The ancient Roman units of measurement were largely built on the Hellenic system, which in turn was built upon Egyptian and Mesopotamian influences. The Roman units were comparatively consistent and well documented.
The basic unit of Roman linear measurement was the pes or Roman foot (plural: pedes). Investigation of its relation to the English foot goes back at least to 1647, when John Greaves published his Discourse on the Romane foot. Greaves visited Rome in 1639, and measured, among other things, the foot measure on the tomb of Titus Statilius Aper, that on the statue of Cossutius formerly in the gardens of Angelo Colocci, the congius of Vespasian previously measured by Villalpandus, a number of brass measuringrods found in the ruins of Rome, the pavingstones of the Pantheon and many other ancient Roman buildings, and the distance between the milestones on the Appian Way. He concluded that the Cossutian foot was the "true" Roman foot, and reported these values compared to the iron standard of the English foot in the Guildhall in London^{[1]} (30.4919 cm):^{[2]}
Source  Reported value in English feet  Metric equivalent 

Foot on the statue of Cossutius  0.96700  29.486 cm 
Foot on the monument of Statilius  0.97200  29.638 cm 
Foot of Villalpandus, derived from Congius of Vespasian  0.98600  30.065 cm 
Smith (1851) gives a value of 0.9708 English feet, or about 295.9 mm.^{[3]} An accepted modern value is 296 mm.^{[4]}
The Roman foot was subdivided either like the Greek pous into 16 digiti or fingers; or into 12 unciae or inches. Frontinus writes in the 1st century AD that the digitus was used in Campania and most parts of Italy.^{[5]} The principal Roman units of length were:
Roman unit  English name  Equal to  Metric equivalent  Imperial equivalent  Notes 

digitus  finger  ^{1}⁄_{16} pes  18.5 mm  0.728 in 0.0607 ft 

uncia pollex 
inch thumb 
^{1}⁄_{12} pes  24.6 mm  0.971 in 0.0809 ft 

palmus  palm  ^{1}⁄_{4} pes  74 mm  0.243 ft  
palmus major  palm length (lit."greater palm")  ^{3}⁄_{4} pes  222 mm  0.728 ft  in late times 
pes  (Roman) foot  1 pes  296 mm  0.971 ft  
palmipes  foot and a palm  1 ^{1}⁄_{4} pedes  370 mm  1.214 ft  
cubitum  cubit  1 ^{1}⁄_{2} pedes  444 mm  1.456 ft  
gradus pes sestertius 
step  2 ^{1}⁄_{2} pedes  0.74 m  2.427 ft  
passus  pace  5 pedes  1.48 m  4.854 ft  
decempeda pertica 
perch  10 pedes  2.96 m  9.708 ft  
actus (length)  120 pedes  35.5 m  116.496 ft  60 passus or 12 decembeda  
stadium  stade  625 pedes  185 m  607.14 ft  600 Greek feet or 125 passus or ^{1}⁄_{8} mille^{[6]} 
mille passus mille passuum 
(Roman) mile  5000 pedes  1.48 km  4854 ft 0.919 mi 
1000 passus or 8 stadia 
leuga  (Gallic) league  7500 pedes  2.22 km  7281 ft 1.379 mi 

Except where noted, based on Smith (1851).^{[3]} English and Metric equivalents are approximate, converted at 1 pes = 0.9708 English feet and 296 mm respectively. 
Other units include the schoenus (from the Greek for "rush rope") used for the distances in Isidore of Charax's Parthian Stations (where it had a value around 5 km or 3 miles)^{[7]}^{[8]} and in the name of the Nubian land of Triacontaschoenus between the First and Second Cataracts on the Nile (where it had a value closer to 10.5 km or 6 ^{1}⁄_{2} miles).^{[9]}^{[10]}
The ordinary units of measurement of area were:
Roman unit  English name  Equal to  Metric equivalent  Imperial equivalent  Description 

