Andean mountain cat

The Andean mountain cat (Leopardus jacobita) is a small wild cat native to the high Andes that has been classified as Endangered by IUCN because fewer than 2,500 individuals are thought to exist in the wild.[2]

It was first described by Emilio Cornalia who named it in honour of Jacobita Mantegazza.[3] It is one of only two cat species for which no subspecies has been described.[4]

Andean mountain cat
Andean cat 1 Jim Sanderson
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Suborder: Feliformia
Family: Felidae
Subfamily: Felinae
Genus: Leopardus
Species:
L. jacobita[1]
Binomial name
Leopardus jacobita[1]
(Cornalia, 1865)
AndeanCat distribution
Distribution of Andean cat
Synonyms

Oreailurus jacobita

Characteristics

The Andean mountain cat has an ashy-gray fur, a gray head, ears and face. The areas around the lips and cheeks are white; two dark brown lines run from the corners of the eyes across the cheeks. There are some black spots on the forelegs, yellowish-brown blotches on the flanks, and up to two narrow, dark rings on the hind limbs. The long bushy tail has 6–9 rings, which are dark brown to black. The markings of juveniles are darker and smaller than of adults. The skulls of adult specimens range in length from 100.4 to 114.8 mm (3.95 to 4.52 in) and are larger than of pampas cat and domestic cat.[5]

The Andean mountain cat has a black nose and lips, and rounded ears. On the back and on the tail, the hair is 40–45 mm (1.6–1.8 in) long. Its rounded footprints are 4 cm (1.6 in) long and 3.5 cm (1.4 in) wide. Its pads are covered with hair.[3]

Adult specimens range from 57.7 to 85 cm (22.7 to 33.5 in) in head-to-body length, with a 41.3 to 48.5 cm (16.3 to 19.1 in) long tail.[3][5] The shoulder height is about 36 cm (14 in) and body weight is up to 5.5 kilograms (12 lb).

Morphological differences between Andean and pampas cats

The Andean mountain cat and pampas cat look similar. This makes it difficult to identify which cat is observed and makes correct estimations of populations problematic. This can be especially difficult when attempting to gain correct information from the observations of individuals that have seen one of these cats but are not aware to look for specific features to distinguish between the two.[6]

Differences Between Andean and Pampas Cats[3][5]
Andean cat Trait Pampas Cat
23 of the total body length. Thick and blunt with 6–9 wide rings. Tail 12 of the total body length. Thin and tapered with 9 thin rings.
Maximum width of rings: 60mm Tail rings Maximum width of rings: 20mm
Distinctive lines on sides of eyes. Rounded tips of ears. Facial features If lines are present, they are brown and less dramatic. Triangular-tipped ears are present for most of this species.
Very dark or black Nose Light colored, generally pink
Yellow– and rust-colored or gray and black Overall color Cream, red, rust, and black in color
One consistent coat pattern Coat pattern Three different coat patterns with different variations
Uniform coloration of the base color Ear color Patterned colored ears
Rings are not complete; stripes are spot-like in appearance Front paws Two or more well-defined, complete, black rings

Distribution and habitat

Andean mountain cats occur only at high elevations in the Andes. Records in Argentina indicate that they live at elevations from 1,800 m (5,900 ft) in the southern Andes to over 4,000 m (13,000 ft) in Chile, Bolivia and central Peru.[7][8][9][10] This terrain is arid, sparsely vegetated, rocky and steep. The population in the Salar de Surire Natural Monument was estimated at five individuals in an area of 250 km2 (97 sq mi).[8] Results of a survey in the Jujuy Province of northwestern Argentina indicates a density of seven to 12 individuals per 100 km2 (39 sq mi) at an elevation of about 4,200 m (13,800 ft).[11]

Andean mountain cats occur localized. Their habitat in the Andes is fragmented by deep valleys, and their preferred prey, mountain viscachas (Lagidium) occur in patchy colonies.[2] Across this range, the level of genetic diversity is very low.[10]

While the Andean mountain cat's main prey is likely the mountain viscacha, it is also probable that mountain chinchillas were previously important prey of the Andean mountain cat before their populations were drastically reduced due to hunting for the fur trade.[9] Since it lives only in the high mountains, human-inhabited valleys act as barriers, fragmenting the population, meaning that even low levels of poaching could be devastating. They are often killed in Chile and Bolivia because of local superstition.

