Anazarbus

Anazarbus (Ancient Greek: Ἀναζαρβός, medieval Ain Zarba; modern Anavarza; Arabic: عَيْنُ زَرْبَة‎) was an ancient Cilician city. Under the late Roman Empire, it was the capital of Cilicia Secunda. It was destroyed in 1374.

Anazarbus
Anavarza (in Turkish)
Anazarbus klikya city south gate
The triumphal arch of Anazarbus was later converted to the city's South Gate.
Anazarbus is located in Turkey
Anazarbus
Shown within Turkey
Alternative nameCaesarea, Justinopolis
LocationAdana Province, Turkey
RegionCilicia
Coordinates37°15′50″N 35°54′20″E / 37.26389°N 35.90556°ECoordinates: 37°15′50″N 35°54′20″E / 37.26389°N 35.90556°E
TypeSettlement
LANGLOIS(1861) p507 - VUE DES RUINES D' ANAZARBE
General view
Anazarbus clikya west gate and anvarza castle
Anazarbus West Gate

Location

It was situated in Anatolia in modern Turkey, in the present Çukurova (or classical Aleian plain) about 15 km west of the main stream of the present Ceyhan River (or classical Pyramus river) and near its tributary the Sempas Su.

A lofty isolated ridge formed its acropolis. Though some of the masonry in the ruins is certainly pre-Roman, the Suda's identification of it with Cyinda, famous as a treasure city in the wars of Eumenes of Cardia, cannot be accepted in the face of Strabo's express location of Cyinda in western Cilicia.[1]

History

It was founded by Assyrians. It was situated on the Pyramus. According to the Suda, the original name of the place was Cyinda or Kyinda or Quinda (Greek: Κύϊνδα); that it was next called Diocaesarea.[2] How the city obtained the name Anazarbus (Ἀνάζαρβος) or Anazarba (Ἀνάζαρβα), as it was also known, is a matter of conjecture. According to Stephanus of Byzantium, after the city was destroyed by an earthquake, the emperor Nerva sent thither one Anazarbus, a man of senatorial rank, who rebuilt the city, and gave to it his own name.[3] This account cannot be accurate, as Valesius remarks,[4] for it was called Anazarbus in Pliny's time.[5] Dioscorides is called a native of Anazarbus; but the period of Dioscorides is not certain. It was also the home of the poet Oppian. Its later name was Caesarea ad Anazarbum, and there are many medals of the place in which it is both named Anazarbus and Caesarea at or under Anazarbus. On the division of Cilicia it became the chief place of the Roman province of Cilicia Secunda, with the title of Metropolis. It suffered dreadfully from an earthquake both in the time of Eastern Roman emperor Justinian I, and, still more, in the reign of his successor Justin I. After Justinian rebuilt the place, it was renamed Justinianopolis or Ioustinianoupolis (Ἰουστινιανούπολις). Rebuilt by Justin I after the earthquake in the 6th century, it became Justinopolis or Ioustinoupolis (Ἰουστινούπολις) (525); but the old name persisted, and when Thoros I, king of Lesser Armenia, made it his capital early in the 12th century, it was known as Anazarva.

Porte entrée anavarza ok
View of the main door of the city

Remains

Its great natural strength and situation, not far from the mouth of the Sis pass, and near the great road which debouched from the Cilician Gates, made Anazarbus play a considerable part in the struggles between the Eastern Roman Empire and the early Muslim invaders. It had been rebuilt by Harun al-Rashid in 796, refortified at great expense by the Hamdanid Sayf al-Dawla[1] (mid-10th century) and again destroyed in 962 by Nikephoros II Phokas.

In late 1097 or early 1098 it was captured by the armies of the First Crusade and was incorporated into Bohemond's Principality of Antioch. The Crusaders are probably responsible for the construction of an impressive donjon atop the center of the outcrop. Most of the remaining fortifications, including the curtain walls, massive horse-shaped towers, undercrofts, cisterns, and free-standing structures date from the Armenian periods of occupation, which began with the arrival of the Rubenid Baron T‛oros I, c. 1111.[6] The site briefly exchanged hands between the Greeks and Armenians, until it was formally part of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia. Within the fortress are two Armenian chapels and the magnificent (but severely damaged) three-aisle church built by T‛oros I to celebrate his conquests.[7][8] The church was once surrounded by a continuous, well-executed dedicatory inscription in Armenian.

The Mamluk Empire of Egypt finally destroyed the city in 1374.