pes quadratus  square foot  1 pes qu.  0.0876 m^{2}  0.943 sq ft  
scrupulum or decempeda quadrata  100 pedes qu.  8.76 m^{2}  94.3 sq ft  the square of the standard 10foot measuring rod  
actus simplex  480 pedes qu.  42.1 m^{2}  453 sq ft  4 × 120 pedes^{[11]}  
uncia  2400 pedes qu.  210 m^{2}  2260 sq ft  
clima  3600 pedes qu.  315 m^{2}  3390 sq ft  60 × 60 pedes^{[11]}  
actus quadratus or acnua  14400 pedes qu.  1262 m^{2}  13600 sq ft  also called arpennis in Gaul^{[11]}  
jugerum  28800 pedes qu.  2523 m^{2}  27200 sq ft 0.623 acres 

heredium  2 jugera  5047 m^{2}  54300 sq ft 1.248 acres 

centuria  200 jugera  50.5 ha  125 acres  formerly 100 jugera^{[11]}  
saltus  800 jugera  201.9 ha  499 acres  
Except where noted, based on Smith (1851).^{[3]} Metric equivalents are approximate, converted at 1 pes = 296 mm. 
Other units of area described by Columella in his De Re Rustica include the porca of 180 × 30 Roman feet (about 473 m^{2} or 5,090 sq ft) used in Hispania Baetica and the Gallic candetum or cadetum of 100 feet in the city or 150 in the country. Columella also gives uncial divisions of the jugerum, tabulated by the anonymous translator of the 1745 Millar edition as follows:
Roman unit  Roman square feet  Fraction of jugerum  Metric equivalent  Imperial equivalent  Description 

dimidium scrupulum  50  ^{1}⁄_{576}  4.38 m^{2}  47.1 sq ft  
scrupulum  100  ^{1}⁄_{288}  8.76 m^{2}  94.3 sq ft  
duo scrupula  200  ^{1}⁄_{144}  17.5 m^{2}  188 sq ft  
sextula  400  ^{1}⁄_{72}  35.0 m^{2}  377 sq ft  
sicilicus  600  ^{1}⁄_{48}  52.6 m^{2}  566 sq ft  
semiuncia  1200  ^{1}⁄_{24}  105 m^{2}  1130 sq ft  
uncia  2400  ^{1}⁄_{12}  210 m^{2}  2260 sq ft  
sextans  4800  ^{1}⁄_{6}  421 m^{2}  4530 sq ft  
quadrans  7200  ^{1}⁄_{4}  631 m^{2}  6790 sq ft  
triens  9600  ^{1}⁄_{3}  841 m^{2}  9050 sq ft  
quincunx  12000  ^{5}⁄_{12}  1051 m^{2}  11310 sq ft  
semis  14400  ^{1}⁄_{2}  1262 m^{2}  15380 sq ft  = actus quadratus^{[3]} 
septunx  16800  ^{7}⁄_{12}  1472 m^{2}  15840 sq ft  
bes  19200  ^{2}⁄_{3}  1682 m^{2}  18100 sq ft  
dodrans  21600  ^{3}⁄_{4}  1893 m^{2}  20380 sq ft  
dextans  24000  ^{5}⁄_{6}  2103 m^{2}  22640 sq ft  
deunx  26400  ^{11}⁄_{12}  2313 m^{2}  24900 sq ft  
jugerum  28800  1  2523 m^{2}  27160 sq ft  
Except where noted, based on Millar (1745).^{[11]} Metric equivalents are approximate, converted at 1 pes = 296 mm. 
Both liquid and dry volume measurements were based on the sextarius. The sextarius was defined as ^{1}⁄_{48} of a cubic foot, known as an amphora quadrantal. Using the value 296 mm (11.7 in) for the Roman foot, an amphora quadrantal can be computed at approximately 25.9 L (6.8 US gal). A sextarius, by the same method, should in theory measure approximately 540 ml (18.3 US fl oz), almost an imperial pint (568 ml).
Archaeologically, however, the evidence is not as precise. No two surviving vessels measure an identical volume, and scholarly opinion on the actual volume ranges, for example, from as low as 500 ml (17 US fl oz)^{[12]} up to 580 ml (20 US fl oz).^{[13]}
The core volume units are:
Roman unit  Equal to  Metric  Imperial  US fluid 

