Ancona

Ancona (Italian pronunciation: [aŋˈkoːna] (listen); Greek: Ἀγκών – Ankon) is a city and a seaport in the Marche region in central Italy, with a population of around 101,997 as of 2015. Ancona is the capital of the province of Ancona and of the region. The city is located 280 km (170 mi) northeast of Rome, on the Adriatic Sea, between the slopes of the two extremities of the promontory of Monte Conero, Monte Astagno and Monte Guasco.

Ancona is one of the main ports on the Adriatic Sea, especially for passenger traffic, and is the main economic and demographic centre of the region.

Ancona
Città di Ancona
Aerial view of Ancona
Aerial view of Ancona
Coat of arms of Ancona

Coat of arms
Location of Ancona
Ancona is located in Italy
Ancona
Ancona
Location of Ancona in Marche
Ancona is located in Marche
Ancona
Ancona
Ancona (Marche)
Coordinates: 43°37′01″N 13°31′00″E / 43.61694°N 13.51667°ECoordinates: 43°37′01″N 13°31′00″E / 43.61694°N 13.51667°E
CountryItaly
RegionMarche
ProvinceAncona (AN)
FrazioniAspio, Gallignano, Montacuto, Massignano, Montesicuro, Candia, Ghettarello, Paterno, Casine di Paterno, Poggio di Ancona, Sappanico, Varano
Government
 • MayorValeria Mancinelli (PD)
Area
 • Total124.84 km2 (48.20 sq mi)
Elevation
16 m (52 ft)
Population
 (2018-01-01)[2]
 • Total100,924
 • Density810/km2 (2,100/sq mi)
DemonymsAnconetani, Anconitani
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
60100, 60121–60129, 60131
Dialing code071
Patron saintJudas Cyriacus
Saint day4 May
WebsiteOfficial website

History

Repubblica di Ancona nel XV secolo - confini e castelli
Borders and castles of the Republic of Ancona in the 15th century.
Lazzaretto-Ancona
The Vanvitelli's Lazzaretto.
San Francesco church-Ancona
The portal of the church of San Francesco.

Greek colony

Ancona was founded by Greek settlers from Syracuse in about 387 BC, who gave it its name: Ancona stems from the Greek word Ἀγκών (Ankòn), meaning "elbow"; the harbour to the east of the town was originally protected only by the promontory on the north, shaped like an elbow. Greek merchants established a Tyrian purple dye factory here.[3] In Roman times it kept its own coinage with the punning device of the bent arm holding a palm branch, and the head of Aphrodite on the reverse, and continued the use of the Greek language.[4]

Roman Municipum

When it became a Roman town is uncertain. It was occupied as a naval station in the Illyrian War of 178 BC.[5] Julius Caesar took possession of it immediately after crossing the Rubicon. Its harbour was of considerable importance in imperial times, as the nearest to Dalmatia, and was enlarged by Trajan, who constructed the north quay with his Syrian architect Apollodorus of Damascus. At the beginning of it stands the marble triumphal arch with a single archway, and without bas-reliefs, erected in his honour in 115 by the Senate and Roman people.[4]

Byzantine city

Ancona was successively attacked by the Goths, Lombards and Saracens between the 3rd and 5th centuries, but recovered its strength and importance. It was one of the cities of the Pentapolis of the Exarchate of Ravenna, a lordship of the Byzantine Empire, in the 7th and 8th centuries.[4][6] In 840, Saracen raiders sacked and burned the city.[7] After Charlemagne's conquest of northern Italy, it became the capital of the Marca di Ancona, whence the name of the modern region.

Maritime Republic of Ancona

After 1000, Ancona became increasingly independent, eventually turning into an important maritime republic (together with Gaeta and Ragusa, it is one of those not appearing on the Italian naval flag), often clashing against the nearby power of Venice. An oligarchic republic, Ancona was ruled by six Elders, elected by the three terzieri into which the city was divided: S. Pietro, Porto and Capodimonte. It had a coin of its own, the agontano, and a series of laws known as Statuti del mare e del Terzenale and Statuti della Dogana. Ancona was usually allied with the Republic of Ragusa and the Byzantine Empire.

In 1137, 1167 and 1174 it was strong enough to push back the forces of the Holy Roman Empire. Anconitan ships took part in the Crusades, and their navigators included Cyriac of Ancona. In the struggle between the Popes and the Holy Roman Emperors that troubled Italy from the 12th century onwards, Ancona sided with the Guelphs.