The present wall of the lower city is of late construction. It encloses a mass of ruins conspicuous in which are a fine triumphal arch, the colonnades of two streets, a gymnasium, etc. A stadium and a theatre lie outside the walls to the south. The remains of the acropolis fortifications are very interesting, including roads and ditches hewn in the rock. There are no notable structures in the upper town. For picturesqueness the site is not equaled in Cilicia, and it is worthwhile to trace the three fine aqueducts to their sources.[1] A necropolis on the escarpment to the south of the curtain wall can also be seen complete with signs of illegal modern excavations.

A visit in December 2002 showed that the three aqueducts mentioned above have been nearly completely destroyed. Only small, isolated sections are left standing with the largest portion lying in a pile of rubble that stretches the length of where the aqueducts once stood. A powerful earthquake that struck the area in 1945 is thought to be responsible for the destruction.

A modest Turkish farming village (Dilekkaya) lies to the southwest of the ancient city. A small outdoor museum with some of the artifacts collected in the area can be viewed for a small fee. Also nearby are some beautiful mosaics discovered in a farmers field. Inquire at the museum for a viewing.

Anazarbus/Anavarsa was one of a chain of Armenian fortifications stretching through Cilicia. The castle of Sis (modern Kozan, Adana) lies to the north while Tumlu Castle and Yilankale are to the south, and the fortresses of Amouda and Sarvandikar are to the east.

In 2013, excavations uncovered the first known colonnaded double-lane road of the ancient world, 34 meters wide and 2700 meters long, also uncovered the ruins of a church and a bathhouse.[9]

In 2017, archaeologists discovered a limestone statue of the goddess Hygieia and the god Eros. The statue is thought to date to the third or fourth century B.C.[9]

Ecclesiastical history

Anazarbus was the capital and so also from 553 (the date of the Second Council of Constantinople) the metropolitan see of the Late Roman province of Cilicia Secunda.[10][11]

In the 4th century, one of the bishops of Anazarbus was Athanasius, a "consistent expounder of the theology of Arius." His theological opponent, Athanasius of Alexandria, in De Synodis 17, 1 refers to Anazarbus as Ναζαρβῶν.[12]

A 6th century Notitia Episcopatuum indicates that it had as suffragan sees Epiphania, Alexandria Minor, Irenopolis, Flavias, Castabala and Aegeae. Rhosus was also subject to Anazarbus, but after the 6th century was made exempt, and Mopsuestia was raised to the rank of autcephalous metropolitan see, though without suffragans.[13][14][15][16]

Latin Catholic titular see

The titular archbishopric was revived in the 18th century as a see of the Latin Catholic church, Anazarbus.[17]

It is vacant, having had the following incumbents, generally of the highest (Metropolitan) rank, with an episcopal (lowest rank) exception :

  • Titular Archbishop Giuseppe Maria Saporiti (1726.04.08 – 1743.12.02)
  • Titular Bishop Isidro Alfonso Cavanillas (1753.04.09 – 1755.05.12)
  • Titular Archbishop Gerolamo Formagliari (1760.07.21 – 1781)
  • Titular Archbishop Romain-Frédéric Gallard (1839.02.21 – 1839.09.28)
  • Titular Archbishop [[Antoine Pierre [Andon Bedros] Hassoun]] (1842.06.07 – 1846.08.02), as Coadjutor Archeparch of Istanbul of the Armenians (Turkey) (1842.06.07 – 1846.08.02), succeeded as Archeparch of Istanbul of the Armenians (Turkey) (1846.08.02 – 1866.09.14), later Patriarch of Cilicia of the Armenians (Lebanon) ([1866.09.14] 1867.07.12 – 1881.06), created Cardinal-Priest of Ss. Vitale, Valeria, Gervasio e Protasio (1880.12.16 – 1884.02.28)
  • Titular Archbishop Giorgio Labella, Friars Minor (O.F.M.) (1847.06.04 – 1860.10.27)
  • Titular Archbishop Charles Petre Eyre (1868.12.03 – 1878.03.15)
  • Titular Archbishop John Baptist Salpointe (1884.04.22 – 1885.08.18)
  • Titular Archbishop Michael Logue (1887.04.19 – 1887.12.03) (later Cardinal)*
  • Titular Archbishop François Laurencin (1888.06.01 – 1892.12.18)
  • Titular Archbishop Joaquín Larraín Gandarillas (1893.06.15 – 1897.09.26)
  • Titular Archbishop Raimondo Ingheo (1907.12.16 – 1911.07.08)
  • Titular Archbishop Cláudio José Gonçalves Ponce de Leon, Lazarists (C.M.) (1912.01.09 – 1924.05.26)
  • Titular Archbishop Raymund Netzhammer, Benedictine Order(] O.S.B.) (1924.07.14 – 1945.09.18)
  • Titular Archbishop Michele Akras (1945.10.27 – 1947.02.05)
  • Titular Archbishop Heinrich Döring (ハインリヒ・デーリング), S.J. (1948.01.15 – 1951.12.17)
  • Titular Archbishop Joseph-Marie Le Gouaze (1955.06.24 – 1964.07.31)

Armenian Catholic titular see

In the 19th century, an Armenian Catholic titular bishopric of Anazarbus (of the Armenians) (Anazarbus degli Armeniin Curiate Italian) was established.