Ecology and behaviour

Competition with other predators

Six different species of carnivores live in the Andes Mountain range. Three of these species are cats, the Andean cat, the pampas cat, and the puma. The puma is a large predator, while the Andean and Pampas Cat are medium-sized predators. These two medium-sized predators are very much alike. They both hunt within the same territory. They hunt the same prey, the mountain viscacha (Lagidium viscacia), a rodent. The viscacha makes up 93.9% of the biomass consumed in the Andean cat's diet while the Pampas Cat depends on it for 74.8% of its biomass consumption.[8] Both of these cats depend on a specific prey to make up a large portion of their dietary needs. In some areas, the mountain viscacha will make up 53% of the Andean cat's prey items. This is because the other prey items are so significantly smaller that even though the Andean cat will successfully hunt, kill, and eat a mountain viscacha half the time, the mountain viscacha is so much larger than the other food items, it makes up more substance.[12] They also hunt frequently during the same periods. During one study, both the Andean cat and the Pampas Cat were seen most frequently during moonless nights; the second most sightings of these cats were during full moons.[13] These two cats both hunt the same prey, making it more difficult for them to find food, essentially creating a race to find the prey before the other does.

Reproduction

By using the residents' observations of Andean cats in coupled pairs with their litters, it is theorized that the mating season for the Andean cat is within the months of July and August. Because kittens have been seen in the months of April and October, this could mean that the mating season extends into November or even December. A litter will usually consist of one or two offspring born in the spring and summer months. This is common with many other species that also have their young when food resources are increasing.[14]

Threats

In 2002 the status of the Andean cat was moved from Vulnerable to Endangered on the IUCN Red List. Due to the Andean cat's habitat being spread across four countries, biologists have attempted to collaborate in efforts to protect the species. One of the groups formed was the Andean Cat Conservation Committee, now known as the Andean Cat Alliance. The table below was taken directly from the most current strategy plan for 2011-2016.[15]

Ranking of direct and indirect threats affecting Andean cats and some possible interventions to minimize their impact.
Priority Direct Threat Indirect Threat Intervention
1 Habitat Loss Various forms of land use including mining, and water extraction, potentially increased by climate change. Creation of protected areas and consolidation or improvement of existing ones; obeying with government and the industry sector; implementation of existing legislation; involvement of local communities on conservation and land use decisions; research on desertification processes affecting the Andean cat.
2 Habitat degradation Inappropriate pastoralist and agricultural practices; unregulated tourism; mining, oil/gas extraction; unregulated use of water. Working with communities to improve livestock management; lobbying with governments, industries and local communities to regulate tourist activities; implementation of existing legislation; implementation of water management plans when existing; research on the impacts of habitat degradation on Andean Cat population.
3 Opportunistic/Palliative Hunting Conflicting with small livestock breeding; lack of knowledge of the species by local community member; presence of dogs, incidental capture Conflict mitigation, community education, implementation of existing legislation; research on the most effective methods to mitigate conflicts and improvement of perception of the species by local people.
4 Traditional Hunting Religious use of skins or taxidermy, hunting due to traditional beliefs Community education; rekindling of traditional knowledge.
5 Reduction of prey populations Hunting, presence of domestic dogs Community education; implementation of existing legislation; research on predator-prey dynamics
6 Introduction of diseases Dogs and cats as reservoirs and/or vectors Research to determine the true extent of this threat
7 Hybridization Sympatric with phylogenetically related species (L. colocolo) Research to determine the true extent of this threat.

