The Andean states (Spanish: Estados Andinos) are a group of nations in South America connected by the Andes mountain range. "Andean States" is sometimes used to refer to all seven countries that the Andes runs through, regions with a shared culture primarily spread during the times of the Inca Empire (such as the Quechua language and Andean cuisine), or it can be used in a geopolitical sense to designate countries in the region that are members of the Andean Community trade group and have a local (as opposed to European) cultural orientation.
The Andes extend through the western part of South America in following countries:
When grouped as "the Andean states", the emphasis is on the mountainous regions of these countries. For example, the Argentine pampas are not part of the Andean region, but western Argentina along with Chile is part of the Andean region. Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, Ecuador and Bolivia are part of the Andean Community (a trade grouping), and each contains Amazon Rainforest and Amazonian indigenous people as well as Andean mountains.
The term Alpine states or Alpine countries refers to the territory of eight countries associated with the Alpine region, as defined by the Alpine Convention of 1991: Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Liechtenstein, Monaco, Slovenia, and Switzerland. This territory includes 83 NUTS 3-level local administrative divisions and about 6,200 municipalities.
In a narrow sense, the term "Alpine states" could be applied to Austria (28.7% of the total area), Italy (27.2%), and France (21.4%), which represent more than 77% of the Alpine territory and more than three quarters of the Alpine population. However, the Alpine share of the larger Italian and French state territories only amounts to 17% and 7% respectively. From a strictly national point of view, and with the exception of microstates Liechtenstein and Monaco, the Alps are dominant in only two countries: Austria (65.5% of its territory) and Switzerland (65%).Andean Region, Venezuela
The Andean Region is one of the 10 administrative regions in which Venezuela was divided for its development plans; the region is composed by the states of Mérida, Táchira, Trujillo and Barinas; and the region is located straddling the Andes Mountain Range. Except for the people of the Llanos in Eastern Barinas, natives from this region are usually referred to as "gochos".It has a total population of 3,607,720 and a density of 39,84 people per square kilometer. The Andean region makes up a mountain-like system with moors, lagoons, valleys, towns and many churches, and within these places it is possible to experience a wide variety of weather, like: mild, gelid, dry, humid and warm weather.
In its total area of 90.552 km2; savannah landscapes, rain forests, gelid desert zones with desert-like vegetation and moors of perpetual snow can be seen. This region is known for having significantly more tempered weather than the rest of the country.
The largest city in this region is San Cristóbal in Táchira.
Its maximum elevation sits at 4,978 metres above sea level, and the minimum at the mean sea level.
Its major natural attractions are the moors and the high mountains. Actually, the Venezuelan Andean region has the Mérida state in it, which has the highest elevation in the country at 4,978 metres with the Bolívar Mountain.
Economical activities in the region concentrate farming and many animal, coffee and fish production, as well as tourism and handcrafts. The ULA is the largest university in the Venezuelan Andes and it has campuses in the three major Andean states: Mérida, Táchira and Trujillo.
For commercial trade, the region has a fluvial exit through Lake Maracaibo using the port of La Ceiba in the Trujillo state. However, its major linking with other foreign countries happens in the international boundary of Táchira with the Republic of Colombia through the customs of San Antonio and Ureña, both of them Tachiran locations.Ayahuasca
Ayahuasca (UK: , US: ) or ayaguasca (in Hispanicized spellings) from Quechua Ayawaska (aya: soul, waska: vine), or yagé (), is an entheogenic brew made out of Banisteriopsis caapi vine and other ingredients. The brew is used as a traditional spiritual medicine in ceremonies among the indigenous peoples of the Amazon basin and is known by a number of different names (see below).B. caapi contains several alkaloids that act as monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). Another common ingredient in ayahuasca is the shrub Psychotria viridis which contains the primary psychoactive, dimethyltryptamine (DMT). MAOIs are required for DMT to be orally active.Himalayan states
The Himalayan states are a group of countries straddling the Himalayan mountain range in Asia. The area is divided between the Western Himalaya and the Eastern Himalaya. Two sovereign states, Nepal and Bhutan, are located almost entirely within the mountain range. The range also covers the southern Tibetan Autonomous Region of China, the Indian Himalayan states of North and Northeast India and northern Pakistan.The inhabitants of this region are mostly of Indo-Aryan or Tibeto-Burman descent while the main religions are Buddhism and Hinduism.Some of the world's major trans-boundary rivers originate in the Himalayas, including the Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra and Irrawaddy.History of Andean South America
The history of human habitation in the Andean region of South America stretches from circa 15,000 BCE to the present day. Stretching for 7,000 km (4,300 mi) long, the region encompasses mountainous, tropical and desert environments. This colonisation and habitation of the region has been affected by its unique geography and climate, leading to the development of unique cultural and societal organisation. Study of the history of the Andean region began in the 20th century, involving both historical and archaeological investigation.
