 2010-11-21.
  5. ^ a b Isacks, Bryan L. (1988), "Uplift of the Central Andean Plateau and Bending of the Bolivian Orocline" (PDF), Journal of Geophysical Research, 93 (B4): 3211–3231, Bibcode:1988JGR....93.3211I, doi:10.1029/jb093ib04p03211
  6. ^ a b c Kley, J. (1999), "Geologic and geometric constraints on a kinematic model of the Bolivian orocline", Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 12 (2): 221–235, Bibcode:1999JSAES..12..221K, doi:10.1016/s0895-9811(99)00015-2
  7. ^ Beck, Myrl E. (1987), "Tectonic rotations on the leading edge of South America: The Bolivian orocline revisited", Geology, 15 (9): 806–808, Bibcode:1987Geo....15..806B, doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1987)15<806:trotle>2.0.co;2
  8. ^ Prezzi, Claudia B.; Vilas, Juan F. (1998). "New evidence of clockwise vertical axis rotations south of the Arica elbow (Argentine Puna)". Tectonophysics. 292 (1): 85–100. Bibcode:1998Tectp.292...85P. doi:10.1016/s0040-1951(98)00058-4.
  9. ^ Arriagada, César; Ferrando, Rodolfo; Córdova, Loreto; Morata, Diego; Roperch, Pierrick (2013), "The Maipo Orocline: A first scale structural feature in the Miocene to Recent geodynamic evolution in the central Chilean Andes" (PDF), Andean Geology, 40 (3): 419–437
  10. ^ Charrier, Reynaldo; Pinto, Luisa; Rodríguez, María Pía (2006). "3. Tectonostratigraphic evolution of the Andean Orogen in Chile". In Moreno, Teresa; Gibbons, Wes (eds.). Geology of Chile. Geological Society of London. pp. 5–19. ISBN 978-1-86239-219-9.
  11. ^ Santos, J.O.S.; Rizzotto, G.J.; Potter, P.E.; McNaughton, N.J.; Matos, R.S.; Hartmann, L.A.; Chemale Jr., F.; Quadros, M.E.S. (2008). "Age and autochthonous evolution of the Sunsás Orogen in West Amazon Craton based on mapping and U–Pb geochronology". Precambrian Research. 165 (3–4): 120–152. Bibcode:2008PreR..165..120S. doi:10.1016/j.precamres.2008.06.009. Retrieved 15 December 2015.
  12. ^ Rapela, C.W.; Pankhurst, R.J; Casquet, C.; Baldo, E.; Saavedra, J.; Galindo, C.; Fanning, C.M. (1998). "The Pampean Orogeny of the southern proto-Andes: Cambrian continental collision in the Sierras de Córdoba" (PDF). In Pankhurst, R.J; Rapela, C.W. (eds.). The Proto-Andean Margin of Gondwana. 142. Geological Society, London, Special Publications. pp. 181–217. Retrieved 7 December 2015.
  13. ^ Wilson, T.J. (1991). "Transition from back-arc to foreland basin development in the southernmost Andes: Stratigraphic record from the Ultima Esperanza District, Chile". Geological Society of America Bulletin. 103 (1): 98–111. Bibcode:1991GSAB..103...98W. doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1991)103<0098:tfbatf>2.3.co;2.
  14. ^ "Climate of the Andes". Archived from the original on 14 December 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-09.
  15. ^ Jan-Christoph Otto, Joachim Götz, Markus Keuschnig, Ingo Hartmeyer, Dario Trombotto, and Lothar Schrott (2010). Geomorphological and geophysical investigation of a complex rock glacier system – Morenas Coloradas valley (Cordon del Plata, Mendoza, Argentina)
  16. ^ a b Kuhle, M. (2011): The High-Glacial (Last Glacial Maximum) Glacier Cover of the Aconcagua Group and Adjacent Massifs in the Mendoza Andes (South America) with a Closer Look at Further Empirical Evidence. Development in Quaternary Science, Vol. 15 (Quaternary Glaciation – Extent and Chronology, A Closer Look, Eds: Ehlers, J.; Gibbard, P.L.; Hughes, P.D.), 735–738. (Elsevier B.V., Amsterdam).
  17. ^ Brüggen, J. (1929): Zur Glazialgeologie der chilenischen Anden. Geol. Rundsch. 20, 1–35, Berlin.