Repubbliche marinare - fondachi anconitani
Trade routes and warehouses of the maritime republic of Ancona

Differently from other cities of northern Italy, Ancona never became a seignory. The sole exception was the rule of the Malatesta, who took the city in 1348 taking advantage of the black death and of a fire that had destroyed many of its important buildings. The Malatesta were ousted in 1383. In 1532 it definitively lost its freedom and became part of the Papal States, under Pope Clement VII. Symbol of the papal authority was the massive Citadel.

In the Papal States

Together with Rome, and Avignon in southern France, Ancona was the sole city in the Papal States in which the Jews were allowed to stay after 1569, living in the ghetto built after 1555.

In 1733 Pope Clement XII extended the quay, and an inferior imitation of Trajan's arch was set up; he also erected a Lazaretto at the south end of the harbour, Luigi Vanvitelli being the architect-in-chief. The southern quay was built in 1880, and the harbour was protected by forts on the heights. From 1797 onwards, when the French took it, it frequently appears in history as an important fortress.

The Greek community of Ancona in the 16th century

Ancona, as well as Venice, became a very important destination for merchants from the Ottoman Empire during the 16th century. The Greeks formed the largest of the communities of foreign merchants. They were refugees from former Byzantine or Venetian territories that were occupied by the Ottomans in the late 15th and 16th centuries. The first Greek community was established in Ancona early in the 16th century. Natalucci, the 17th-century historian of the city, notes the existence of 200 Greek families in Ancona at the opening of the 16th century. Most of them came from northwestern Greece, i.e. the Ionian islands and Epirus. In 1514, Dimitri Caloiri of Ioannina obtained reduced custom duties for Greek merchants coming from the towns of Ioannina, Arta and Avlona in Epirus. In 1518 a Jewish merchant of Avlona succeeded in lowering the duties paid in Ancona for all “the Levantine merchants, subjects to the Turk”.

In 1531 the Confraternity of the Greeks (Confraternita dei Greci) was established which included Orthodox Catholic and Roman Catholic Greeks. They secured the use of the Church of St. Anna dei Greci and were granted permission to hold services according to the Greek and the Latin rite. The church of St. Anna had existed since the 13th century, initially as "Santa Maria in Porta Cipriana," on ruins of the ancient Greek walls of Ancona.

In 1534 a decision by Pope Paul III favoured the activity of merchants of all nationalities and religions from the Levant and allowed them to settle in Ancona with their families. A Venetian travelling through Ancona in 1535 recorded that the city was "full of merchants from every nation and mostly Greeks and Turks." In the second half of the 16th century, the presence of Greek and other merchants from the Ottoman Empire declined after a series of restrictive measures taken by the Italian authorities and the pope.

Disputes between the Orthodox Catholic and Roman Catholic Greeks of the community were frequent and persisted until 1797 when the city was occupied by France who closed all the religious confraternities and confiscated the archive of the Greek community. The French would return to the area to reoccupy it in 1805-1806. The church of St. Anna dei Greci was re-opened to services in 1822. In 1835, in the absence of a Greek community in Ancona, it passed to the Latin Church.[8][9]

Contemporary history

Ancona entered the Kingdom of Italy when Christophe Léon Louis Juchault de Lamoricière surrendered here on 29 September 1860, eleven days after his defeat at Castelfidardo.[4]

On 23 May 1915, Italy entered World War I and joined the Entente Powers. In 1915, following Italy's entry, the battleship division of the Austro-Hungarian Navy carried out extensive bombardments causing great damage to all installations and killing several dozen people.[10] Ancona was one of the most important Italian ports on the Adriatic Sea during the Great War.

During World War II, the city was taken by the Polish 2nd Corps against Nazi German forces, as Free Polish forces were serving as part of the British Army. Poles were tasked with capture of the city on 16 June 1944 and accomplished the task a month later on 18 July 1944 in what is known as the battle of Ancona. The attack was part of an Allied operation to gain access to a seaport closer to the Gothic Line in order to shorten their lines of communication for the advance into northern Italy.[11]

Jewish history

Jews began to live in Ancona in 967 A.D.[12] In 1270, a Jewish resident of Ancona, Jacob of Ancona, travelled to China, four years before Marco Polo and documented his impressions in a book called "The City of Lights". From 1300 and on, the Jewish community of Ancona grew steadily, most due to the city importance and it being a center of trade with the Levant. In that year, Jewish poet Immanuel the Roman tried to lower high taxation taken from the Jewish community of the city. Over the next 200 years, Jews from Germany, Spain, Sicily and Portugal immigrated to Ancona, due to persecutions in their homeland and thanks to the pro-Jewish attitude taken towards Ancona Jews due to their importance in the trade and banking business, making Ancona a trade center. In 1550, the Jewish population of Ancona numbered about 2700 individuals.[13]

In 1555, pope Paul IV forced the Crypto-Jewish community of the city to convert to Christianity, as part of his Papal Bull of 1555. While some did, others refused to do so and thus were hanged and then burnt in the town square.[13] In response, Jewish merchants boycotted Ancona for a short while. The boycott was led by Dona Gracia Mendes Nasi.