ligula  ^{1}⁄_{288} congius  11.4 ml  0.401 fl oz  0.385 fl oz 
cyathus  ^{1}⁄_{72} congius  45 ml  1.58 fl oz  1.52 fl oz 
acetabulum  ^{1}⁄_{48} congius  68 ml  2.39 fl oz  2.30 fl oz 
quartarius  ^{1}⁄_{24} congius  136 ml  4.79 fl oz  4.61 fl oz 
hemina or cotyla  ^{1}⁄_{12} congius  273 ml  9.61 fl oz  9.23 fl oz 
sextarius  ^{1}⁄_{6} congius  546 ml  19.22 fl oz 0.961 pt 
18.47 fl oz 1.153 pt 
congius  1 congius  3.27 l  5.75 pt 0.719 gal 
3.46 qt 0.864 gal 
urna  4 congii  13.1 l  2.88 gal  3.46 gal 
amphora quadrantal  8 congii  26.2 l  5.76 gal  6.92 gal 
culeus  160 congii  524 l  115.3 gal  138.4 gal 
Except where noted, based on Smith (1851).^{[3]} Modern equivalents are approximate. 
Roman unit  Equal to  Metric  Imperial  US dry 

ligula  ^{1}⁄_{288} congius  11.4 ml  0.401 fl oz  0.0207 pt 
cyathus  ^{1}⁄_{72} congius  45 ml  1.58 fl oz  0.082 pt 
acetabulum  ^{1}⁄_{48} congius  68 ml  2.39 fl oz  0.124 pt 
quartarius  ^{1}⁄_{24} congius  136 ml  4.79 fl oz  0.247 pt 
hemina or cotyla  ^{1}⁄_{12} congius  273 ml  9.61 fl oz  0.496 pt 
sextarius  ^{1}⁄_{6} congius  546 ml  19.22 fl oz 0.961 pt 
0.991 pt 
semimodius  1 ^{1}⁄_{3} congii  4.36 l  0.96 gal  0.99 gal 
modius  2 ^{2}⁄_{3} congii  8.73 l  1.92 gal  1.98 gal 
modius castrensis  4 congii  12.93 l^{[14]}  2.84 gal  2.94 gal 
Except where noted, based on Smith (1851).^{[3]} Modern equivalents are approximate. 
The units of weight or mass were mostly based on factors of 12. Several of the unit names were also the names of coins during the Roman Republic and had the same fractional value of a larger base unit: libra for weight and as for coin. Modern estimates of the libra range from 322 to 329 g (11.4 to 11.6 oz) with 5076 grains or 328.9 g (11.60 oz) an accepted figure.^{[4]}^{[13]}^{[15]} The as was reduced from 12 ounces to 2 after the First Punic War, to 1 during the Second Punic War, and to half an ounce by the 191 BC Lex Papiria.^{[16]}
The divisions of the libra were:
Roman unit  English name  Equal to  Metric equivalent  Imperial equivalent  Description 

uncia  Roman ounce  ^{1}⁄_{12} libra  27.4 g  0.967 oz  lit. "a twelfth"^{[17]} 
sescuncia or sescunx  ^{1}⁄_{8} libra  41.1 g  1.45 oz  lit. "1 ^{1}⁄_{2} twelfths"  
sextans  ^{1}⁄_{6} libra  54.8 g  1.93 oz  lit. "a sixth"  
quadrans teruncius 
^{1}⁄_{4} libra  82.2 g  2.90 oz  lit. "a fourth" lit. "triple twelfth"  
triens  ^{1}⁄_{3} libra  109.6 g  3.87 oz  lit. "a third"  
quincunx  ^{5}⁄_{12} libra  137.0 g  4.83 oz  lit. "fivetwelfths"^{[18]}  
semis or semissis  ^{1}⁄_{2} libra  164.5 g  5.80 oz  lit. "a half"  
septunx  ^{7}⁄_{12} libra  191.9 g  6.77 oz  lit. "seventwelfths"  
bes or bessis  ^{2}⁄_{3} libra  219.3 g  7.74 oz  lit. "two [parts] of an as"  
dodrans  ^{3}⁄_{4} libra  246.7 g  8.70 oz  lit. "less a fourth"  
dextans  ^{5}⁄_{6} libra  274.1 g  9.67 oz  lit. "less a sixth"  
deunx  ^{11}⁄_{12} libra  301.5 g  10.64 oz  lit. "less a twelfth"  
libra  Roman pound libra^{[19]} 
328.9 g  11.60 oz 0.725 lb 
lit. "balance"^{[19]}  
Except where noted, based on Smith (1851).^{[3]} Metric equivalents are approximate, converted at 1 libra = 328.9 g . 
The subdivisions of the uncia were:
Roman unit  English name  Equal to  Metric equivalent  Imperial equivalent  Description 

