Andean civilizations

The Andean civilizations were a patchwork of different cultures and peoples that mainly developed in the coastal deserts of Peru, from the Andes of Colombia southward down the Andes to northern Argentina and Chile, and some parts of northern Chile. Archaeologists believe that Andean civilizations first developed on the narrow coastal plain of the Pacific Ocean. The Norte Chico civilization of Peru is the oldest civilization in the Americas, dating back to 3200 BCE.[1]

Despite severe environmental challenges, the Andean civilizations domesticated a wide variety of crops, some of which became of worldwide importance. The Andean civilizations were also noteworthy for monumental architecture, textile weaving, and many unique characteristics of the societies they created.

Less than a century prior to the arrival of the Spanish conquerors, the Incas, in Peru, united most of the Andean cultures into one single state which encompasses all of what is usually called Andean civilization. The Muisca of Colombia and the Timoto Cuica of Venezuela remained outside the Inca orbit. The Inca Empire was a patchwork of languages, cultures and peoples.

Spanish rule ended or transformed many elements of the Andean civilizations, notably influencing religion and architecture.

Uniqueness

Inca Quipu
A quipu

Andean civilization was one of five civilizations in the world deemed by scholars to be "pristine", that is indigenous and not derived from other civilizations.[2] Due to its isolation from other civilizations, the Indigenous people of the Andes had to come up with their own, often unique solutions to environmental and societal challenges.[3]

Andean civilization lacked several characteristics distinguishing it from the pristine civilizations in the Old World and from the Mesoamerican cultures. First, and perhaps most important, Andean civilizations did not have a written language. Instead, their societies used the quipu, a system of knotted and colored strings, to convey information. Few quipus survive and they have never been fully deciphered. Scholars differ on whether the knotted cords of the quipu were able only to record numerical data or could also be used for narrative communication, a true system of writing.[4] The use of the quipu dates back at least to the Wari Empire (600–1000 CE) and possibly to the much earlier Peruvian civilization of Norte Chico of the third millennium BCE.[5]

Andean civilizations also lacked wheeled vehicles and draft animals. People on land traveled only by foot and the transport of goods was only by humans or llama, pack animals which could carry loads of up to one-fourth of their weight, a maximum of 45 kilograms (99 lb).[6] Llamas were not big or strong enough to be used for plowing or as riding animals for adults.[3]

Moreover, Andean civilizations faced severe environmental challenges. The earliest civilizations were on the hyper-arid desert coast of Peru. Agriculture was possible only with irrigation in valleys crossed by rivers coming from the high Andes, plus in a few fog oases called lomas. In the Andes, agriculture was limited by thin soils, cold climate, low or seasonal precipitation, and a scarcity of flat land. Freezing temperatures may occur in every month of the year at altitudes of more than 3,000 metres (9,800 ft), the homeland of many of the highland Andean civilizations.[7]

Finally, the Andean civilizations lacked money. Copper axe-monies (also called "naipes")[8] and Spondylus shells[9] functioned as mediums of exchange in some areas, especially coastal Ecuador, but most of the Andes area had economies organized on reciprocity and redistribution rather than money and markets. These characteristics were especially notable during the Inca Empire but originated in much earlier times.[10]

Agriculture

Pisac006
Agricultural terraces (andenes, were widely built and used for agriculture in the Andes.

Agriculture in South America may have begun in coastal Ecuador with the domestication of squash about 8000 BCE by the Las Vegas culture.[11]

Some scholars believe that the earliest civilizations on the Peruvian coast initially relied more upon maritime resources than agriculture during the formative period of their societies.[12][13] However, as in all civilizations until the late 19th century, agriculture was the principal occupation of the great majority of the people. The greatest contribution of Andean civilization to the modern world has been the plants its people domesticated. Crops grown by the Andeans were often unique to the region. Maize, which found its way to the Andes from Mexico, was often the most important crop at lower and intermediate elevations. The Andeans cultivated an estimated 70 different plants, almost as many as were cultivated in all of Europe and Asia.[14] Many of these plants are no longer cultivated, or are minor crops, but important plants which were domesticated in or near the Andes include potatoes, quinoa, tomatoes, chile peppers, cotton, coca, tobacco, pineapples, peanuts, and several varieties of beans.[15] Animals domesticated in the Andes were llamas and guinea pigs.