Though emancipated by Napoleon I for several years, in 1843 Pope Gregory XVI revived an old decree, forbidding Jews from living outside the ghetto, wearing identification sign on their clothes and other religious and financial restrictions, though public opinion did not approve of these restrictions and they were cancelled a short while after.[14]

The Jews of Ancona received full emancipation in 1848 with the election of Pope Pius IX. In 1938, 1177 lived in Ancona.[14] 53 Jews were sent away to Germany, 15 of them survived and returned to the town after World War II. The majority of the Jewish community stayed in town or immigrated due to high ransoms paid to the fascist regime. In 2004, about 200 Jews lived in Ancona.

Two synagogues and two cemeteries still exist in the city. The ancient Monte-Cardeto cemetery is one of the biggest Jewish cemeteries in Europe and tombstones are dated to 1552 and on. It can still be visited and it resides within the Parco del Cardeto.

Geography

Climate

The climate of Ancona is humid subtropical (Cfa in the Köppen climate classification) and the city lies on the border between mediterranean and more continental regions. Precipitations are regular throughout the year. Winters are cool (January mean temp. 5 °C or 41 °F), with frequent rain and fog. Temperatures can reach −10 °C (14 °F) or even lower values outside the city centre during the most intense cold waves. Snow is not unusual with air masses coming from Northern Europe or from the Balkans and Russia, and can be heavy at times (also due to the "Adriatic sea effect"), especially in the hills surrounding the city centre. Summers are usually warm and humid (July mean temp. 22.5 °C or 72.5 °F). Highs sometimes reach values around 35 and 40 °C (95 and 104 °F), especially if the wind is blowing from the south or from the west (föhn effect off the Appennine mountains). Thunderstorms are quite common, particularly in August and September, when can be intense with occasional flash floods. Spring and autumn are both seasons with changeable weather, but generally mild. Extremes in temperature have been −15.4 °C (4.3 °F) (in 1967) and 40.8 °C (105.4 °F) (in 1968) / 40.5 °C (104.9 °F) (in 1983).

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1174 11,000—    
1565 18,435+67.6%
1582 27,770+50.6%
1656 17,033−38.7%
1701 16,212−4.8%
1708 16,194−0.1%
1769 23,028+42.2%
1809 31,231+35.6%
1816 32,636+4.5%
1828 36,816+12.8%
1844 43,217+17.4%
1846 43,953+1.7%
1853 44,833+2.0%
1861 47,230+5.3%
1871 45,681−3.3%
1881 48,888+7.0%
1901 58,602+19.9%
1911 65,388+11.6%
1921 68,521+4.8%
1931 75,372+10.0%
1936 78,639+4.3%
1951 85,763+9.1%
1961 100,485+17.2%
1971 109,789+9.3%
1981 106,432−3.1%
1991 101,285−4.8%
2001 100,507−0.8%
2010 102,997+2.5%
Source: P. Burattini. Stradario – Guida della città di Ancona (Ancona, 1951) and ISTAT

In 2007, there were 101,480 people residing in Ancona (the greater area has a population more than four times its size), located in the province of Ancona, Marches, of whom 47.6% were male and 52.4% were female. Minors (children ages 18 and younger) totalled 15.54 percent of the population compared to pensioners who number 24.06 percent. This compares with the Italian average of 18.06 percent (minors) and 19.94 percent (pensioners). The average age of Ancona resident is 48 compared to the Italian average of 42. In the five years between 2002 and 2007, the population of Ancona grew by 1.48 percent, while Italy as a whole grew by 3.56 percent.[16][17] The current birth rate of Ancona is 8.14 births per 1,000 inhabitants compared to the Italian average of 9.45 births.

As of 2006, 92.77% of the population was Italian. The largest immigrant group came from other European nations (particularly those from Albania, Romania and Ukraine): 3.14%, followed by the Americas: 0.93%, East Asia: 0.83%, and North Africa: 0.80%.