  18. ^ Kuhle, M. (1984): Spuren hocheiszeitlicher Gletscherbedeckung in der Aconcagua-Gruppe (32–33° S). In: Zentralblatt für Geologie und Paläontologie Teil 1 11/12, Verhandlungsblatt des Südamerika-Symposiums 1984 in Bamberg: 1635–1646.
  19. ^ Kuhle, M. (1986): Die Vergletscherung Tibets und die Entstehung von Eiszeiten. In: Spektrum der Wissenschaft 9/86: 42–54.
  20. ^ Kuhle, M. (1987): Subtropical Mountain- and Highland-Glaciation as Ice Age Triggers and the Waning of the Glacial Periods in the Pleistocene. In: GeoJournal 14 (4); Kluwer, Dordrecht/ Boston/ London: 393–421.
  21. ^ Kuhle, M. (1988): Subtropical Mountain- and Highland-Glaciation as Ice Age Triggers and the Waning of the Glacial Periods in the Pleistocene. In: Chinese Translation Bulletin of Glaciology and Geocryology 5 (4): 1–17 (in Chinese language).
  22. ^ Kuhle, M. (1989): Ice-Marginal Ramps: An Indicator of Semiarid Piedmont Glaciations. In: GeoJournal 18; Kluwer, Dordrecht/ Boston/ London: 223–238.
  23. ^ Kuhle, M. (1990): Ice Marginal Ramps and Alluvial Fans in Semi-Arid Mountains: Convergence and Difference. In: Rachocki, A.H., Church, M. (eds.): Alluvial fans – A field approach. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chester-New York-Brisbane-Toronto-Singapore: 55–68.
  24. ^ Kuhle, M. (1990): The Probability of Proof in Geomorphology – an Example of the Application of Information Theory to a New Kind of Glacigenic Morphological Type, the Ice-marginal Ramp (Bortensander). In: GeoJournal 21 (3); Kluwer, Dordrecht/ Boston/ London: 195–222.
  25. ^ Kuhle, M. (2004): The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) glacier cover of the Aconcagua group and adjacent massifs in the Mendoza Andes (South America). In: Ehlers, J., Gibbard, P.L. (Eds.), Quaternary Glaciation— Extent and Chronology. Part III: South America, Asia, Africa, Australia, Antarctica. Development in Quaternary Science, vol. 2c. Elsevier B.V., Amsterdam, pp. 75–81.
  26. ^ "Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forest Ecoregions". wwf.panda.org. Archived from the original on 2012-04-25. Retrieved 2015-12-27.
  27. ^ a b c Tropical Andes Archived 2010-08-21 at the Wayback Machine – biodiversityhotspots.org
  28. ^ "Pants of the Andies". Archived from the original on 15 December 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-09.
  29. ^ a b c Eisenberg, J.F.; & Redford, K.H. (2000). Mammals of the Neotropics, Volume 3: The Central Neotropics: Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil. ISBN 978-0-226-19542-1
  30. ^ a b Eisenberg, J.F.; & Redford, K.H. (1992). Mammals of the Neotropics, Volume 2: The Southern Cone: Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay. ISBN 978-0-226-70682-5
  31. ^ a b c d e f Fjeldsaa, J.; & Krabbe, N. (1990). Birds of the High Andes: A Manual to the Birds of the Temperate Zone of the Andes and Patagonia, South America. ISBN 978-87-88757-16-3
  32. ^ Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani and Young, editors (2008). Threatened Amphibians of the World. ISBN 978-84-96553-41-5
  33. ^ D'Altroy, Terence N. The Incas. Blackwell Publishing, 2003
  34. ^ Andes travel map
  35. ^ "Jujuy apuesta a captar las cargas de Brasil en tránsito hacia Chile by Emiliano Galli". La Nación newspaper. 2009-08-07. Retrieved 2011-07-22.
  36. ^ W. van Immerzeel, 1989. Irrigation and erosion/flood control at high altitudes in the Andes. Published in Annual Report 1989, pp. 8–24, International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement, Wageningen, The Netherlands. On line: [1]
  37. ^ "Information on Argentina". Argentine Embassy London.