The challenges of the environment required sophisticated agricultural technology.[16] Unlike the Middle East, the Andes lacked easily domesticated and large-seeded plants such as wheat and barley and large and easily domesticated animals such as horses and cattle.[17] Agriculture on the desert coast required the development of irrigation. In the mountains, the climate and steep terrain required a range of technological solutions such as terraces (Andenes), exploitation of microclimates, and selective breeding. Due to the climatic uncertainties, farmers traditionally farmed several crops at several elevations and exposures. At a macro level, societies and states did the same with the vertical archipelago, establishing colonies at different elevations and locations to increase the possibilities of agricultural success.[18] [19]

Archaeological cultures

Caral

PeruCaral01
The Caral pyramids in the arid Supe Valley, some 20 km from the Pacific coast.

The Norte Chico civilization (also called Caral)[20] was a complex pre-Columbian society that included as many as 30 major population centers in what is now the Norte Chico region of north-central coastal Peru. It is the oldest known civilization in the Americas and one of the Cradles of civilization where civilization separately originated in the ancient world. It flourished between the 30th century BCE and the 18th century BCE. The alternative name, Caral-Supe, is derived from the Sacred City of Caral[21] in the Supe Valley, a large and well-studied Norte Chico site. Complex society in Norte Chico arose a millennium after Sumer in Mesopotamia, was contemporaneous with the Egyptian pyramids, and predated the Mesoamerican Olmec by nearly two millennia.

Chavín

Chavinmuseolarco
Chavín Gold Crown Formative Epoch 1200-300 BCE (Larco Museum Collection, Lima).

The Chavín culture in Peru is thought to have been primarily a religious movement. The culture apparently began in the Andes highlands and then spread outward throughout the country. The Chavín culture has very distinctive art styles, particularly in effigy pots, a number of which were in feline shapes. Chavin de Huantar was an important ritual centre for Chavin Culture, dating to around 1,500 BCE.[22][23]

Nazca

Líneas de Nazca, Nazca, Perú, 2015-07-29, DD 55
The Condor, Nazca Lines, created by the Nazca culture.

The Nazca culture (also Nasca) was the archaeological culture that flourished from 100 to 800 CE beside the dry southern coast of Peru in the river valleys of the Rio Grande de Nazca drainage and the Ica Valley (Silverman and Proulx, 2002). Having been heavily influenced by the preceding Paracas culture, which was known for extremely complex textiles, the Nazca produced an array of beautiful crafts and technologies such as ceramics, textiles, and geoglyphs (most commonly known as the Nazca lines). They also built an impressive system of underground aqueducts, known as puquios, that still function today. The Nazca Province in the Ica Region was named for this people.

Moche

Condormuseolarco
The Moche culture is world-renowned for its pottery, in picture a Condor from about 300 CE.

The Moche civilization (alternately, the Mochica culture, Early Chimu, Pre-Chimu, Proto-Chimu, etc.) flourished in northern Peru from about 100 CE to 800 CE, during the Regional Development Epoch. While this issue is the subject of some debate, many scholars contend that the Moche were not politically organized as a monolithic empire or state. Rather, they were likely a group of autonomous polities that shared a common elite culture, as seen in the rich iconography and monumental architecture that survive today. They are particularly noted for their elaborately painted ceramics, gold work, monumental constructions (huacas) and irrigation systems.[24] Moche history may be broadly divided into three periods – the emergence of the Moche culture in Early Moche (CE 100–300), its expansion and florescence during Middle Moche (CE 300–600), and the urban nucleation and subsequent collapse in Late Moche (CE 500–750).[25]

Chachapoyas

Ruinas-soloco chachapoyas amazonas peru
Walls of Soloco fortress, Chachapoyas, Peru.