After the first humans — who were then arranged into hunter-gatherer tribal groups — arrived in South America via the Isthmus of Panama, they spread out across the continent, with the earliest evidence for settlement in the Andean region dating to circa 15,000 BCE, in what archaeologists call the Lithic Period. In the ensuing Andean preceramic period, plants began to be widely cultivated, and distinct religious centres emerged, such as the Kotosh Religious Tradition in the highlands.
This was followed by the Initial Period. Various complex societies developed at this time, most notably the Chavín culture and the Moche civilisation. In later periods, much of the Andean region was conquered by the indigenous Incan tribe, who founded the largest empire that the Americas had ever seen, named Tahuantinsuyu. The Inca governed their empire from the capital city of Cuzco, administering it along traditional Andean lines.
In the 16th century, Spanish colonisers from Europe arrived in the Andes, eventually subjugating the indigenous kingdoms and incorporating the Andean region into the Spanish Empire. In the 19th century, a rising tide of anti-imperialist nationalism that was sweeping all of South America led rebel armies to overthrow Spanish rule.
The Andean region was subsequently divided into a number of new states, Peru, Chile, Bolivia and Ecuador.
The 20th century saw the growing influence of the United States in the region, which was increasingly exploited for its natural gas supplies. This in turn led to the rise of a number of anti-imperialist and socialist movements to oppose U.S. and multinational involvement in Andean South America.Humita
Humita (from Quechua humint'a) is a Native American dish from pre-Hispanic times, and a traditional food in Bolivia, Chile, although their origin is unclear. In Chile, they are known as humitas, in Bolivia as humintas, in Brazil as pamonha, and in Venezuela as hallaquitas. It consists of masa harina and corn, slowly steamed or boiled in a pot of water.Latin America
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Romance languages such as Spanish, Portuguese, and French are predominantly spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America. The term "Latin America" was first used in an 1856 conference with the title "Initiative of the America. Idea for a Federal Congress of the Republics" (Iniciativa de la América. Idea de un Congreso Federal de las Repúblicas), by the Chilean politician Francisco Bilbao. The term was used also by Napoleon III's French government in the 1860s as Amérique latine to consider French-speaking territories in the Americas, (French Canadians, French Louisiana, French Guiana, Haiti, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Saint Martin, Saint Barthélemy) along with the larger group of countries where Spanish and Portuguese languages prevailed, including the Spanish-speaking portions of the United States (Southwestern United States and Florida) Today, areas of Canada and the United States (with the exception of Puerto Rico) where Spanish, Portuguese and French are predominant are typically not included in definitions of Latin America.
Latin America consists of 13 dependencies and 20 countries which cover an area that stretches from the northern border of Mexico to the southern tip of South America, including the Caribbean. It has an area of approximately 19,197,000 km2 (7,412,000 sq mi), almost 13% of the Earth's land surface area. As of 2016, its population was estimated at more than 639 million and in 2014, Latin America had a combined nominal GDP of US$5,573,397 million and a GDP PPP of 7,531,585 million USD.Latin American culture
Latin American culture is the formal or informal expression of the people of Latin America and includes both high culture (literature and high art) and popular culture (music, folk art, and dance) as well as religion and other customary practices.