Main sights

Ancona Cathedral

Ancona Cathedral, dedicated to Judas Cyriacus, was consecrated at the beginning of the 11th century and completed in 1189.[18] Some writers suppose that the original church was in the form of a basilica and belonged to the 7th century. An early restoration was completed in 1234. It is a fine Romanesque building in grey stone, built in the form of a Greek cross, and other elements of Byzantine art. It has a dodecagonal dome over the centre slightly altered by Margaritone d'Arezzo in 1270. The façade has a Gothic portal, ascribed to Giorgio da Como (1228), which was intended to have a lateral arch on each side.

Cannon in Ancona
A cannon situated near the Arch of Trajan, with the Cattedrale San Ciriaco visible in the background.
Ancona, Sa
Gothic/Renaissance portal of the church of Sant'Agostino.

The interior, which has a crypt under each transept, in the main preserves its original character. It has ten columns which are attributed to the temple of Venus.[4] The church was restored in the 1980s.

Other sights

  • Arch of Trajan: this is a marble 18 metres (59 feet) high, erected in 114/115 as an entrance to the causeway atop the harbour wall in honour of the emperor who had made the harbour, is one of the finest Roman monuments in the Marches. Most of its original bronze enrichments have disappeared. It stands on a high podium approached by a wide flight of steps. The archway, only 3 metres (9.8 feet) wide, is flanked by pairs of fluted Corinthian columns on pedestals. An attic bears inscriptions. The format is that of the Arch of Titus in Rome, but made taller, so that the bronze figures surmounting it, of Trajan, his wife Plotina and sister Marciana, would figure as a landmark for ships approaching Rome's greatest Adriatic port.
  • Lazzaretto: The complex is a (Laemocomium or "Mole Vanvitelliana"), planned by architect Luigi Vanvitelli in 1732 is a pentagonal building covering more than 20,000 square metres (220,000 square feet), built to protect the military defensive authorities from the risk of contagious diseases eventually reaching the town with the ships. Later it was used also as a military hospital or as barracks; it is currently used for cultural exhibits.
  • The Episcopal Palace was the place where Pope Pius II died in 1464.
  • Santa Maria della Piazza: church with an elaborate arcaded façade (1210).[4]
  • Palazzo del Comune (or Palazzo degli Anziani – Elders palace): The palace was built in 1250, with lofty arched substructures at the back, was the work of Margaritone d'Arezzo, and has been restored twice.[4]
  • San Francesco alle Scale: Franciscan church
  • Sant'Agostino: Augustinian church in 1341 as Santa Maria del Popolo, and enlarged by Luigi Vanvitelli in the 18th century and turned into a palace after 1860. It has a portal by Giorgio da Sebenico combining Gothic and Renaissance elements, with statues portraying St. Monica, St. Nicola da Tolentino, St. Simplicianus and Blessed Agostino Trionfi.
  • Santi Pellegrino e Teresa: 18th century church
  • Santissimo Sacramento: 16th and 18th century church

There are also several fine late Gothic buildings, including the Palazzo Benincasa, the Palazzo del Senato and the Loggia dei Mercanti, all by Giorgio da Sebenico, and the prefecture, which has Renaissance additions.[4]

The National Archaeological Museum (Museo Archeologico Nazionale) is housed in the Palazzo Ferretti, built in the late Renaissance by Pellegrino Tibaldi; it preserves frescoes by Federico Zuccari. The Museum is divided into several sections:

  • prehistoric section, with palaeolithic and neolithic artefacts, objects of the Copper Age and of the Bronze Age
  • protohistoric section, with the richest existing collection of the Picenian civilization; the section includes a remarkable collection of Greek ceramics
  • Greek-Hellenistic section, with coins, inscriptions, glassware and other objects from the necropolis of Ancona
  • Roman section, with a statue of Augustus, Pontifex Maximus, carved sarcophagi and two Roman beds with fine decorations in ivory[4]
  • rich collection of ancient coins (not yet exposed)
Porto ancona
The port of Ancona

The Municipal Art Gallery (Pinacoteca Civica Francesco Podesti) is housed in the Palazzo Bosdari, reconstructed between 1558 and 1561 by Pellegrino Tibaldi. Works in the gallery include:

Other artists present include Ciro Ferri and Arcangelo di Cola (flourished 1416–1429). Modern artists featured are Bartolini, Bucci, Campigli, Bruno Cassinari, Cucchi, Levi, Sassu, Orfeo Tamburi, Trubbiani, Francesco Podesti and others.

Angelo Messi, ancestor of famous football star Lionel Messi, emigrated from Ancona to Rosario, Argentina in the 1880s.

Ancona is also the city of the birth of Italian opera singer, Franco Corelli.