It was a suppressed in 1933,[18][18] having had a single incumbent, of the intermediary (archiepiscopal) rank :

Notable locals

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainHogarth, David George (1911). "Anazarbus". In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 944.
  2. ^ Suda, s.v. Κύϊνδα.
  3. ^ Stephanus of Byzantium. Ethnica. s.v. Ἀνάζαρβος.
  4. ^ Amm. Marc. 14.8.
  5. ^ Pliny. Naturalis Historia. 5.27.
  6. ^ Edwards, Robert W. (1987). The Fortifications of Armenian Cilicia: Dumbarton Oaks Studies XXIII. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks, Trustees for Harvard University. pp. 65–72, 281, pls.9a–18b, 287b–289c. ISBN 0-88402-163-7.
  7. ^ Robert W. Edwards, "Ecclesiastical Architecture in the Fortifications of Armenian Cilicia: First Report, Dumbarton Oaks Papers 36, 1982, pp.156–61, 168, pls.1–7.
  8. ^ Robert W. Edwards, "Ecclesiastical Architecture in the Fortifications of Armenian Cilicia: Second Report, Dumbarton Oaks Papers 37, 1983, pp.128–34, pls.2, 18–29, 36–46.
  9. ^ a b Statue of Hygieia and Eros uncovered in southern Turkey
  10. ^ Edwards, Robert W., "Anazarbos" (2016). The Eerdmans Encyclopedia of Early Christian Art and Archaeology, ed., Paul Corby Finney. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 57–58. ISBN 978-0-8028-9016-0.
  11. ^ Oriens christianus: in quatuor patriarchatus digestus : quo exhibentur ... by Michel Le Quien ((O.P.)), Oriens christianus (ex Typographia Regia, 1740) p40.
  12. ^ R. P. C. Hanson, The Search for the Christian Doctrine of God: The Arian Controversy 318-381 (Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1988), 41-3, quote, 43.
  13. ^ Michel Le Quien, Oriens christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus, Paris 1740, Vol. II, coll. 885–888
  14. ^ Gaetano Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica, Vol. 2, pp. 40–41
  15. ^ Siméon Vailhé, v. Anazarbe, in Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie ecclésiastiques, vol. II, Paris 1914, coll. 1504–1506
  16. ^ Echos d'Orient 1907, p. 95.
  17. ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1).
  18. ^ a b Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Volume 8, Page 99, and Page 328.
  19. ^ a b Domina of Anazarbus.
  20. ^ a b St. Theodula of Anazarbus in Cilicia.

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainSmith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "Anazarbus". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray.

Sources and external links

Anazarbus (West Syriac diocese)

The city of Anazarbus was an archdiocese of the Syriac Orthodox Church, attested between the sixth and twelfth centuries. Nearly thirty Syriac Orthodox bishops or metropolitans of Anazarbus are mentioned either by Michael the Syrian or in other Syriac Orthodox narrative sources. The archdiocese is last mentioned towards the end of the twelfth century, and seems to have lapsed in the early decades of the thirteenth century.

Ancient Greek Olympic festivals

In Greek antiquity, athletic festivals under the name of "Olympic games", named in imitation of the original Olympic games at Olympia, were held in various places all over the Greek world. Some of these are only known to us by inscriptions and coins; but others, as the Olympic festival at Antioch, obtained great celebrity. After these Olympic festivals had been established in several places, the great Olympic festival itself was sometimes designated in inscriptions by the addition of Pisa.

Aegae in Macedonia. This festival was in existence in the time of Alexander the Great.

Alexandria. In later times, the number of Alexandrian conquerors in the great Olympic Games in Elis was greater than from any other state.

Anazarbus in Cilicia. Lately introduced games.

Antioch at Daphne, a small place, 40 stadia from Antioch, where there was a large sacred grove watered by many fountains. The festival was originally called Daphnea, and was sacred to Apollo and Artemis, but was called Olympia, after the inhabitants of Antioch had purchased from the Eleans, in 44 AD, the privilege of celebrating Olympic games. It was not, however, regularly celebrated as an Olympic festival until the time of the emperor Commodus. It commenced on the first day of the month Hyperberetaeus, with which the year of Antioch began. It was under the presidency of an Alytarches. The celebration of it was abolished by Justin I, 521 AD. The writings of Libanius, and of Chrysostom, the Christian Father, who lived many years at Antioch, gave various particulars respecting this festival.