The Chachapoyas, or the 'Cloud people', were an Andean civilization living in a cloud forests of the Amazonas region of present-day northern Peru. The Incas conquered the Chachapoyas shortly before the arrival of the Spanish in Peru. The first firm evidence of their existence dates back to around 700 CE, although it is possible that they built a settlement called Gran Pajáten where some ceramics have been dated to 200 BCE. The largest Chacapoyan site discovered so far is Kuelap. A number of mummified burial sites have also been discovered.[26]

Wari

Piquillacta Archaeological site - street
Pikillaqta administrative center, built by the Wari civilization in Cusco.

The Wari (Spanish: Huari) were a Middle Horizon civilization that flourished in the south-central Andes and coastal area of Peru, from about CE 500 to 1000. (The Wari culture is not to be confused with the modern ethnic group and language known as Wari', with which it has no known link.) Wari, as the former capital city was called, is located 11 km (6.8 mi) north-east of the city of Ayacucho, Peru. This city was the center of a civilization that covered much of the highlands and coast of Peru. The best-preserved remnants, beside the Wari Ruins, are the recently discovered Northern Wari ruins near the city of Chiclayo, and Cerro Baul in Moquegua. Also well-known are the Wari ruins of Pikillaqta ("Flea Town"), a short distance south-east of Cuzco en route to Lake Titicaca.

Tiwanaku

Zonnepoort tiwanaku
The "Gate of the Sun" built by the Tiwanaku culture.

Tiwanaku (Spanish: Tiahuanaco and Tiahuanacu) is an important Pre-Columbian archaeological site in western Bolivia, South America. Tiwanaku is recognized by Andean scholars as one of the most important precursors to the Inca Empire, flourishing as the ritual and administrative capital of a major state power for approximately five hundred years. The ruins of the ancient city state are near the south-eastern shore of Lake Titicaca in the La Paz Department, Ingavi Province, Tiwanaku Municipality, about 72 km (45 mi) west of La Paz. The site was first recorded in written history by Spanish conquistador and self-acclaimed "first chronicler of the Indies" Pedro Cieza de León. Leon stumbled upon the remains of Tiwanaku in 1549 while searching for the Inca capital Qullasuyu.[27] Some have hypothesized that Tiwanaku's modern name is related to the Aymara term taypiqala, meaning "stone in the center", alluding to the belief that it lay at the center of the world.[28] However, the name by which Tiwanaku was known to its inhabitants may have been lost, as the people of Tiwanaku had no written language.[29][30]

Valdivia

MORTERO JAGUAR VALDIVIA 2
Mortar, Jaguar Valdivia, South Coast (4000 BCE to 1500 BCE).

The Valdivia Culture is one of the oldest settled cultures recorded in the Americas. It emerged from the earlier Las Vegas culture and thrived on the Santa Elena peninsula near the modern-day town of Valdivia, Ecuador between 3500 BCE and 1800 BCE.

Historical cultures

Chimú

Vasija chimú caballito de totora (M. América 10788) 01
Chimú vessel representing a fisherman on a caballitos de totora (1100–1400 CE).

The Chimú were the residents of Chimor, with its capital at the city of Chan Chan, a large adobe city in the Moche Valley of present-day Trujillo, Peru. The culture arose about 900 CE. The Inca ruler Tupac Inca Yupanqui led a campaign which conquered the Chimú around 1470 CE.[31]

This was just fifty years before the arrival of the Spanish in the region. Consequently, Spanish chroniclers were able to record accounts of Chimú culture from individuals who had lived before the Inca conquest. Similarly, archaeological evidence suggest Chimor grew out of the remnants of Moche culture; early Chimú pottery had some resemblance to that of the Moche. Their ceramics are all black, and their work in precious metals is very detailed and intricate.

Inca Empire

Over Machu Picchu
View of Machu Picchu built by the Incas.