Transportation

Shipping

The Port has regular ferry links to the following cities with the following operators:

Airport

Ancona is served by Ancona Airport (IATA: AOI, ICAO: LIPY), in Falconara Marittima and named after Raffaello Sanzio.

European Coastal Airlines, a seaplane operator, established trans-Adriatic flights between Croatia and Italy in November 2015 and offers four weekly flights from Ancona Falconara Airport and Split (59 minutes) and Rijeka Airport (49 minutes).

Railways

The Ancona railway station is the main railway station of the city and is served by regional and long-distance trains. The other stations are Ancona Marittima, Ancona Torrette, Ancona Stadio, Palombina and Varano.

Roads

The A14 motorway serves the city with the exits "Ancona Nord" (An. North) and "Ancona Sud" (An. South).

Urban public transportation

The Ancona trolleybus system has been in operation since 1949. Ancona is also served by an urban bus network.

International relations

Twin towns – Sister cities

Ancona is twinned with:

Gallery

Crkva Chiesa del Santissimo Sacramento u Anconi
Rimokatolička crkva Chiesa di San Domenico (Ancona) 2017
Chiesa di Santa Maria della Piazza
Pogled iz ankonskoga muzeja
Muzej u Anconi
Ankonska katedrala
U Anconi spomenik
Ancona u rujnu 2017
Upravna zgrada u Anconi
U Anconi u Italiji
Zgrada u Anconi
Na ulazu u Anconu
U talijanskome gradu Anconi 13. rujna 2017
Ancona 2017
Passetto nuvolo

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.comune.ancona.it/binaries/migrazione/ankonline/risorse/Atti_documenti/ambiti/Atti/statuto-comunale-aggionato-in-vigore-dal-18-luglio.pdf; retrieved: 28 July 2011.
  2. ^ "Popolazione Residente al 1° Gennaio 2018". Istat. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  3. ^ Silius Italicus, VIII. 438
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Ancona" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 951–952.
  5. ^ Livy xli. i
  6. ^ The other four were Fano, Pesaro, Senigallia and Rimini
  7. ^ The Italian Cities and the Arabs before 1095, Hilmar C. Krueger, A History of the Crusades: The First Hundred Years, Vol.I, ed. Kenneth Meyer Setton, Marshall W. Baldwin, (University of Pennsylvania Press, 1955), 47.
  8. ^ Greene Molly (2010) Catholic pirates and Greek merchants: a maritime history of the Mediterranean. Princeton University Press, Britain, pp. 15–51.
  9. ^ Rentetzi Efthalia (2007) La chiesa di Sant' Anna dei Greci di Ancona. Thesaurismata (Instituto Ellenico di Studi Bizantini e Postbizantini di Venezia), vol. 37.
  10. ^ Hore, Peter, The Ironclads, London, Southwater Publishing, 2006. ISBN 978-1-84476-299-6.
  11. ^ Jerzy Bordziłowski (ed. ), Mała encyklopedia wojskowa. Tom 1 (in Polish), Warsaw, Wydawnictwo Ministerstwa Obrony Narodowej, 1967.
  12. ^ "The Jewish Community of Ancona". The Museum of the Jewish People at Beit Hatfutsot. Retrieved 3 February 2014.
  13. ^ a b Ancona Jews#cite note-1
  14. ^ a b https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0002_0_01073.html
  15. ^ "Falconara" (PDF). Italian Air Force National Meteorological Service. Retrieved 5 March 2014.
  16. ^ "Statistiche demografiche ISTAT". Demo.istat.it. Retrieved 25 March 2013.
  17. ^ "Statistiche demografiche ISTAT". Demo.istat.it. Retrieved 25 March 2013.
  18. ^ San Ciriaco – La cattedrale di Ancona, Federico Motta editore, 2003
  19. ^ "Gradovi prijatelji Splita" [Split Twin Towns]. Grad Split [Split Official City Website] (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 24 March 2012. Retrieved 19 December 2013.

Sources

External links

A.C. Ancona

Associazione Calcio Ancona, commonly referred to as Ancona, was an Italian football club based in Ancona, Marche. It was founded in 1905 as Unione Sportiva Anconitana, changing its name to Ancona Calcio in 1982 and being refounded in 2004 (using clause in the Article 52 of N.O.I.F.) with its last denomination. Since 2010 the club is in liquidation and the current liquidator is Giorgio Paolo Raffaele Perrotti. Another club of the city, U.S. Ancona 1905 claimed as the phoenix club. However, the club also folded in 2017, with a second phoenix club was founded in amateur league.