Athens. There were two festivals of the name of Olympia celebrated at Athens, one of which was in existence in the time of Pindar who celebrates the ancestors of the Athenian Timodemus as conquerors in it, and perhaps much earlier (Schol. ad Thuc. i. 126). It was celebrated to the honour of Zeus, in the spring between the Great Dionysia and Bendidia (see Bendis). The other Olympic festival at Athens was instituted by Hadrian 131 AD; from which time a new Olympic era commenced.

Attalia in Pamphylia. This festival is only known to us by coins.

Cyzicus in Mysia.

Cyrene in Libya.

Dion in Macedonia. These games were instituted by Archelaus I of Macedon, and lasted nine days, corresponding to the number of the nine Muses. Euripides wrote and presented Bacchae and Archelaus (drama) there. They were celebrated with great splendour by Philip II and Alexander the Great.

Ephesus. This festival appears by inscriptions, in which it is sometimes called Hadriana Olympia en Epheso, to have been instituted by Hadrian.

Elis. Besides the great Olympic Games, there appear to have been smaller ones celebrated yearly.

Magnesia in Lydia.

Neapolis in Italy.

Nicaea in Bithynia.

Nicopolis in Epirus. Augustus, after the conquest of Antony, off Actium, founded Nicopolis, and instituted games to be celebrated every five years in commemoration of his victory. These games are sometimes called Olympic, but more, frequently bear the name of Actia. They were sacred to Apollo, and were under the care of the Lacedaemonians.

Olympus upon the mountain between Thessaly and Macedonia.

Pergamos in Mysia.

Side in Pamphylia.

Smyrna. Pausanias mentions an Agon of the Smyrnaeans, which Corsini (Diss. Agon. i. 12. p. 20) supposes to be an Olympic festival. The Marmor Oxoniense expressly mentions Olympia at Smyrna, and they also occur in inscriptions.

Tarsus in Cilicia.

Tegea in Arcadia.

Thessalonica in Macedonia.

Thyatira in Lydia.

Tralles in Lydia.

Tyrus in Phoenicia.

Charles Eyre (bishop)

Charles Petre Eyre (1817–1902) was a Roman Catholic clergyman who served as the Archbishop of Glasgow from 1878 to 1902.

Cilicia

In antiquity, Cilicia () was the south coastal region of Asia Minor and existed as a political entity from the Hittite era until the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, during the late Byzantine Empire. Extending inland from the southeastern coast of modern Turkey, Cilicia is due north and northeast of the island of Cyprus and corresponds to the modern region of Çukurova in Turkey.

Diocese of Alexandretta

The Diocese of Alexandretta is a titular Christian bishopric centred on the town of Alexandretta in Turkey. It is also known as Alexandrinus or Cambysopolis. The bishopric of Alexandria Minor was a suffragan of Anazarbus, the capital and so also the ecclesiastical metropolis of the Roman province of Cilicia Secunda. No longer a residential diocese, Alexandria Minor is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.

Domnina

Domnina can refer to:

Domnina (daughter of Nero), alleged daughter of Emperor Nero according to a Christian tradition

St. Domnina of Terni, 3rd-century Christian martyr at Terni, Italy (feast day: April 14)

St. Domnina of Anazarbus, 3rd-century Christian martyr at Anazarbus, Asia Minor (feast day: October 12)

Sts. Domnina, Berenice, and Prosdoce, 4th-century martyrs (feast day: October 4)

St. Domnina of Syria, 5th century ascetic (feast day: March 1)

Oksana Domnina, Russian ice dancer

Domnina of Anazarbus

Saint Domnina is venerated as a Christian martyr by the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches. According to tradition, she was a native of Cilicia who was imprisoned at Anazarbus and repeatedly beaten on the order of the Roman prefect Lysias (or Licius). She was then burned with fire. She died in prison.According to one source, “The Roman Martyrologist must have used a corrupt manuscript in which Lycia was substituted for Lysias, as he places St. Domnina’s martyrdom in the Province of that name.”

Epiphania (Cilicia)

Epiphania or Epiphaneia (Ancient Greek: Ἐπιφανεία) was a city in Cilicia Secunda (Cilicia Trachea), in Anatolia.