Conservation

The Andean cat's habitat spans four different South American countries. Each country has made individual laws to protect this wild cat. Each country also has its own protected game areas where hunting is prohibited. The table below outlines the number of the protected areas that fall within the Andean cat's habitat. Biologists are attempting to determine if any of these protected areas house significant populations of Andean cats.

Legislation and Policies Protecting the Andean cat[15]
Country Law or policy Protection offered Year enacted Number of protected areas Sightings within protected areas Unevaluated areas
Argentina National Law 22421 of Wildlife Conservation Prohibits hunting and/or trade of the Andean cat Unknown year 9 protected areas Evidence found in 7 areas 1 unevaluated, 1 partial
Statutory Decree 666/97
Resolution N' 63/86 of the Secretary of Agriculture
Bolivia Decree N'22421 General and undefined ban on hunting, capture, storage, and/or conditioning of wild animals and their by-products. 1990 8 protected areas Evidence found in 6 areas 2 areas unevaluated
Chile Law N'19473 Ban on hunting all felids, with penalties of up to $6,000 fine and/or imprisonment up to 3 years. 1972 7 protected areas Evidence found in 7 areas All areas evaluated
Peru Supreme Decree N'013-99-AG Ban on hunting, trading, and possession of living, dead, or body parts of the Andean cat 1999 12 protected areas Evidence found in 4 areas 8 areas unevaluated

Research

Gato andino
Andean mountain cat

Prior to 1998, the only evidence of this cat's existence was two photographs. It was then that Jim Sanderson took up his quest to find the Andean mountain cat. Sanderson sighted and photographed one in Chile in 1998 near Chile's northern border with Peru. In 2004, he joined a Bolivian research team and helped radio-collar an Andean cat in Bolivia.[16] In April 2005, this cat was found dead, perhaps after being caught in a poacher's trap.[17]

Sanderson is still involved with the Andean cat. Together with Constanza Napolitano, Lilian Villalba, and Eliseo Delgado and others in the Andean Cat Alliance, the Small Cat Conservation Alliance has forged conservation agreements with Fundación Biodiversitas, a Chilean non-profit organization, and CONAF, the government agency responsible for managing national parks and production forests. CONAF has agreed to allow the SCCA to renovate a building for the Andean Cat Conservation and Monitoring Center on their already-functioning compound at San Pedro de Atacama in Chile.

Villalba of the Andean Cat Alliance conducted a major research program, including radio-telemetry studies, from 2001 to 2006 in the Khastor region of southern Bolivia.[18]

Conservation efforts are also being made by the Feline Conservation Federation to preserve this species.