The nicknames of the team were i Dorici (The Dorians) and i Biancorossi (The Red and Whites).

Ancona railway station

Ancona railway station, sometimes called Ancona Centrale, is the main railway station of Ancona, Region of Marché (the Marches). It is the most important station of the region and is owned by the Ferrovie dello Stato (FS), Italy's state-owned railway company.

Anconine Republic

The Anconine Republic (Italian: Repubblica Anconitana) was a revolutionary municipality formed on 19 November 1797. It came about after a French victory at Ancona in February 1797, and the consequent occupation of the city. It existed in the region of Marche, with Ancona serving as its capital. Despite the Treaty of Campo Formio stating that Ancona and the surrounding region had to be returned to the Papal States, the municipality proclaimed the decadence of papal rule, under French protection. The subsequent tension led to general conflict with Pope Pius VI and the French occupation of the whole of the Papal States. Ancona was incorporated into the Roman Republic on 7 March 1798. It had a consul as its head.

Ancona is now a province of Italy, in the central part of the country on the Adriatic Sea.

Bombardment of Ancona

The Bombardment of Ancona was a naval engagement of the Adriatic Campaign of World War I between the navies of Italy and Austria-Hungary. Forces of the Imperial and Royal Navy attacked and bombarded military and civilian targets all across Ancona in central Italy and several other nearby islands and communities in response to Italy's declaration of war on Austria-Hungary.

When Italy declared war against Austria-Hungary on 23 May 1915, the Austrian fleet was quick to react; the navy launched several attacks on the Marche region of Italy. That day, the destroyer SMS Dinara and torpedo boat Tb 53T bombarded the port of Ancona. The destroyer SMS Lika, on a reconnaissance mission between Palagruža and Cape Gargano, shelled the semaphore and radio station at Vieste. Defending those waters at the time was the Italian destroyer Turbine. A small duel commenced with Lika coming out as the victor, damaging the enemy destroyer.

The next day on May 24, the majority of the Austrian fleet at Pola steamed for the Adriatic coast of Italy. This included the dreadnoughts SMS Viribus Unitis, Tegetthoff, Prinz Eugen and eight pre-dreadnoughts. Other Austro-Hungarian ships were already in enemy waters or proceeding to the Ancona coast themselves. The fleet bombarded several of the Italian coastal cities and other targets in and around the Province of Ancona, especially damaging the city of Ancona.

SMS Tegetthoff and the destroyer SMS Velebit shelled the Italian airship Città di Ferrara off Ancona. The pre-dreadnought SMS Radetzky and two torpedo boats bombarded Potenza Picena, then returned to Pola naval base. The pre-dreadnought SMS Zrínyi—along with two more torpedo boats—bombarded Senigallia, destroying a train and damaging a railway station and a bridge, before returning to Pola. The torpedo boat SMS Tb 3 was unsuccessfully bombed by an Italian flying boat.

Austrian light cruiser SMS Admiral Spaun bombarded the Italian signal station at Cretaccio Island, while SMS Sankt Georg—with two torpedo boats—shelled Rimini, damaging a freight train. The destroyer SMS Streiter attacked the signal station near Torre di Mileto. The light cruiser SMS Novara, a destroyer and two torpedo boats entered Corsini Channel and shelled an Italian torpedo boat station, another semaphore station, and few batteries of coastal artillery.

The light cruiser SMS Helgoland—supported by four destroyers—ran into the Italian destroyer Turbine, in a pitched battle south of Pelagosa. The destroyer SMS Tatra shelled the railway embankment near Manfredonia while the destroyer SMS Csepel shelled the Manfredonia railway station. Finally Austro-Hungarian flying boats dropped ordnance on Venice and seaplane hangars at Chiaravalle.

Heavy damage was inflicted by the Austrian navy, and 63 people, both Italian military and civilian personnel, died in Ancona alone. The dome of Ancona Cathedral was damaged, too. Austrian casualties were light. The war in the Adriatic Sea continued, culminating in a large Allied blockade to prevent the Austro-Hungarian fleet from leaving the Adriatic. The "Otranto Barrage" would be raided by the Austro-Hungarians several times throughout the war, but major Austro-Hungarian warships rarely left the bases after this raid.

List of Sammarinese records in athletics

The following are the national records in athletics in San Marino maintained by its national athletics federation: Federazione Sammarinese Atletica Leggera (FSAL).

List of mayors of Ancona

The Mayor of Ancona is an elected politician who, along with the Ancona's City Council, is accountable for the strategic government of Ancona in Marche, Italy. The current Mayor is Valeria Mancinelli, a member of the Democratic Party, who took office on 11 June 2013.