siliqua  carat  ^{1}⁄_{144} uncia  0.19 g  2.9 gr 0.0067 oz 
lit. "carob seed" The Greek κεράτιον (kerátion) 
obolus  obolus^{[20]}  ^{1}⁄_{48} uncia  0.57 g  8.8 gr 0.020 oz 
lit. "obol", from the Greek word for "metal spit"^{[20]} 
scrupulum  scruple^{[21]}  ^{1}⁄_{24} uncia  1.14 g  17.6 gr 0.040 oz 
lit. "small pebble"^{[21]} 
semisextula  ^{1}⁄_{12} uncia  2.28 g  35.2 gr 0.080 oz 
lit. "halflittle sixth"  
sextula  sextula^{[22]}  ^{1}⁄_{6} uncia  4.57 g  70.5 gr 0.161 oz 
lit. "little sixth"^{[22]} 
sicilicus siciliquus 
^{1}⁄_{4} uncia  6.85 g  106 gr 0.242 oz 
lit. "little sickle"  
duella  ^{1}⁄_{3} uncia  9.14 g  141 gr 0.322 oz 
lit. "little double [sixths]"  
semuncia  halfounce semuncia^{[23]} 
^{1}⁄_{2} uncia  13.7 g  211 gr 0.483 oz 
lit. "halftwelfth"^{[23]} 
uncia  Roman ounce  27.4 g  423 gr 0.967 oz 