The Inca Empire, or Incan Empire[32] (Quechua: Tawantinsuyu), was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America.[33] The administrative, political and military center of the empire was located in Cusco, Peru. The Inca civilization arose from the Peruvian highlands of sometime in the early 13th century, and the last Inca stronghold was conquered by the Spanish in 1572. From 1438 to 1533 CE, the Incas used a variety of methods, from conquest to peaceful assimilation, to incorporate a large portion of western South America, centered on the Andean mountain ranges, including Peru, southwest Ecuador, western and south central Bolivia, northwest Argentina, northern Chile, and a small part of southwest Colombia into a state comparable to the historical empires of the Old World.

Muisca

Muisca raft Legend of El Dorado Offerings of gold
La balsa Muisca (The Muisca raft), a pre-Columbian gold sculpture representing the Muisca's offerings of gold in the Guatavita Lake.

The Muisca was the Chibcha-speaking people that formed the Muisca Confederation in the central highlands of present-day Colombia. They were encountered by the troops of Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada, in name of the Spanish Empire at the time of the conquest in the spring of 1537. The Muisca comprised two confederations: Hunza (present-day Tunja) was located in the northern area, whose sovereign was the zaque; and Bacatá the southern area, whose sovereign was the zipa. Both confederations were located in the highlands of modern-day Cundinamarca and Boyacá (Altiplano Cundiboyacense) in the central area of Colombia's Eastern Ranges.

Timoto-Cuica

Campo de Mérida
Timoto-Cuica territory, in present-day Mérida, Venezuela.

Timoto–Cuica people was comprised primarily of two tribes, the Timotes and the Cuicas, that inhabited in the Andean region of western Venezuela.[34] They were closely related to the Muisca people of the Andes, who spoke a Chibcha language. The Timoto-Cuicas were not only composed of the Timoto and the Cuica tribes, but also the Mucuchíes, the Migures, the Tabares, and the Mucuñuques. Timoto-Cuica society was complex with pre-planned permanent villages, surrounded by irrigated, terraced fields. They also stored water in tanks.[34] Their houses were made primarily of stone and wood with thatched roofs. They were peaceful, for the most part, and depended on growing crops. Regional crops included potatoes and ullucos.[35] They left behind works of art, particularly anthropomorphic ceramics, but no major monuments. They spun vegetable fibers to weave into textiles and mats for housing. They are credited with having invented the arepa, a staple in Venezuelan and Colombian cuisine.