List of railway stations in the Marche

This is the list of the railway stations in the Marche owned by Rete Ferroviaria Italiana, a branch of the Italian state company Ferrovie dello Stato.

Loreto, Marche

Loreto, a hill town, is a comune of the Italian province of Ancona, in the Marche and most commonly known as the seat of the Basilica della Santa Casa, a popular Catholic pilgrimage site.

March of Ancona

The March of Ancona (Italian: Marca Anconitana) (also Anconetana) was a frontier march centred on the city of Ancona and, then, Macerata in the Middle Ages. Its name is preserved as an Italian region today, the Marches, and it corresponds to almost the entire modern region and not just the Province of Ancona.

The march was created as a political division of the Papal States during the pontificate of Innocent III in the year 1198. It was initially governed by a papal nominee called a rector. The rector of Ancona, like the rectors of the other papal provinces, was under the authority of a general rector reporting directly to the pope. The province was confirmed by the Constitutiones Sanctæ Matris Ecclesiæ in 1357. The march followed the Adriatic as far north as Urbino and contained the cities of Loreto, Camerino, Fermo, Macerata, Osimo, San Severino, and Tolentino

According to Paul Sabatier's biography of St. Francis of Assisi, "The Road to Assisi", the March of Ancona became the home of the spiritual Franciscans after Francis' death.

Marche

Marche (, Italian: [ˈmarke] (listen); Croatian: Marke), or the Marches , is one of the twenty regions of Italy. The name of the region derives from the plural name of marca, originally referring to the medieval March of Ancona and nearby marches of Camerino and Fermo. Marche is well known for its shoemaking tradition, with the finest and most luxurious Italian footwear being manufactured in this region.The region is located in the Central area of the country, bordered by Emilia-Romagna and the republic of San Marino to the north, Tuscany to the west, Umbria to the southwest, Abruzzo and Lazio to the south and the Adriatic Sea to the east. Except for river valleys and the often very narrow coastal strip, the land is hilly. A railway from Bologna to Brindisi, built in the 19th century, runs along the coast of the entire territory. Inland, the mountainous nature of the region, even today, allows relatively little travel north and south, except by twisting roads over the passes. The Umbrian enclave of Monte Ruperto (a subdivision of the Comune of Città di Castello) is entirely surrounded by the Province of Pesaro and Urbino, which constitutes the northern part of the region. Urbino, one of the major cities of the region, was the birthplace of Raphael, as well as a major center of Renaissance history.

Marche Airport

Marche Airport (Italian: Aeroporto delle Marche) (IATA: AOI, ICAO: LIPY), formerly Ancona Falconara Airport (Italian: Aeroporto di Ancona-Falconara), is an airport serving Ancona, and the Marche region of central Italy. The airport is located approximately 12 km (6 NM) west of Ancona, in Falconara Marittima. It was also known as Raffaello Sanzio Airport, named after Raffaello Sanzio (1483–1520), the Italian painter and architect.

Maritime republics

The maritime republics (Italian: repubbliche marinare) of the Mediterranean Basin were thalassocratic city-states which flourished in Italy and Dalmatia during the Middle Ages. The best known among the maritime republics are Venice, Genoa, Pisa, and Amalfi. Less known are Ragusa (now Dubrovnik), Gaeta, Ancona, and Noli.From the 10th to the 13th centuries they built fleets of ships both for their own protection and to support extensive trade networks across the Mediterranean, giving them an essential role in the Crusades.

Province of Ancona

The province of Ancona (Italian: provincia di Ancona) is a province in the Marche region of central Italy. Its capital is the city of Ancona, and the province borders the Adriatic Sea. The city of Ancona is also the capital of Marche.To the north, the province is bordered by the Adriatic Sea, and the Apennine Mountains to the west. The population of the province is mostly located in coastal areas and in the provincial capital Ancona, which has a population of 101,518; the province has a total population of 477,892 as of 2015. Due to its coastal location, it is strategically important. The president of the province is Liana Serrani.Its coastline of sandy beaches is popular to Italians but has not been greatly affected by tourism. A large area of the province's land is farmland often used for wine production; the province produces wines using the Montepulciano, Sangiovese, and Verdicchio varieties of grape. Annually, feasts occur in the province during the harvesting period. It contains mountainous regions and the Conero Regional Park, which contain dense forests where black truffles are found. These are sold in Acqualagna in the neighbouring province of Pesaro e Urbino.