References

  1. ^ Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Species Leopardus jacobitus". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 532–628. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  2. ^ a b c Villalba, L.; Lucherini, M.; Walker, S.; Lagos, N.; Cossios, D.; Bennett, M. & Huaranca, J. (2016). "Leopardus jacobita". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2016: e.T15452A50657407. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T15452A50657407.en. Retrieved 29 October 2018.
  3. ^ a b c d Yensen, E.; Seymour, K. L. (2000). "Oreailurus jacobita" (PDF). Mammalian Species (644): 1–6. Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ Nowell, K.; Jackson, P. (1996). Wild Cats: status survey and conservation action plan. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group.
  5. ^ a b c Garcia-Perea, R. (2002). "Andean Mountain Cat, Oreailurus jacobita: Morphological Description and Comparison With Other Felines From The Altiplano". Journal of Mammalogy. 83 (1): 110–124. doi:10.1644/1545-1542(2002)083<0110:amcojm>2.0.co;2.
  6. ^ Palacios, R., (2007). Manual para identificación de carnívoros andinos. Alianza Gato Andino, Córdoba, Argentina. 40 pp.
  7. ^ Sorli, L. E., Martinez, F. D., Lardelli, U. and Brandi, S. (2006). Andean cat in Mendoza, Argentina – Further south and at lowest elevation ever recorded. Cat News 44: 24.
  8. ^ a b c Napolitano, C., Bennett, M., Johnson, W. E., O'Brien, S. J., Marquet, P. A., Barría, I., Poulin, E. and Iriarte, A. (2008). Ecological and biogeographical inferences on two sympatric and enigmatic Andean cat species using genetic identification of faecal samples. Molecular Ecology 17: 678–690.
  9. ^ a b Villalba, M. L., Bernal, N., Nowell, K. and MacDonald, D. W. (2008). Distribution of the Andean cat Leopardus jacobitus and pampas cat Leopardus colocolo and traditional beliefs about them in the Bolivian Andes. Endangered Species Research Update.
  10. ^ a b Cossíos, D. E., Madrid, A., Condori, J. L. and Fajardo, U. (2007). Update on the distribution of the Andean cat Oreailurus jacobita and the pampas cat Lynchailurus colocolo in Peru. Endangered Species Research 3: 313–320.
  11. ^ Reppucci, J.; Gardner, B. & Lucherini, M. (2011). "Estimating detection and density of the Andean cat in the high Andes". Journal of Mammalogy. 92 (1): 140–147. doi:10.1644/10-MAMM-A-053.1.
  12. ^ Walker, R. S.; Novaro, A. J.; Perovic, P.; Palacios, R.; Donadio, E.; Lucherini, M.; Pia, M. & López, M. S. (2007). "Diets of three species of Andean Carnivores in High Altitude Deserts of Argentina". Journal of Mammalogy. 88 (2): 519–525. doi:10.1644/06-mamm-a-172r.1.
  13. ^ Lucherini, M. (2009). "Activity Pattern Segregation of Carnivores in the High Andes". Journal of Mammalogy. 90 (6): 1404–1409. doi:10.1644/09-mamm-a-002r.1.
  14. ^ Cossíos D., F. Beltrán Saavedra, M. Bennet, N. Bernal, U. Fajardo, M. Lucherini, M. J. Merino, J. Marino, C.Napolitano, R. Palacios, P. Perovic, Y. Ramirez, L. Villalba, S. Walker, y C. Sillero-Zubiri (2007). Manual de metodologías para relevamientos de carnívoros alto andinos. Alianza Gato Andino. Buenos Aires, Argentina.
  15. ^ a b Villalba, L., M., Walker, S., Cossios, D., Iriarte, A., Sanderson, J., Gallardo, G., Alfaro, F., Napolitano, C., and C. Sillero-Zubiri. (2004). The Andean Cat Conservation Action Plan. Andean Cat Alliance. La Paz, Bolivia.
  16. ^ Tidwell, J. (2005). "Endangered Cat Still On Prowl". Conservation International. Archived from the original on 11 April 2009.
  17. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 September 2006. Retrieved 2012-10-16.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  18. ^ Sanderson, J.; Villalba, L. (2005). "Sacred Cat of the Andes" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 March 2009. Retrieved 11 December 2018.

External links

Central Andean dry puna

The Central Andean dry puna (NT1001) is an ecoregion in the Montane grasslands and shrublands biome, located in the Andean high plateau, in South America. It is a part of the Puna grassland.

Environment of Argentina

The Environment of Argentina is characterised by high biodiversity.