See also

References

  1. ^ Shady Solis, Ruth; Jonathan Haas; Winifred Creamer (27 April 2001). "Dating Caral, a Preceramic Site in the Supe Valley on the Central Coast of Peru". Science. 292 (5517): 723–726. doi:10.1126/science.1059519. PMID 11326098.
  2. ^ Upton, Gary and von Hagen, Adriana (2015), Encyclopedia of the Incas, New York: Rowand & Littlefield, p. 2. Some scholars cite 6 or 7 pristine civilizations.
  3. ^ a b McEwan 2006, p. 5.
  4. ^ McEwan, Gordon F. (2006). The Incas: New Perspectives. New York: W.W. Norton & Company. pp. 183–185. ISBN 978-0393333015.
  5. ^ Hirst, K. Kris. "Quipu – South America's Ancient Undeciphered Writing System". ThoughtCo. Retrieved August 23, 2017.
  6. ^ "Llamas as Pack Animals". Buckhorn Llama Co. Retrieved August 23, 2017.
  7. ^ Guillet, David and others (1987), "Terracing and Irrigation in the Peruvian Highlands," Current Anthropology, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp. 409–410. Downloaded from JSTOR.
  8. ^ Smith, M.E. (1993). "Axe-Monies and Their Relatives" by Dorothy Hosler; Heather Lechtman; Olaf Holm. (Review). Ethnohistory, 40(1), pp. 148–149
  9. ^ Carter, Benjamin. "Spondylus in South American Prehistory" in Spondylus in Prehistory: New Data and Approaches. Ed. Fotis Ifantidis and Marianna Nikolaidou. BAR International Series 2216. Oxford: Archaeopress, 2011: 63–89.
  10. ^ Fagan, Brian M. (1996), The Oxford Guide to Archaeology, Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 343
  11. ^ "Domestication History of the Squash Plant", https://www.thoughtco.com/domestication-history-of-the-squash-plant-172698, accessed 19 Jun 2018
  12. ^ Moseley, Michael. "The Maritime Foundations of Andean Civilization: An Evolving Hypothesis". The Hall of Ma'at. Retrieved 2008-06-13.
  13. ^ Moseley, Michael (1975). The Maritime Foundations of Andean Civilization. Menlo Park: Cummings. ISBN 0846548003.
  14. ^ Stevens, William K., "Rediscovering the Lost Crops of the Inca," The New York Times, October 31, 1989
  15. ^ Piperno, Dolores r. (2011), "The Origins of Plant Cultivation and Domestication in the New World Tropics: Patterns, Process, and new Developments," Current Anthropology, Vol. 52, No. 54, pp. S457–S459 Downloaded from JSTOR.
  16. ^ D'Altroy, Terence N. (2003). The Incas. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. pp. 28–32. ISBN 978-0631176770.
  17. ^ Diamond, Jared (1999), Guns. Germs, and Steel: The Fate of Human Societies, New York: W.W. Norton & Co., pp. 83–113
  18. ^ D'Altroy 2002, pp. 27–35.
  19. ^ McEwan 2006, pp. 23–27, 83–85.
  20. ^ The name is disputed. English-language sources use Norte Chico (Spanish: "Little North") per Haas et al. (2004). Caral or Caral-Supe are more likely to be found in Spanish language sources per Shady. This article follows usage in recent English-language sources and employs Norte Chico, but the title is not definitive. Peruvian Norte Chico should not be confused with the Chilean region of the same name.
  21. ^ "Sacred City of Caral-Supe". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 15 June 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-09.
  22. ^ "Chavín de Huántar, Peru – A Pre-Columbian World Heritage Treasure". Global Heritage Fund. Archived from the original on 7 October 2011. Retrieved 12 October 2011.
  23. ^ "Chavin Culture". About.com archeology. Retrieved 12 October 2011.
  24. ^ Beck, Roger B.; Black, Linda; Krieger, Larry S.; Naylor, Phillip C.; Ibo Shabaka, Dahia (1999). World History: Patterns of Interaction. Evanston, IL: McDougal Littell. ISBN 039587274X.
  25. ^ Bawden, G. 2004. "The Art of Moche Politics", in Andean Archaeology. (ed. H. Silverman). Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.
  26. ^ "The Chachapoyas Culture of Peru". Wordpress. Retrieved 24 October 2011.
  27. ^ Kolata, Alan L. (1993). The Tiwanaku: Portrait of an Andean Civilization. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1557861832.
  28. ^ Kelley, David H.; Milone, Eugene F. (2004). Exploring Ancient Skies: An Encyclopedic Survey of Archaeoastronomy. Springer. ISBN 978-0387953106.
  29. ^ Hughes, Holly (2008). Frommers 500 Places to See Before They Disappear. Frommers. p. 266. ISBN 978-0470189863. Retrieved 9 August 2009.
  30. ^ "Profile: Fabricio R. Santos – The Genographic project". Genographic Project. National Geographic. Archived from the original on 2011-07-05. Retrieved 2009-08-09.
  31. ^ Kubler, George. (1962). The Art and Architecture of Ancient America, Ringwoods: Penguin Books London Ltd., pp. 247–274
  32. ^ Also Inka Empire; see Quechuan and Aymaran spelling shift for more information regarding this spelling difference
  33. ^ Terence D'Altroy, The Incas, pp. 2–3.
  34. ^ a b Mahoney 89
  35. ^ "Venezuela." Archived 2011-09-04 at the Wayback Machine. Friends of the Pre-Columbian Art Museum. (retrieved 9 July 2011)