Famous people born of the province of Ancona include Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor (Jesi); International Gothic painter Gentile da Fabriano (Fabriano); writer Rafael Sabatini (Jesi); composer Gaspare Spontini (Maiolati, which has since been named after him as Maiolati Spontini); composer Giovanni Battista Pergolesi (Jesi); mathematician and physicist Vito Volterra (Ancona); footballer Roberto Mancini (Jesi); Pope Leo XII (Genga); Pope Pius IX (Senigallia); and actress Virna Lisi (Jesi).

Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Ancona-Osimo

The Archdiocese of Ancona-Osimo (Latin: Archidioecesis Anconitana-Auximana) is a joint ecclesiastical territory and metropolitan see of the Catholic Church in the Marche region of Italy.It has existed in its present form since 1986, when the Archdiocese of Ancona was united with the historical Diocese of Osimo. Since earliest times, the diocese has been directly subject to the Holy See (Papacy), without intermediate authorities.The archbishop has his episcopal throne in the Cathedral of Ancona, while the Cathedral of Osimo has the status of a co-cathedral.

In the 17th, 18th, and 19th Centuries, the Archbishop of Ancona was frequently a Cardinal. One former Archbishop, Prospero Lambertini, rose to the Papacy as Pope Benedict XIV.

Ronni Ancona

Veronica Ancona is a Scottish actress, impressionist and author. She first became well known after appearing in The Big Impression.

Senigallia

Senigallia (or Sinigaglia in Old Italian, Romagnol: S’nigaja) is a comune and port town on Italy's Adriatic coast. It is situated in the province of Ancona in the Marche region and lies approximately 30 kilometers north-west of the provincial capital city Ancona. Senigallia's small port is located at the mouth of the river Misa.

Siege of Ancona

Siege of Ancona was a battle in the Neapolitan War. It took place beginning on the 5th May 1815 and persisted until the 30th May 1815. The battle took place mere days after the Battle of Tolentino on the 3rd May 1815.The siege of Ancona was one of the last battles in Italy during the Neapolitan War. The city of Ancona was the last major Italian city to surrender. It was fought between Napoleon's forces in Ancona, Italy and the Anglo-Austrian alliance during the One Hundred Days’ campaign. The Anglo-Austrian alliance eventually defeated Napoleon's forces, thus helping expel the French from Eastern Italy. It also contributed to the elimination of the Bonaparte monarchy proposed by Murat and led to the establishment of the Papal state.

U.S. Ancona 1905

Unione Sportiva Ancona 1905, commonly referred to as Ancona, was an Italian football club based in Ancona, Marche.

The club changed its name to U.S. Ancona 1905 from S.S. Piano San Lazzaro in 2010, due to the bankruptcy of the main football team of the city, A.C. Ancona. However, after a relegation in 2017, U.S. Ancona 1905 withdrew from the football pyramid.

Valeria Mancinelli

Valeria Mancinelli (born 13 March 1955 in Ancona) is an Italian politician.

She is a member of the Democratic Party. Mancinelli was elected Mayor of Ancona on 11 June 2013 and re-confirmed for the second term on 25 June 2018. She is the first woman to be elected mayor of the city of Ancona.She won the 2018 World Mayor Prize.

Climate data for Ancona (1971–2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 9.2
(48.6)
10.2
(50.4)
13.6
(56.5)
16.9
(62.4)
21.7
(71.1)
25.6
(78.1)
28.2
(82.8)
28.1
(82.6)
24.5
(76.1)
19.4
(66.9)
13.9
(57.0)
10.4
(50.7)
18.5
(65.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) 5.3
(41.5)
5.9
(42.6)
8.6
(47.5)
11.6
(52.9)
16.3
(61.3)
20.1
(68.2)
22.6
(72.7)
22.7
(72.9)
19.3
(66.7)
14.7
(58.5)
9.8
(49.6)
6.5
(43.7)
13.6
(56.5)
Average low °C (°F) 1.4
(34.5)
1.6
(34.9)
3.6
(38.5)
6.4
(43.5)
10.9
(51.6)
14.5
(58.1)
16.9
(62.4)
17.2
(63.0)
14.0
(57.2)
10.0
(50.0)
5.7
(42.3)
2.6
(36.7)
8.7
(47.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 43.8
(1.72)
49.3
(1.94)
56.8
(2.24)
58.8
(2.31)
54.0
(2.13)
60.4
(2.38)
47.1
(1.85)
76.4
(3.01)
72.6
(2.86)
75.9
(2.99)
86.0
(3.39)
58.1
(2.29)
739.2
(29.10)
Source: MeteoAM [15]
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