Subtropical plants dominate the Gran Chaco in the north, with the Dalbergia genus of trees well represented by Brazilian rosewood and the quebracho tree; also predominant are white and black algarrobo trees (Prosopis alba and Prosopis nigra). Savannah-like areas exist in the drier regions nearer the Andes. Aquatic plants thrive in the wetlands of Argentina. In central Argentina the humid pampas are a true tallgrass prairie ecosystem.The original pampa had virtually no trees; some imported species like the American sycamore or eucalyptus are present along roads or in towns and country estates (estancias). The only tree-like plant native to the pampa is the evergreen Ombú. The surface soils of the pampa are a deep black color, primarily mollisols, known commonly as humus. This makes the region one of the most agriculturally productive on Earth; however, this is also responsible for decimating much of the original ecosystem, to make way for commercial agriculture. The western pampas receive less rainfall, this dry pampa is a plain of short grasses or steppe.Most of Patagonia lies within the rain shadow of the Andes, so the flora, shrubby bushes and plants, is suited to dry conditions. The soil is hard and rocky, making large-scale farming impossible except along river valleys. Coniferous forests in far western Patagonia and on the island of Tierra del Fuego, include alerce, ciprés de la cordillera, ciprés de las guaitecas, huililahuán, lleuque, mañío hembra and pehuén, while broadleaf trees include several species of Nothofagus such as coihue, lenga and ñire. Other introduced trees present in forestry plantations include spruce, cypress and pine. Common plants are the copihue and colihue.In Cuyo, semiarid thorny bushes and other xerophile plants abound. Along the many rivers grasses and trees grow in significant numbers. The area presents optimal conditions for the large scale growth of grape vines. In northwest Argentina there are many species of cactus. No vegetation grows in the highest elevations (above 4,000 m (13,000 ft)) because of the extreme altitude.

Many species live in the subtropical north. Prominent animals include big cats like the jaguar and puma; primates (howler monkey); large reptiles (crocodiles), the Argentine black and white tegu and a species of caiman. Other animals include the tapir, peccary, capybara, bush dog, and various species of turtle and tortoise. There are a wide variety of birds, notably hummingbirds, flamingos, toucans, and swallows.

The central grasslands are populated by the giant anteater, armadillo, pampas cat, maned wolf, mara, cavias, and the rhea (ñandú), a large flightless bird. Hawks, falcons, herons, and tinamous (perdiz, Argentine "false partridges") inhabit the region. There are also pampas deer and pampas foxes. Some of these species extend into Patagonia.

The western mountains are home to animals including the llama, guanaco and vicuña which are among the most recognizable species of South America. Also in this region are the fox, viscacha, Andean mountain cat, kodkod, and the largest flying bird in the New World, the Andean condor.

Southern Argentina is home to the cougar, huemul, pudú (the world's smallest deer), and introduced, non-native wild boar. The coast of Patagonia is rich in animal life: elephant seals, fur seals, sea lions and species of penguin. The far south is populated by cormorants.

The territorial waters of Argentina have abundant ocean life; mammals such as dolphins, orcas, and whales like the southern right whale, a major tourist draw for naturalists. Sea fish include sardines, Argentine hakes, dolphinfish, salmon, and sharks; also present are squid and king crab (centolla) in Tierra del Fuego. Rivers and streams in Argentina have many species of trout and the South American golden dorado fish. Well known snake species inhabiting Argentina include boa constrictors and a very venomous pit viper named the yarará. The hornero was elected the national bird after a survey in 1928.

Felinae

The Felinae is a subfamily of the family Felidae that comprises the small cats that have a bony hyoid, because of which they are able to purr but not roar.Other authors proposed an alternative definition for this subfamily: as comprising only the living conical-toothed cat genera with two tribes, the Felini and Pantherini; thus excluding all fossil cat species.

Isla del Sol

Isla del Sol (Island of the Sun) is an island in the southern part of Lake Titicaca. It is part of Bolivia, and specifically part of the La Paz Department. Geographically, the terrain is harsh; it is a rocky, hilly island with many eucalyptus trees. There are no motor vehicles or paved roads on the island. The main economic activity of the approximately 800 families on the island is farming, with fishing and tourism augmenting the subsistence economy. Of the several villages, Yumani and Ch'allapampa are the largest.There are over 80 ruins on the island. Most of these date to the Inca period circa the 15th century AD. Archaeologists have discovered evidence that people lived on the island as far back as the third millennium BC. Many hills on the island contain agricultural terraces, which adapt steep and rocky terrain to agriculture. Among the ruins on the island are Titi Qala (Aymara titi Andean mountain cat; lead, lead-colored, qala stone, "mountain cat stone" or "lead stone", also spelled Titikala), a labyrinth-like building called Chinkana, Q'asa Pata, and Pillkukayna.