References

  • Oncken, Onno; et al. (2006). The Andes. Frontiers in Earth Sciences. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-48684-8. ISBN 978-3-540-24329-8.
  • Biggar, J. (2005). The Andes: A Guide For Climbers. 3rd. edition. Andes: Kirkcudbrightshire. ISBN 0-9536087-2-7
  • de Roy, T. (2005). The Andes: As the Condor Flies. Firefly books: Richmond Hill. ISBN 1-55407-070-8
  • Fjeldså, J. & N. Krabbe (1990). The Birds of the High Andes. Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen: ISBN 87-88757-16-1
  • Fjeldså, J. & M. Kessler (1996). Conserving the biological diversity of Polylepis woodlands of the highlands on Peru and Bolivia, a contribution to sustainable natural resource management in the Andes. NORDECO: Copenhagen. ISBN 978-87-986168-0-1

Bibliography

  • Biggar, John (2005). The Andes: A Guide for Climbers (3 ed.). Scotland: Andes Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9536087-2-0.
  • Darack, Ed (2001). Wild Winds: Adventures in the Highest Andes. Cordee / DPP. ISBN 978-1-884980-81-7.

External links

Altiplano

The Altiplano (Spanish for "high plain"), Collao (Quechua and Aymara: Qullaw, meaning "place of the Qulla"), Andean Plateau or Bolivian Plateau, in west-central South America, is the area where the Andes are the widest. It is the most extensive area of high plateau on Earth outside Tibet. The bulk of the Altiplano lies in Bolivia, but its northern parts lie in Peru, and its southern parts lie in Chile and Argentina.

The plateau hosts several cities of these four nations, including El Alto, La Paz, Oruro, and Puno. The northeastern Altiplano is more humid than the southwestern area. The latter area has several salares, or salt flats, due to its aridity. At the Bolivia–Peru border lies Lake Titicaca, the largest lake in South America. South of that in Bolivia was Lake Poopó, which was declared dried up and defunct as of December 2015. It is unclear if this second-largest lake in Bolivia can be revitalized.The Altiplano was the site of several pre-Columbian cultures, including the Chiripa, Tiawanaku and the Inca Empire. Spain conquered the region in the 16th century.

Major economic activities in the Altiplano include mining, llama and vicuña herding, and services in the cities. There is some international tourism.

Andean music

Andean music is a group of styles of music from the Andes region in South America.

Original chants and melodies come from the general area inhabited by Quechuas (originally from Peru), Aymaras (originally from Bolivia), and other peoples who lived roughly in the area of the Inca Empire prior to European contact. This early music then was fused with Spanish music elements. It includes folklore music of parts of Argentina, Bolivia, Ecuador, Chile, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela. Andean music is popular to different degrees across Latin America, having its core public in rural areas and among indigenous populations. The Nueva Canción movement of the 1970s revived the genre across Latin America and brought it to places where it was unknown or forgotten.

Andean natural region

The Andes region, located in the center of Colombia, is the most populated region of Colombia. With many mountains contains the majority of the country's urban centers. They were also the location of the most significant pre-Columbian indigenous settlements. Beyond the Colombian Massif in the south-western departments of Cauca and Nariño, the Colombian Andes divide into three branches known as "cordilleras" (from the Spanish for mountain range): the West Andes run adjacent to the Pacific coast and is home to the city of Cali. The Central Andes run up the center of the country between the Cauca and Magdalena river valleys (to the west and east respectively) and includes the cities of Medellín, Manizales and Pereira. The East Andes extend northeast towards the Guajira Peninsula, and includes the cities of Bogotá, Bucaramanga and Cúcuta.

The climate and vegetation of the region vary considerably according to altitude, but as a general rule the land can be divided into the tierra caliente (hot land) of river valleys and basins below 1,000 m; the more temperate conditions of the tierra templada (temperate land, approximately 1,000 m to 2,000 m) and tierra fría (cold land, 2,000 m to 3,200 m), which include the most productive land and the majority of the population; and the alpine conditions of the zona forestada (forested zone, 3,200 m to 3,900 m), páramos (3,900 m to 4,600 m) and tierra helada (frozen land, 4,600 m and above).