Except where noted, based on Smith (1851).^{[3]} Metric equivalents are approximate, converted at 1 libra = 328.9 g . 
The complicated Roman calendar was replaced by the Julian calendar in 45 BC. In the Julian calendar, an ordinary year is 365 days long, and a leap year is 366 days long. Between 45 BC and AD 1, leap years occurred at irregular intervals. Starting in AD 4, leap years occurred regularly every four years. Year numbers were rarely used; rather, the year was specified by naming the Roman consuls for that year. (As consuls' terms latterly ran from January to December, this eventually caused January, rather than March, to be considered the start of the year.) When a year number was required, the Greek Olympiads were used, or the count of years since the founding of Rome, "ab urbe condita" in 753 BC. In the middle ages, the year numbering was changed to the Anno Domini count.
The calendar used in most of the modern world, the Gregorian calendar, differs from the Julian calendar in that it skips three leap years every four centuries to more closely approximate the length of the tropical year.
The Romans grouped days into an eightday cycle called a nundina, with every eighth day being a market day.
Independent of the nundinae, astrologers kept a sevenday cycle called a hebdomada where each day corresponded to one of the seven classical planets, with the first day of the week being Saturnday, followed by Sunday, Moonday, Marsday, Mercuryday, Jupiterday, and lastly Venusday. Each astrological day was reckoned to begin at sunrise. The Jews also used a sevenday week, which began Saturday evening. The seventh day of the week they called Sabbath; the other days they numbered rather than named, except for Friday, which could be called either the Parasceve or the sixth day. Each Jewish day was reckoned to begin at sunset. Christians followed the Jewish sevenday week, except that they commonly called the first day of the week the Dominica, or the Lord's day. In 321 Constantine the Great gave his subjects every Sunday off in honor of his family's tutelary deity, the Unconquered Sun, thus cementing the sevenday week into Roman civil society.
The Romans divided the daytime into twelve horae or hours starting at sunrise and ending at sunset. The night was divided into four watches. The duration of these hours varied with seasons; in the winter, when the daylight period was shorter, its 12 hours were correspondingly shorter and its four watches were correspondingly longer.
Astrologers divided the solar day into 24 equal hours, and these astrological hours became the basis for medieval clocks and our modern 24hour mean solar day.
Although the division of hours into minutes and seconds did not occur until the middle ages, ancient astrologers had a minuta equal to ^{1}⁄_{60} of a day (24 modern minutes), a secunda equal to ^{1}⁄_{3600} of a day (24 modern seconds), and a tertia equal to ^{1}⁄_{216000} of a day (0.4 modern seconds).
Ancient Roman units of measurement were added to the Unicode Standard in April 2008 with the release of version 5.1.
The Unicode block for ancient Roman units of measurement, called Ancient Symbols, is U+10190–U+101CF, i.e. in the upper plane:
Ancient Symbols^{[1]}^{[2]} Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)  
0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  A  B  C  D  E  F  
U+1019x  𐆐  𐆑  𐆒  𐆓  𐆔  𐆕  𐆖  𐆗  𐆘  𐆙  𐆚  𐆛  
U+101Ax  𐆠  
U+101Bx  
U+101Cx  
Notes 
In Ancient Roman measurement, the acetabulum was a measure of volume (fluid and dry) equivalent to the Greek ὀξύβαφον. It was onefourth of the hemina and therefore oneeighth of the sextarius. It contained the weight in water of fifteen Attic drachmae.
Used with some frequency by Pliny the Elder, in a 1952 translation the unit was judged to be equivalent to 63 cubic centimeters. However, other sources estimate a higher value of perhaps 68 cc (see Ancient Roman units of measurement).
Amphora (unit)An amphora is the volume of a GrecoRoman era jar of the same name. They were tall, with two opposed handles near the top. The term amphora was derived from Greek words meaning "on both sides" and "carry".The Roman amphora quadrantal (∼25.9 litres), was one cubicpes, holding 80 libra of wine, and was used to measure liquids, bulk goods, the cargo capacity of ships, and the production of vineyards. Along with other standardized Roman measures and currency) gave an added advantage to Roman commerce. The related amphora capitolina standard, was kept in the temple of Jupiter on the Capitoline Hill in Rome.
A typical Greek amphora, based on a cubicpous, was ∼38.3 litres, The Greek talent, an ancient unit of weight was roughly the mass of the amount of water that would fill an amphora.
The French amphora, also called the minot de Paris, is 1/8 muid or one cubic pied du roi and therefore ∼34 litres.
ChalcusChalcus, a Latin word derived from the Greek word χαλκός meaning copper or bronze (plural chalci), may refer to :