Further reading

  • Besom, Thomas. Of Summits and Sacrifice: An Ethnohistoric Study of Inka Religious Practices (University of Texas Press; 2010) 230 pages; combines archaeological and textual data in study of practices of human sacrifice and mountain worship. Burger, Richard L. Machu Picchu; Unveling the Mystery of the Inca. Yale University Press, 2004.
  • Cobo, F.B. Inca Religion and Customs. 1609
  • Conrad, Geoffery. Religion and Empire; The Dynamics of Aztec and Inca Expansionism. Cambridge University Press, 1984.
  • Curl, John. Ancient American Poets: The Sacred Hymns of Pachacutec. Tempe AZ: Bilingual Press, 2005. ISBN 1931010218 http://red-coral.net/Pach.html
  • Dobyns, Henry F. and Paul L. Peru: A Cultural History. New York: Oxford University Press, 1976.
  • Eeckhout, Peter. Ancient Peru's Power Elite. National Geographic Research and Exploration. March 2005. pp. 52–56.
  • Frost, Peter. Lost Outpost of the Inca. National Geographic. February 2004. pp. 66–69.
  • Hyslop, John. Inka settlement planning. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1990. ISBN 0292738528
  • MacQuarrie, Kim. The Last Days of the Incas. Simon & Schuster, 2007. ISBN 978-0743260497.
  • Malpass, Michael A. Daily life in the Inca Empire. Greenwood Publishing Corp., 1996
  • Malpass, Michael A. and Sonia Alconini, eds. Distant Provinces in the Inka Empire: Toward a Deeper Understanding of Inka Imperialism (University of Iowa Press; 2010) 355 pages; Research on Inca conquest in the central and northern coasts of Peru, in Ecuador, and in other regions far from Cuzco.
  • Mancall, Peter C. (ed.). Travel Narratives from the Age of Discovery. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.
  • Mann, Charles. C (2005). 1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus. Knopf.
  • Prescott, William H. Conquest of Peru. The Book League of America. New York: 1976.
  • Prescott, William H. History of the Conquest of Mexico & History of the Conquest of Peru. New York: Cooper Square Press, 2000.
  • Reinhard, Johan The Ice Maiden: Inca Mummies, Mountain Gods, and Sacred Sites in the Andes. Washington, DC: National Geographic Society, 2005.
  • Rostworowski de Diez Canseco, Maria. History of the Inca Realm. Cambridge University Press, 1999.
  • Sullivan, L.E. Native Religions and Cultures of Central and South America: Anthropology of the Sacred. Continuum International Publishing Group, 2002
  • Steele, P.R. Handbook of Inca mythology. Santa Barbara ABC-CLIO, 2004

External links

Cara culture

The Cara culture flourished in coastal Ecuador, in what is now Manabí Province, in the first millennium CE.

Chachapoya culture

The Chachapoyas, also called the "Warriors of the Clouds", was a culture of Andes living in the cloud forests of the Amazonas Region of present-day Peru. The Inca Empire conquered their civilization shortly before the Spanish conquest in the 16th century. At the time of the arrival of the conquistadors, the Chachapoyas were one of the many nations ruled by the Incas, although their incorporation had been difficult due to their constant resistance to Inca troops.

Since the Incas and conquistadors were the principal sources of information on the Chachapoyas, there is little first-hand or contrasting knowledge of the Chachapoyas. Writings by the major chroniclers of the time, such as Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, were based on fragmentary second-hand accounts. Much of what we do know about the Chachapoyas culture is based on archaeological evidence from ruins, pottery, tombs and other artifacts. Spanish chronicler Pedro Cieza de León noted that, after their annexation to the Inca Empire, they adopted customs imposed by the Cusco-based Inca. By the 18th century, the Chachapoyas had been devastated; however, they remain a distinct strain within the indigenous peoples of modern Peru.

Chancay culture

The Chancay were a pre-Columbian archeological civilization which developed between the valleys of Fortaleza, Pativilca, Supe, Huaura, Chancay, Chillón, Rimac and Lurin, on the central coast of Peru, from about CE 1000 to 1470.