Atacama Desert

The Atacama Desert (Spanish: Desierto de Atacama) is a desert plateau in South America covering a 1000-km (600-mi) strip of land on the Pacific coast, west of the Andes mountains. The Atacama desert is one of the driest places in the world (the driest being the McMurdo Dry Valleys) , as well as the only true desert to receive less precipitation than the polar deserts. According to estimates, the Atacama Desert occupies 105,000 km2 (41,000 sq mi), or 128,000 km2 (49,000 sq mi) if the barren lower slopes of the Andes are included. Most of the desert is composed of stony terrain, salt lakes (salares), sand, and felsic lava that flows towards the Andes.

The desert owes its extreme aridity to a constant temperature inversion due to the cool north-flowing Humboldt ocean current, and to the presence of the strong Pacific anticyclone. The most arid region of the Atacama desert is situated between two mountain chains (the Andes and the Chilean Coast Range) of sufficient height to prevent moisture advection from either the Pacific or the Atlantic Oceans, a two-sided rain shadow.

Chinchilla

Chinchillas are either of two species (Chinchilla chinchilla and Chinchilla lanigera) of crepuscular rodents of the parvorder Caviomorpha. They are slightly larger and more robust than ground squirrels, and are native to the Andes mountains in South America. They live in colonies called "herds" at high elevations of up to 4,270 m (14,000 ft). Historically, chinchillas lived in an area that included parts of Bolivia, Peru, Argentina, and Chile, but today, colonies in the wild are known only in Chile. Along with their relatives, viscachas, they make up the family Chinchillidae. They are also related to the chinchilla rat.

The chinchilla has the densest fur of all mammals that live on land. In the water, the sea otter has a denser coat. The chinchilla is named after the Chincha people of the Andes, who once wore its dense, velvet-like fur. By the end of the 19th century, chinchillas had become quite rare after being hunted for their ultra-soft fur. Most chinchillas currently used by the fur industry for clothing and other accessories are farm-raised. Domestic chinchillas descended from C. lanigera are sometimes kept as pets, and may be considered a type of pocket pet.

Club Atletico Los Andes

Club Atlético Los Andes is an Argentine sports club based in the Lomas de Zamora district of Greater Buenos Aires. The football team currently plays in the Primera B Nacional, the second division of the Argentine football league system.

The club was founded by a group of young people in 1917, and its name was chosen to commemorate the first balloon flight across the Andes mountain, which had happened in 1916.

Los Andes has had three runs in the Argentine Primera División: the first was in 1961, the second time was between the 1968 and 1971 Metropolitano championships. Los Andes best ever final position was an 8° position overall in 1968 Nacional.

The third run in Primera División was in 2000–01 and lasted only one season: Los Andes finished 19th out of 20 teams and was relegated to Primera B Nacional with the worst points average in the division.

After some seasons in the lower divisions, in 2014 Los Andes returned to B Nacional after winning a championship of the Primera B Metropolitana.

Cordillera Oriental (Colombia)

The Cordillera Oriental (English: Eastern Ranges) is the widest of the three branches of the Colombian Andes. The range extends from south to north dividing from the Colombian Massif in Huila Department to Norte de Santander Department where it splits into the Serranía del Perijá and the Cordillera de Mérida in Venezuelan Andes. The highest peak is Ritacuba Blanco at 5,410 m (17,750 ft) in the Sierra Nevada del Cocuy.

Dry Andes

The Dry Andes (Spanish: Andes áridos) is a climatic and glaciological subregion of the Andes. Together with the Wet Andes it is one of the two subregions of the Argentine and Chilean Andes. The Dry Andes runs from the Atacama Desert in northern Chile and Northwest Argentina south to a latitude of 35°S in Chile. In Argentina the Dry Andes reaches 40°S due to the leeward effect of the Andes. According to Luis Lliboutry

the Dry Andes can be defined by the distribution of penitentes. The southernmost well developed penitentes are found on Lanín Volcano.