Dionysius Chalcus, an ancient Athenian poet and orator
a Greek copper money (see Ancient Roman units of measurement)
Captain Chalcus, a character in the 1999 fantasy novel Servant of the Dragon
CongiusIn Ancient Roman measurement, congius (pl. congii, from Greek konkhion, diminutive of konkhē, konkhos, "shellful") was a liquid measure that was about 3.48 litres (0.92 U.S. gallons). It was equal to the larger chous of the Ancient Greeks. The congius contained six sextarii.
Cato tells us that he was wont to give each of his slaves a congius of wine at the Saturnalia and Compitalia. Pliny relates, among other examples of hard drinking, that a Novellius Torquatus of Mediolanum obtained a cognomen (Tricongius, a ninebottleman) by drinking three congii of wine at once:
It is in the exercise of their drinking powers that the Parthians look for their share of fame, and it was in this that Alcibiades among the Greeks earned his great repute. Among ourselves, too, Novellius Torquatus of Mediolanum, a man who held all the honours of the state from the prefecture to the proconsulate, could drink off three congii at a single draught, a feat from which he obtained the surname of 'Tricongius': this he did before the eyes of the Emperor Tiberius, and to his extreme surprise and astonishment, a man who in his old age was very morose, and indeed very cruel in general; though in his younger days he himself had been too much addicted to wine.
The Roman system of weights and measures, including the congius, was introduced to Britain in the 1st century by Emperor Claudius. Following the AngloSaxon invasions of the 4th and 5th century, Roman units were, for the most part, replaced with North German units. Following the conversion of England to Christianity in the 7th century, Latin became the language of state. From this time on the word "congius" is simply the Latin word for gallon. Thus we find the word congius mentioned in a charter of Edmund I in 946.
In Apothecary Measures, the Latin Congius (abbreviation c.) is used for the Queen Anne gallon of 231 cubic inches, also known as the US gallon.
CotylaThe cotylae are also features on the proximal end of the radius and of the ulna in birds.
In classical antiquity, the cotyla or cotyle (Gr κοτύλη) was a measure of capacity among the Romans and Greeks: by the former it was also called hemina; by the latter, τρυβλίον and ἡμίνα or ἡμίμνα. It was the half of the sextarius or ξέστης, and contained six cyathi, or nearly half a pint English.This measure was used by physicians with a graduated scale marked on it, like our own chemical measures, for measuring out given weights of fluids, especially oil. A vessel or horn, of a cubic or cylindrical shape, and of the capacity of a cotyla, was divided into twelve equal parts by lines cut on its side. The whole vessel was called litra, and each of the parts an ounce (uncia). This measure held nine ounces (by weight) of oil, so that the ratio of the weight of the oil to the number of ounces it occupied in the measure would be 9:12 or 3:4.Nicolas Chorier (16121692) observes that the cotyla was used as a dry measure as well as a liquid one, from the authority of Thucydides, who in one place mentions two cotylae of wine, and in another two cotylae of bread.The name is also given to a type of ancient Greek vase broadly similar in shape to a skyphos but more closely resembling a kantharos.
DecuriaeDecuriae was a Roman unit of measurement applied to civitas of native peoples. It had been mentioned by Pliny the Elder at 70 AD in his work, Natural History.
DuellaA duella was an ancient Roman unit of weight, equivalent to a third of a Roman ounce (9.056 grams).
JugerumThe jugerum or juger (Latin: iūgerum, iūgera, iūger, or iugus) was a Roman unit of area, equivalent to a rectangle 240 Roman feet in length and 120 feet in width (about 71×35½ m). This comprised 28,800 square feet (Latin: pedes quadratum) or about ¼ hectare (0.623 acres).
List of obsolete units of measurementThis is a list of obsolete units of measurement, sorted by type. These units of measurement are typically no longer used, though some may be in limited use in various regions.
Minot (unit)The minot (French pronunciation: [mino]) is an old unit of dry volume, used in France prior to metrication. The unit was equivalent to three French bushels (boisseaux), half a mine, and one quarter of a setier. The size of the minot is comparable to the US and Imperial bushels.
The name minot derives from the larger unit, the mine, with an ot diminutive suffixed. The term mine in this case derives from the same Greek origin as the word hemisphere, and refers to half of the larger setier. The volumetric mine should not be confused with the mass unit mina, which is also called a mine in French.
As the French bushel was defined as 10/27 of a cubic French royal foot, or 640 cubic French royal inches, the minot was 1920 cubic French royal inches, corresponding to about 38.086 litres.