Chimor

Chimor (also Kingdom of Chimor or Chimú Empire) was the political grouping of the Chimú culture that ruled the northern coast of Peru beginning around 850 and ending around 1470. Chimor was the largest kingdom in the Late Intermediate period, encompassing 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) of coastline. The greatest surviving ruin of this civilization is the city of Chan Chan located 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) northwest of the modern Trujillo, Peru.

The Chimú grew out of the remnants of the Moche culture. The first valleys seem to have joined forces willingly, but the Sican culture was acquired through conquest. They also were significantly influenced by the pre-Incan Cajamarca and Wari cultures. According to legend, its capital of Chan Chan was founded by Taycanamo, who arrived in the area by sea.

Chimor was the last kingdom that had any chance of stopping the Inca Empire. But the Inca conquest began in the 1470s by Topa Inca Yupanqui, defeating the emperor and descendant of Tacaynamo, Minchancaman, and was nearly complete when Huayna Capac assumed the throne in 1493.

Chimú ceramics are usually stained black. It is also known for its exquisite and intricate metalworking, one of the most advanced of the pre-Columbian era.

Chiripa

The Chiripa culture existed between the Initial Period/Early Horizon, from 1400 to 850 BC along the southern shore of Lake Titicaca in Bolivia. The word chiripa in Spanish means "lucky break".

Chitarero

The Chitarero were an indigenous Chibcha-speaking people in the Andes of north-eastern Colombia and north-western Venezuela. They were responsible for the death of the German conquistador Ambrosius Ehinger in 1533 by means of poisoned arrows.

At the time of the Spanish conquest of the Chibchan Nations, their territory ranged from present-day Táchira (Venezuela) to the northwest and south of Norte de Santander Department and the northeast of Santander Department (Colombia). The Chicamocha River formed a southern boundary, the Valegra a southwestern, and the Surata a southeastern. One of their settlements became the Colombian town of Chinácota; they were primarily known in the area of Pamplona, Colombia. At the refoundation of Pamplona in 1549 there were said to be 200,000 in the area.They were called "Chitareros" by the Spanish, because of the general custom that the men had to carry hanging from the waist a calabazo or totumo (calabash gourds) with maize wine or chicha as the Spanish called it. Asking what the thing they carried was called, the natives responded that it was a chitarero.

They traded with other peoples in the region, including the Muisca, the Guane and Lache.

Guane people

The Guane were a South American people that lived mainly in the area of Santander and north of Boyacá, both departments of present-day central-Colombia. They were farmers cultivating cotton, pineapple and other crops, and skilled artisans working in cotton textiles. The Guane lived north of the Chicamocha River, around the Chicamocha Canyon in an area stretching from Vélez in the south to the capital of Santander; Bucaramanga in the north. Other sources state their territory did not extend so far north. Guane, a corregimiento of Barichara, Santander, is said to have been the capital of the Guane people.

Inca cuisine

Inca cuisine originated in pre-Columbian times within the Inca civilization from the 13th to the 16th century. The Inca civilization stretched across many regions, and so there was a great diversity of plants and animals used for food, many of which remain unknown outside Peru. The most important staples were various tubers, roots, and grains. Maize was of high prestige, but could not be grown as extensively as it was further north. The most common sources of meat were guinea pigs and llamas, and dried fish was common.

Ixiamas

Ixiamas is a town and municipality in the La Paz Department, Bolivia. It is on the level pampa 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) northeast of the Cordillera Central foothills.It is served by Ixiamas Airport.

Kallawaya

The Kallawaya are an itinerant group of traditional healers living in the Andes of Bolivia. They live in the Bautista Saavedra region, a mountainous area north of La Paz. They are members of the Mollo culture and are direct descendants of Tiwanaku culture. According to the UNESCO Safeguarding Project, the Kallawaya can be traced to the pre-Inca period. The Kallawaya performed brain surgery as early as 700 CE and knew how to effectively prevent and treat malaria with quinine before the Europeans. They also helped to save thousands of lives during the construction of the Panama Canal.