Eligmodontia

The genus Eligmodontia consists of five or six species of South American sigmodontine mice restricted to Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina. Species of Eligmodontia occur along the eastern side of the Andes Mountains, in Patagonia, and in the Chaco thorn forest of South America. They can be found in arid and semiarid habitats and in both high and low elevation areas. These rodents are commonly known as gerbil mice or by their local name lauchas. Sometimes they are also called silky desert mice, highland desert mice or silky-footed mice. The closest living relatives are probably the chaco mice (Andalgalomys), the leaf-eared mice (Graomys, Paralomys and Phyllotis), and Salinomys.

Kunturiri (Los Andes)

Kunturiri (Aymara kunturi condor, -(i)ri a suffix, Hispanicized spelling Condoriri) is a mountain in the Cordillera Real of Bolivia, about 5,648 metres (18,530 ft) high. It is also the name of the whole massif. Kunturiri is located in the La Paz Department, Los Andes Province, Pukarani Municipality, southeast of Chachakumani and northwest of Huayna Potosí.

The central part of the Kunturiri group is formed by three peaks which resemble a condor with wings spread:

the Kunturiri itself, also called Cabeza de(l) Condor (Spanish for "head of the condor") (5,648 metres (18,530 ft)),

Ala Izquierda ("left wing"), Ala Norte ("north wing") (5,532 metres (18,150 ft)), the Kunturiri west peak and

Ala Derecha ("right wing") or Ala Sur ("south wing") (5,482 metres (17,986 ft)).Kuchillu Khunu (Aymara kuchillu knife (from Spanish cuchillo), khunu snow, "knife snow") is the name of the peak south of the "head of the condor" at 16°10′47″S 68°14′50″W.Other peaks in the Kunturiri massif are Pico Reya (5,495 metres (18,028 ft)), Qallwani (Yugoslavia) (5,492 metres (18,018 ft)) 2 km north of Kunturiri, Wintanani (5,428 metres (17,808 ft)), Pico Eslovenia (5,381 metres (17,654 ft)), Pequeño Alpamayo (5,370 metres (17,618 ft)), Pico Medio (5,355 metres (17,569 ft)), Ilusión (5,330 metres (17,487 ft)), Aguja Negra (5,290 metres (17,356 ft)), Jist'aña (5,260 metres (17,257 ft)), Diente (5,200 metres (17,060 ft)), Ilusioncita (5,150 metres (16,896 ft)), Tarija (5,060 metres (16,601 ft)) and Titicaca (4,968 metres (16,299 ft)). The Spanish names of the peaks do not occur in the maps of the Bolivian IGM (Instituto Geográfico Militar).The lakes Ch'iyar Quta and Juri Quta are situated south of the massif.

Los Andes Province (Bolivia)

Los Andes is one of the twenty provinces in the central parts of the Bolivian La Paz Department. The province was legally founded on November 24, 1917, during the presidency of José Gutiérrez Guerra. The Spanish name of the province means "The Andes", referring to its position within the Cordillera Real which is part of the Bolivian Andes mountain range. The capital of the province is Pucarani, which has a population of 918 as of the 2001 census. Pucarani is situated in the Altiplano west of the Cordillera Real offering a view of some of its highest mountains such as Ch'iyar Juqhu, Chachakumani, Kunturiri, Wayna Potosí and Chacaltaya.

Pacarana

The pacarana (Dinomys branickii) is a rare and slow-moving hystricognath rodent indigenous to South America. Native peoples of the region call it the pacarana (false paca) because it is superficially similar to the paca, a different rodent which is not in the same family. The pacarana has a chunky body and is large for a rodent, weighing up to 15 kg (33 lb) and measuring up to 79 cm (31 in) in length, not including the thick, furry tail.The pacarana is nocturnal and is found only in tropical forests of the western Amazon River basin and adjacent foothills of the Andes Mountains. It ranges from northwestern Venezuela and Colombia to western Bolivia, including the Yungas. It is common in Cotapata National Park in Bolivia.The pacarana is the sole extant member of the rodent family Dinomyidae in the infraorder Caviomorpha; the paca that it resembles in appearance is in a different Caviomorph family, the Cuniculidae. Initially, the pacarana was regarded as a member of the superfamily Muroidea, that includes the true mice, but that view was abandoned in the face of evidence that suggests that the pacarana is in the family Dinomyidae together with extinct animals such as Phoberomys pattersoni and Josephoartigasia monesi, prehistoric giant rodents that lived in South America several million years ago.