In the religion of the Incas, it was believed that the sun god was born here.

Leopardus

Leopardus is a genus of spotted small cats mostly native to Middle and South America, with a very small range extending into the southern United States. The genus is considered the oldest branch of a lineage of small cats that crossed into the Americas, with the genera Lynx and Puma being later branches of the same group. The largest species in Leopardus is the ocelot (L. pardalis); most of the other species resemble domestic cats in size, with the kodkod (L. guigna) being the smallest cat in the Americas. The margay (L. wiedii) is more highly adapted to arboreal life than any other cat in the Americas.Despite the name, the leopard is a member of genus Panthera, not Leopardus.

Lutrogale

Lutrogale is a genus of otters, with only one extant species—the smooth-coated otter.

Mountain cat

Mountain cat can refer to:

Puma concolor, also called cougar

Andean mountain cat, Leopardus jacobita

Chinese mountain cat, Felis bieti

Iriomote mountain cat, Prionailurus bengalensis iriomotensis

An alternative name for the Havana Brown domestic cat breed

Mountain Cat, a mystery novel by Rex Stout

Mountain Cats, a sports team from University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown

The Wild Cat (1921 film), also called The Mountain Cat, German silent comedy film

Northern viscacha

The northern viscacha (Lagidium peruanum) is a species of viscacha, a rodent in the family Chinchillidae. It is known from Peru and Chile, at elevations from 300 to 5000 m, and may also be present in Bolivia.

Osjollo Anante

Osjollo Anante (possibly from Quechua usqullu Andean mountain cat,) is a mountain in the Vilcanota mountain range in the Andes of Peru near a lake of the same name. The mountain is about 5,500 metres (18,045 ft) high. It is located in the Cusco Region, Canchis Province, Pitumarca District, and in the Quispicanchi Province, Ocongate District. Osjollo Anante lies southwest of the mountains Jatunñaño Punta and Chumpe, west of Uriyuq, northwest of Cuncapata and northwest of the lake Sibinacocha and northeast of Japu Japu.The lake named Osjollo Ananta lies southwest of the mountain in the Pitumarca District at 13°46′32″S 71°07′06″W.

Pampas cat

The Pampas cat (Leopardus colocola) is a small wild cat native to South America that is listed as Near Threatened on the IUCN Red List as habitat conversion and destruction may cause the population to decline in the future.

It is also known as the colocolo or Pantanal cat over parts of its range. It is named after the Pampas, but occurs in grassland, shrubland, and dry forest at elevations up to 5,000 m (16,000 ft).There was a proposal to divide Pampas cat into three distinct species, based primarily on differences in pelage colour/pattern and cranial measurements. Accordingly, three species were recognised in the 2005 edition of Mammal Species of the World: the colocolo (L. colocolo), the Pantanal cat (L. braccatus), and the Pampas cat (L. pajeros) with a more restricted definition. This split at species level was not supported by subsequent genetic work, although some geographical substructure was recognised, and some authorities continued to recognise the Pampas cat as a single species.

In the recent revision of felid taxonomy by the Cat Specialist Group the Pampas cat is recognised as a single species with seven subspecies.Pampas cats have not been studied much in the wild and little is known about their hunting habits. There have been reports of the cat hunting rodents and birds at night, and also hunting domestic poultry near farms.

Salinas y Aguada Blanca National Reserve

Salinas y Aguada Blanca National Reserve is a protected area located in the regions of Arequipa and Moquegua; Peru. The main purpose of this area is to protect the local flora, fauna and landscape formations.