Definitions of Latin America vary. From a cultural perspective,
Latin America generally refers to those parts of the Americas of Spanish and Portuguese culture and language: Mexico, most of Central America, and South America. There is also an important Latin American cultural presence in the United States (such as in California, Florida, the Southwest, and cities such as New York City, Chicago, Dallas, Los Angeles, and Miami). There is also increasing attention to the relations between Latin America and the Caribbean as a whole. See further discussion of definitions at Latin America.
The richness of Latin American culture is the product of many influences, including:
Pre-Columbian cultures, whose importance is today particularly notable in countries such as Mexico, Guatemala, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and Paraguay, and remains intact among indigenous communities such as the Quechua, Maya and Aymara.
Spanish and Portuguese culture, owing to the region's history of colonization, settlement and continued immigration by Spain and Portugal. All the core elements of Latin American culture are of Iberian origin.
The culture of Africa brought by Africans for Trans-Atlantic slave trade has influenced but not all of Latin America. Influences are particularly strong in the dance, music, cuisine, and religion of Cuba, Brazil, Dominican Republic and coastal Colombia.
19th- and 20th-century immigration (e.g. from Spain, Italy, Germany, France and Eastern Europe) also transformed especially countries such as Argentina, Uruguay, Brazil (particular the southeast and southern regions), Colombia, Cuba, Chile, Venezuela, Dominican Republic (specifically the northern region) and Mexico (particularly the northern region). Some of these immigrants came from former Ottoman countries such as Syria, Lebanon, and Palestine.
Chinese, Indian, Lebanese, Filipino and Japanese immigration and indentured laborers who arrived from the coolie trade influenced the culture of Brazil, Cuba, Jamaica, Dominican Republic, Panama and Peru in areas such as food, art, and cultural trade.Lima metropolitan area
The Lima metropolitan area (Spanish: Área Metropolitana de Lima, also known as Lima Metropolitana), is an area formed by the conurbation of the Peruvian city-provinces of Lima (the nation's capital) and Callao. It is the largest of the metropolitan areas of Peru, the seventh largest in the Americas, the fourth largest in Latin America, and among the thirty largest in the world. The conurbation process started to be evident in the 1980s. The metropolitan area is composed of six subregions. These are Lima Norte, Lima Sur, Lima Este, Residential Lima, Central Lima, and Callao. Its estimated 2018 population is 12 million according to INEI statistics.List of regions of Latin America
This is a list of regions commonly used in Latin America.Outline of South America
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to South America.
South America is the southern continent of the two Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly (about 3/4) in the Southern Hemisphere. It lies between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. The continent is culturally, ethnically and racially diverse, home to indigenous peoples and to descendants of settlers from Europe, Africa and Asia. Due to its history of colonialism most South Americans speak Spanish or Portuguese, and its societies and states are commonly modeled after Western traditions.Pteridium aquilinum
Pteridium aquilinum (bracken, brake or common bracken), also known as eagle fern, and Eastern brakenfern, is a species of fern occurring in temperate and subtropical regions in both hemispheres. The extreme lightness of its spores has led to its global distribution.San Cristóbal, Táchira
San Cristóbal (Spanish pronunciation: [saŋ kɾisˈtoβal]) is the capital city of the Venezuelan state of Táchira. It is located in a mountainous region of Western Venezuela. The city is situated 818 metres (2,684 ft) above sea level in the northern Andes overlooking the Torbes River, 56 kilometres (35 mi) from the Colombian border. San Cristóbal was founded on March 31, 1561 by Juan de Maldonado. From its inception, the city evolved rapidly as one of the most progressive and important centers of commerce in the country, due primarily to its rich soil and its proximity to the border with Colombia.