Pacaranas typically are found in family groups of four or five.

Plushcap

The plushcap (Catamblyrhynchus diadema) is a species of bird in the family Thraupidae. It is the only member of its genus Catamblyrhynchus.

The plushcap is one of the most distinctive of all Neotropical passerines in both its appearance and behavior. The plushcap (Catamblyrhynchus diadema) was in its own family until recently when it was grouped with the tanagers. It is very distinct both physically and in its behavior. The bill is broad and black. The body is a chestnut color with a bright golden-yellow forecrown. The forecrown is made up of stiff feathers. It has been speculated that these short, dense feathers are less susceptible to feather wear and more resistant to moisture than typical feathers. This may be an adaptation for its specialized feeding mode, in which it probes into dense whorls of bamboo for its prey items (Hilty et al. 1979). Juveniles are just duller versions of their parents. They are found at high elevations from northern Venezuela south to Argentina, including the coastal mountains of Venezuela and the Andes of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and extreme northwestern Argentina. They live in montane forests and secondary forests near bamboo. They forage for insects inside the bamboo. They will eat small insects, berries, and small plant matter. The overall length averages 14 cm (5.5 in) and weight averages 14.1 grams (0.5 oz).

The bird is very distinct and is not confused with many other birds. It stands out from the other tanagers, only possibly being confused with the golden-crowned tanager despite the golden-crowned tanager being blue.

The species is found in Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. Its natural habitat is humid montane forests and it is always found in close association with Chusquea bamboo. It is typically found at a elevations between 1,800 to 3,500 m.

Trasandino de Los Andes

Trasandino de Los Andes are a Chilean Football club, their home town is Los Andes in the V Región of Valparaíso in Chile. They currently play in the Segunda División.

The club was founded on April 1, 1906. Between 1985 and 1992 the club was called Cobreandino. Their home games are played at the Regional stadium, which has a capacity of 3,313.

Tropical Andes

The Tropical Andes are the northern of the three climate-delineated parts of the Andes, the others being the Dry Andes and the Wet Andes. The Tropical Andes' area spans 1,542,644 km2 (595,618 sq mi).

University of Los Andes (Colombia)

The University of Los Andes (Spanish: Universidad de los Andes), also commonly self-styled as Uniandes, is a private research university located in the city centre of Bogotá, Colombia. Founded in 1948 by a group of Colombian intellectuals led by Mario Laserna Pinzón, it was the first Colombian university established as nonsectarian (independent from any political party or religious institution). Los Andes has consistently been regarded as one of the best Colombian universities—very often ranked as the best—one of the top 10 in Latin America, and one of the top 300 world universities, according to both the QS World Top University Ranking and the Times Higher Education Classification.The university is academically composed of nine schools, three special academic entities—the Alberto Lleras Camargo School of Government, the Center for Research and Training in Education (Spanish: Centro de Investigación y Formación en Educación, CIFE), and the Interdisciplinary Center for Development Studies (Spanish: Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios sobre Desarrollo, CIDER)—and a joint academic venture with the medical institution Santa Fe de Bogotá Foundation, offering 31 undergraduate, 18 doctoral, and 38 graduate degree-granting programs in areas of human knowledge such as medicine, engineering, science, law and others.As of 2011, the university had given birth to 128 research groups recognized by Colciencias, most of them in the social sciences, mathematics, physics and engineering. By 2017, the number of groups recognized by Colciencias has increased to 153 research groups. It is one of the few Colombian universities to have received high quality institutional accreditation by the Colombian Ministry of Education, given in January 2015.

Uruguayan Air Force Flight 571

Uruguayan Air Force Flight 571 was a chartered flight that crashed on a glacier at an elevation of 3,570 metres (11,710 ft) in the remote Andes. Among the 45 people on board, 28 survived the initial crash. Facing starvation and death, the survivors reluctantly resorted to cannibalism. After 72 days on the glacier, 16 people were rescued.