San Guillermo National Park

San Guillermo National Park (Spanish: Parque Nacional San Guillermo) is a national park in Argentina, in the Iglesia Department of San Juan Province. It was established in 1998 and is part of the San Guillermo Biosphere Reserve. Elevations in the biosphere range from 2,100 metres (6,900 ft) to 6,380 metres (20,930 ft). Vegetation in the National Park and biosphere consists of barren desert, grasslands, and a few wetlands, all located in the high, arid Andes. The animals include vicuña, guanaco, culpeo fox, Andean mountain cat, cougar, and Andean condor.

Small Cat Conservation Alliance

The Small Cat Conservation Alliance (SCCA) was founded in 1996, to address the conservation needs of small wild cats and their habitat worldwide. Small Cat Conservation Alliance seeks out local scientists and volunteers that are working to protect small cats in remote regions worldwide. They collect data that can be used to seek endangered species classification. SCCA operates in Kalimantan (Borneo), Sumatra, Chile, and China; and works with partners in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Cambodia, India, Sarawak, Suriname and Vietnam. The Small Cat Conservation is also partnered with the Wildlife Conservation Network.As at March 2019, on its website (below) the organization calls itself the Small Wild Cat Conservation Foundation.

Southern viscacha

The southern viscacha (Lagidium viscacia) is a species of viscacha, a rodent in the family Chinchillidae found in Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, and Peru. It is a colonial animal living in small groups in rocky mountain areas. It has long ears and hind legs and resembles a rabbit in appearance apart from its long, bushy tail.

Titi Uta

Titi Uta (Aymara titi Andean mountain cat; lead, lead-coloured, uta house, "mountain cat house" or "lead house", also spelled Titiuta) is a mountain in the Andes of southern Peru, about 4,800 metres (15,748 ft) high. It is situated in the Puno Region, El Collao Province, Santa Rosa District.

Titini

Titini (Aymara titi Andean mountain cat; lead, -ni a suffix to indicate ownership, "the one with the Andean cat" or "the one with lead", also spelled Titine) is a mountain in the Andes of southern Peru, about 4,800 metres (15,748 ft) high. It is located in the Moquegua Region, Mariscal Nieto Province, Carumas District, and in the Tacna Region, Candarave Province, Candarave District. Titini is situated south of the mountains Warintapani, Arichuwa, Puma and Misa Qalani which all lie on the border of the two regions.

Titiri

Titiri (Aymara titi Andean mountain cat; lead, -(i)ri a suffix, also spelled Titire) is a 4,560-metre-high (14,961 ft) mountain in the Andes of southern Peru. It is situated in the Tacna Region, Tarata Province, on the border of the districts Tarata and Ticaco. Titiri lies near the village of Ch'allapallqa (Challapalca) southwest of the mountain Tuma Tumani. The Mawri River (Mauri) flows along its northern slopes.

Turco Municipality

Turco Municipality is the second municipal section of the Sajama Province in the Oruro Department in Bolivia, and was founded on February 15, 1957. Its seat is Turco, situated 154 km west of Oruro at an altitude of 3,860 m. The municipality covers an area of 3,973 km², not taking into account the area of Laca Laca Canton.It is bordered to the north by the Curahuara de Carangas Municipality and San Pedro de Totora Province, to the south by the Litoral and Sabaya Provinces, to the west by Chile and to the east by the Carangas Province (Qhurqhi (Corque) and Chuqi Quta (Choquecota) Municipalities).

Usqullu

Usqullu (Quechua for Andean mountain cat, hispanicized spelling Oscollo) is a mountain in the Andes of Peru, about 5,000 metres (16,404 ft) high. It is situated in the Arequipa Region, Castilla Province, Andagua District. Usqullu lies northwest of the peak of Wakapallqa (Huagapalca) and northeast of Puma Ranra and Usqullu Lake.

Extant Carnivora species

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