The city was severely damaged by the Earthquake of Cúcuta (also known as Earthquake of the Andes) in 1875. The city is located on the Pan-American Highway.Sosatie
Sosatie (pl sosaties) is a traditional South African dish of meat (usually lamb or mutton) cooked on skewers. The term derives from sate ("skewered meat") and saus (spicy sauce). It is of Cape Malay origin, used in Afrikaans, the primary language of the Cape Malays, and the word has gained greater circulation in South Africa. Marinated, cubed meat (usually lamb) is skewered and braaied (barbecued) shish-kebab style. Sosatie recipes vary, but commonly the ingredients can include cubes of lamb, beef, chicken, dried apricots, red onions and mixed peppers.South America
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. It may also be considered a subcontinent of the Americas, which is how it is viewed in the Spanish and Portuguese-speaking regions of the Americas. The reference to South America instead of other regions (like Latin America or the Southern Cone) has increased in the last decades due to changing geopolitical dynamics (in particular, the rise of Brazil).It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the north and east by the Atlantic Ocean; North America and the Caribbean Sea lie to the northwest. It includes twelve sovereign states (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela), a part of France (French Guiana), and a non-sovereign area (the Falkland Islands, a British Overseas Territory though this is disputed by Argentina). In addition to this, the ABC islands of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Trinidad and Tobago, and Panama may also be considered part of South America.
South America has an area of 17,840,000 square kilometers (6,890,000 sq mi). Its population as of 2016 has been estimated at more than 420 million. South America ranks fourth in area (after Asia, Africa, and North America) and fifth in population (after Asia, Africa, Europe, and North America). Brazil is by far the most populous South American country, with more than half of the continent's population, followed by Colombia, Argentina, Venezuela and Peru. In recent decades Brazil has also concentrated half of the region's GDP and has become a first regional power.Most of the population lives near the continent's western or eastern coasts while the interior and the far south are sparsely populated. The geography of western South America is dominated by the Andes mountains; in contrast, the eastern part contains both highland regions and vast lowlands where rivers such as the Amazon, Orinoco, and Paraná flow. Most of the continent lies in the tropics.
The continent's cultural and ethnic outlook has its origin with the interaction of indigenous peoples with European conquerors and immigrants and, more locally, with African slaves. Given a long history of colonialism, the overwhelming majority of South Americans speak Portuguese or Spanish, and societies and states reflect Western traditions.Subregion
A subregion is a part of a larger region or continent and is usually based on location. Cardinal directions, such as south or southern, are commonly used to define a subregion.Táchira
Táchira State (Spanish: Estado Táchira, IPA: [esˈtaðo ˈtatʃiɾa]) is one of the 23 states of Venezuela. The state capital is San Cristóbal.
Táchira State covers a total surface area of 10,812 square kilometres (4,175 sq mi) and, as of the 2011 census, had a population of 1,168,908.
At the end of the 19th century, Táchira state was the place where oil was discovered in Venezuela. It was exploited for many years. Currently, its main economic revenues come from the production of coffee and pineapple. The cattle and agricultural activities play an important role in Táchira's economy. There is also a strong industrial sector which focuses on the processing of potato, sugar, milk, and cheese and the production of textiles.
Táchira State is one of the three Venezuelan Andean states (the other two are Mérida and Trujillo). This state borders with Zulia State in the north, Barinas and Mérida states in the East, Apure and Barinas states in the south and Colombia (Norte de Santander Department) in the west.Venezuelans
Venezuelan people are people identified with Venezuela. Venezuelans are predominantly Roman Catholic and speak Spanish. The majority of Venezuelans are the result of a mixture of Europeans, Africans and Amerindians. Approximately 51.6% of the population are Mestizos of mixed European, African and Amerindian ancestry, and 43.6% of Venezuelans identify as European or Middle Eastern. An additional 3.6% identify as Black/African-descendants, while 3.2% identify as Amerindians.Zulia
Zulia State (Spanish: Estado Zulia, IPA: [esˈtaðo ˈsulja]) is one of the 23 states of Venezuela. The state capital is Maracaibo. As of the 2011 census, it has a population of 3,704,404, the largest population among Venezuela's states. It is also one of the few states (if not the only one) in Venezuela in which voseo (the use of vos as a second person singular pronoun) is widely used.
Zulia State is in northwestern Venezuela, bordering Lake Maracaibo, the largest body of water of its kind in Latin America. Its basin covers one of the largest oil and gas reserves in the Western Hemisphere.
Zulia is economically important to the country from its oil and mineral exploitation, but it is also one of the major agricultural areas of Venezuela, highlighting the region's contribution in areas such as livestock, bananas, fruits, meat, and milk.
The state is coterminous with the eponymous region of Zulia.