The flight carrying 19 members of a rugby team, family, supporters, and friends originated in Montevideo, Uruguay and was headed for Santiago, Chile. While crossing the Andes, the inexperienced co-pilot who was in command mistakenly believed they had reached Curicó, Chile, despite instrument readings indicating otherwise. He turned north and began to descend towards what he thought was Pudahuel Airport. Instead, the aircraft struck the mountain, shearing off both wings and the rear of the fuselage. The forward part of the fuselage careered down a steep slope like a toboggan and came to rest on a glacier. Three crew members and more than a quarter of the passengers died in the crash, and several others quickly succumbed to cold and injuries.

On the tenth day after the crash, the survivors learned from a transistor radio that the search had been called off. Faced with starvation and death, those still alive agreed that should they die, the others might consume their bodies in order to live. With no choice, the survivors ate the bodies of their dead friends. Seventeen days after the crash, 27 remained alive when an avalanche filled the rear of the broken fuselage they were using as shelter, killing eight more survivors. The survivors had little food and no source of heat in the harsh conditions. They decided that a few of the strongest people would hike out to seek rescue. Sixty days after the crash, passengers Nando Parrado and Roberto Canessa, lacking mountaineering gear of any kind, climbed from the glacier at 3,570 metres (11,710 ft) to the 4,670 metres (15,320 ft) peak blocking their way west. Over 10 days they trekked about 38 miles (61 km) seeking help. The first person they saw was Chilean arriero Sergio Catalán, who gave them food and then rode for ten hours to alert authorities. The story of the passengers' survival after 72 days drew international attention. The remaining 16 survivors were rescued on 23 December 1972, more than two months after the crash.The survivors were concerned about what the public and family members of the dead might think about their acts of eating the dead. There was an initial public backlash, but after they explained the pact the survivors made to sacrifice their flesh if they died to help the others survive, the outcry diminished and the families were more understanding. The incident was later known as the Andes flight disaster and, in the Hispanic world, as El Milagro de los Andes (The Miracle of the Andes).

Vicuña

The vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) or vicuna (both , very rarely spelled vicugna, which is actually the name of its genus) is one of the two wild South American camelids which live in the high alpine areas of the Andes, the other being the guanaco. It is a relative of the llama, and is now believed to be the wild ancestor of domesticated alpacas, which are raised for their coats. Vicuñas produce small amounts of extremely fine wool, which is very expensive because the animal can only be shorn every three years, and has to be caught from the wild. When knitted together, the product of the vicuña's wool is very soft and warm. The Inca valued vicuñas highly for their wool, and it was against the law for anyone but royalty to wear vicuña garments; today the vicuña is the national animal of Peru and appears in the Peruvian coat of arms.

Both under the rule of the Inca and today, vicuñas have been protected by law, but they were heavily hunted in the intervening period. At the time they were declared endangered in 1974, only about 6,000 animals were left. Today, the vicuña population has recovered to about 350,000, and although conservation organizations have reduced its level of threat classification, they still call for active conservation programs to protect populations from poaching, habitat loss, and other threats.

Until recently, the vicuña was thought to not have been domesticated, and the llama and the alpaca were both regarded as descendants of the closely related guanaco. But recent DNA research has shown the alpaca may well have vicuña parentage. Today, the vicuña is mainly wild, but the local people still perform special rituals with these creatures, including a fertility rite.

Wet Andes

The Wet Andes (Spanish: Andes húmedos) is a climatic and glaciological subregion of the Andes. Together with the Dry Andes it is one of the two subregions of the Argentine and Chilean Andes. The Wet Andes runs from a latitude of 35°S to Cape Horn at 56°S. According to Luis Lliboutry the Wet Andes can be classified after the absence of penitentes. In Argentina well developed penitentes are found as south as on Lanín Volcano (40°S). The glaciers of the Wet Andes have a far more stable line of equilibrium than those of the Dry Andes due to summer precipitations, low thermal oscillations and an overall high moisture.

Earth's primary regions

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