In Toulouse the minot was used for charcoal and salt measurement.
Later on, there was also a minot de Paris based on exactly one cubic French royal foot, which is equivalent to 34.277 litres. The ancient Roman amphora shared a similar definition (one cubic Roman foot). It was itself divided into three units, similar to the minot.
Pace (unit)A pace is a unit of length consisting either of one normal walking step (~0.75 metres or 0.82 yards), or of a double step, returning to the same foot (~1.5 metres or 1.6 yards). Like other traditional measurements, paces started as informal units but have since been standardized, often with the specific length set according to a typical brisk or military marching stride.
In the US, it is an uncommon customary unit of length denoting a brisk single step and equal to 2 1⁄2 feet or 30.0 inches or 76.2 centimetres. Pace also refers to the inverse unit of speed, used mainly for walking and running. The most common pace unit is minutes per mile.The term "pace" is also used to translate similar formal units in other systems of measurement. Pacing is also used as an informal measure in surveying, with the "pace" equal to two of the surveyor's steps reckoned through comparison with a standard rod or chain.
Pertica (disambiguation)Pertica is a genus of extinct plants.
Pertica may also refer to:
Pertica  Roman length equivalent to 3 m (see Ancient Roman units of measurement)
Pertica Alta, an Italian municipality of the Province of Brescia, Lombardy
Pertica Bassa, an Italian municipality of the Province of Brescia, Lombardy
Bill Pertica (18981967), an American baseball player
Schistura pertica, a genus of fishes
Pes (unit)A pes (plural: pedes) is an ancient Roman unit of length that roughly corresponds to a foot. In terms of modern reference, the Roman foot measured 0.97 feet (296 mm). There are twelve uncia in one pes. There are 2.5 pedes in one gradus.
QuinariaA quinaria (plural: quinariae) is a Roman unit of area, roughly equal to 4.2 square centimeters (0.65 sq in). Its primary use was to measure the crosssectional area of pipes in Roman water distribution systems. A "one quinaria" pipe is 2.31 centimeters (0.91 in) in diameter.
In Roman times, there was considerable ambiguity regarding the origin of the name, and the actual value of a quinaria. According to Frontinus:
...Those who refer (the quinaria) to Vitruvius and the plumbers, declare that it was so named from the fact that a flat sheet of lead 5 digits wide, made up into a round pipe, forms this ajutage. But this is indefinite, because the plate, when made up into a round shape, will be extended on the exterior surface and contracted on the interior surface. The most probable explanation is that the quinaria received its name from having a diameter of 5/4 of a digit...
In other words, Vitruvius claimed that the name was derived from a pipe created from a flat sheet of lead "5 digits wide", roughly 9.25 centimeters (3.64 in), but Frontinus contested the definitiveness of this because the exterior circumference of the resulting pipe would be larger than the interior circumference. According to Frontinus, the name and value is derived from a pipe having a diameter of "5/4 of a digit". Using Vitruvius' standard, the value of a quinaria is 6.81 square centimeters (1.03 sq in), and the resulting pipe would have a diameter of 2.94 centimeters (1.16 in).
Roman timekeepingThe Roman clock, or time of day, was divided into 24 hours (Latin horae), 12 hours of light and 12 hours of darkness.
ScrupulumScrupulum, meaning a tiny stone (from scrupus sharp stone), indicates a weight of 1/24 of an ounce or, by extension, of other measures. Metaphorically, the stone is thought to be sharp and pricking, like a thorn.
As a weight or a coin, 1/24 of an uncia, or 1/288 of an as
As a measure of land, 1/288 of a jugerum
As a measure of time, 1/24 part of an hour.The forms scripulum, scriptulum, scriplus and scriptulus can be found, scriptulum being also associated with the lines on a draughtboard.
Step (unit)A step (Latin: gradus, pl. gradūs) was a Roman unit of length equal to 2½ Roman feet (pedes) or ½ Roman pace (passus). Following its standardization under Agrippa, one step was roughly equivalent to 0.81 yards or 0.74 meters.
The Byzantine pace (Greek: βήμα, bḗma) was an adaption of the Roman step, a distance of 2½ Greek feet.Similarly, the US customary pace is a distance of 2½ feet or 30 inches.
Uncia (unit)The uncia (plural: unciae) was a Roman unit of length, weight, and volume. It survived as the Byzantine liquid ounce (Greek: οὐγγία, oungía) and the origin of the English inch, ounce, and fluid ounce.
The Roman inch was equal to 1⁄12 of a Roman foot (pes), which was standardized under Agrippa to about 0.97 inches or 24.6 millimeters.
The Roman ounce was 1⁄12 of a Roman pound.
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