Lache people

The Lache were an indigenous, agrarian people in the highlands of what is now central Colombia's northern Boyacá and Santander departments, primarily in Gutiérrez Province and García Rovira Province. They were part of the Cocuy Confederation and spoke Chibcha, trading predominantly with other Chibcha speakers, such as the Muisca, Guane, Pijao and Chitarero. Trade included salt and textiles, as well as food stuffs. The Lache farmed maize, potatoes, quinoa and cotton, among other crops.In the 17th century, Lucas Fernández de Piedrahita wrote of the habit of the Laches in bringing up younger male children as culturally female.The name Lache is preserved in a barrio of Bogotá known as Los Laches.

Mollo culture

The Mollo culture existed in Bolivia's altiplano area after the collapse of the Tiwanaku culture during the period of AD 1000 to 1500; it predated the Inca civilization. While the Mollo showed a continuity with Late Tiwanaku culture in both domestic and village architecture, they left no pyramids. Mollo worshiped the jaguar.

Panche people

The Panche or Tolima were a Cariban-speaking indigenous group of people in modern-day Colombia. They inhabited the southwestern parts of the department of Cundinamarca and the northeastern areas of the department of Tolima, close to the Magdalena River. At the time of the Spanish conquest, more than 30,000 Panche were living in what would become the New Kingdom of Granada. Early knowledge about the Panche has been compiled by scholar Pedro Simón. According to the latter, the word panche in their own Panche language means "cruel" and "murderer".

Periodization of pre-Columbian Peru

This is a chart of cultural periods of Peru and the Andean Region developed by Edward Lanning and used by some archaeologists studying the area. An alternative dating system was developed by Luis Lumbreras and provides different dates for some archaeological finds.

Most of the cultures of the Late Horizon and some of the cultures of the Late Intermediate joined the Inca Empire by 1493, but the period ends in 1532 because that marks the fall of the Inca empire after the Spanish conquest. Most of the cut-off years mark either an end of a severe drought or the beginning of one. These marked a shift of the most productive farming to or from the mountains, and tended to mark the end of one culture and the rise of another.

The more recent findings concerning the Norte Chico civilization are not included on this list, as it was compiled before the site at Caral was investigated in detail.

Sutagao people

The Sutagao are the Chibcha-speaking indigenous people from the region of Fusagasugá, Bogotá savanna, Cundinamarca, Colombia. Knowledge about the Sutagao has been provided by scholar Lucas Fernández de Piedrahita.

Viracochapampa

Viracochapampa or Wiracochapampa (possibly from Quechua wiraqucha: mister, sir, gentleman, god; or Wiracocha: one of the greatest Andean divinities; and pampa: plain) is an archaeological site with the remains of a building complex of ancient Peru of pre-Inca times. It was one of the administrative centers of the Wari culture. Viracochapampa is located about 3.5 km north of Huamachuco in the region of La Libertad at an elevation of 3,070 metres (10,072 ft).

Wankarani culture

The Wankarani culture was a formative stage culture that existed from approximately 1500 BC to 400 AD on the altiplano highlands of Bolivia's Oruro Department to the north and northeast of Lake Poopo. It is the earliest known sedentary culture in Bolivia, as after circa 1200 BC camelid hunters of the altiplano became camelid herders and sedentary lifestyle developed. The Wankarani culture was little researched before 1970, when Carlos Ponce Sanginés defined all the mound sites in the area as belonging to one culture that predated Tiwanaku and was contemporary with the Chiripa culture.

Wari Empire

The Wari Empire was a political formation that emerged around AD 600 in the central highlands of Peru and lasted for about 500 years, to 1100 AD. It operated about the same time as the Tiwanaku culture and at one time was thought to have been derived from it. In 2008 archeologists found a prehistoric city, the Northern Wari ruins, also called Cerro Pátapo, near modern Chiclayo. The find was the first to show an extensive settlement related to the Wari culture that far north and demonstrate that they had a long span of influence.

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