The city was originally called Oeniandos or Oiniandos, and was located in the area of the northern tip of the Gulf of Iskenderun on the route from Missis to Antioch. In the 2nd century BC the city was renamed Epiphania, in honour of Antiochus IV Epiphanes, King of Syria from 175 BC to 164 BC.

The city is mentioned in the writings of Ptolemy and Pliny the Elder. Cicero stayed there briefly during his exile. In 66 BC the Roman general Pompey led a campaign against the Mediterranean pirates. After the surrender of the pirates, they were dispersed and many were settled at Epiphania.

Holy Unmercenaries

Holy Unmercenaries (Greek: Άγιοι Ανάργυροι, Agioi Anárgyroi) is an epithet applied to a number of Christian saints who did not accept payment for good deeds. These include healers or Christian physicians who, in conspicuous opposition to medical practice of the day, tended to the sick free of charge. It may refer to:

Zenaida and Philonella (c. 100)

Saint Tryphon (c. 250)

Martyr Thalelaeus the Unmercenary, at Anazarbus in Cilicia (284)

Saints Cosmas and Damian (c. 303)

Saint Pantaleon (c. 305), also called Saint Panteleimon

Saints Cyrus and John (c. 304)

Saint Diomedes of Tarsus (c. 311)

Saint Sampson the Hospitable (c. 530)

St Agapetus of the Kiev Caves (1095)

St Luka Voyno-Yasenetsky (1961)

Saint Blaise

Blessed Matrona Nikonova

Julian of Antioch

Julian (Latin: Julianus; d. AD 305 x 311), variously distinguished as Julian the Martyr, Julian of Antioch, Julian of Tarsus, Julian of Cilicia, and Julian of Anazarbus, was a 4th-century Christian martyr and saint. He is sometimes confused with the St Julian who was martyred with his wife Basilissa.

Leandis

Leandis (Ancient Greek: Λεανδίς) was a town in the eastern part of ancient Cataonia 18 miles to the south of Cocusus, in a pass of Mount Taurus, on the road to Anazarbus. This town is perhaps the same as the Laranda of the Antonine Itinerary and of the Synecdemus, which must not be confounded with the Laranda of Lycaonia.

Its site is unlocated.

List of World Heritage Sites in Turkey (tentative list)

Below is the tentative list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Turkey. (For the criteria see the Selection criteria)

List of ancient settlements in Turkey

Below is the list of ancient settlements in Turkey. There are innumerable ruins of ancient settlements spread all over the country. While some ruins date back to Neolithic times, most of them were settlements of Hittites, Phrygians, Lydians, Ionians, Urartians, and so on.

Mamure Castle

Mamure Castle (Turkish: Mamure kalesi) is a medieval castle in the Anamur District of Mersin Province, Turkey.

Oppian

Oppian (Ancient Greek: Ὀππιανός, Oppianós; Latin: Oppianus), also known as Oppian of Anazarbus, of Corycus, or of Cilicia, was a 2nd-century Greco-Roman poet during the reign of the emperors Marcus Aurelius and Commodus.

Pedanius Dioscorides

Pedanius Dioscorides (Greek: Πεδάνιος Διοσκουρίδης Pedanios Dioskouridēs; c. 40 – 90 AD) was a Greek physician, pharmacologist, botanist, and author of De Materia Medica (Ancient Greek: Περὶ ὕλης ἰατρικῆς, On Medical Material) —a 5-volume Greek encyclopedia about herbal medicine and related medicinal substances (a pharmacopeia), that was widely read for more than 1,500 years. He was employed as a physician in the Roman army.

Theodula of Anazarbus

Theodula of Anazarbus was an early Christian saint and martyr who lived in the city of Anazarbus (Asia Minor) during the reign of the

Roman emperors Diocletian (284-305) and Maximian (305-311).

Little is known of her life. Her vita records, however, that when brought forward to sacrifice to the Roman gods she merely blew and the statue of the deified Hadrian fell to dust before her. She also survived many tortures and that the Roman governor Pelagius died while watching one of these being administered. Tradition also holds that she converted her torturer to Christianity before both she and he were executed. She was believed to have been put to death along with Boethus, Evagrius and Macarius.She is considered a saint of the Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches. with a feast day celebrated on 5 February.

Thoros I, Prince of Armenia

Toros I (Armenian: Թորոս Ա), also Thoros I, (unknown – 1129 / February 17, 1129 – February 16, 1130) was the third lord of Armenian Cilicia or “Lord of the Mountains” (c. 1100 / 1102 / 1103 – 1129 / 1130).

His alliance with the leaders of the First Crusade helped him rule his feudal holdings with commanding authority. Toros ejected the Byzantine garrisons from the fortifications at Anazarbus and Sis (ancient city), making the latter his capital. He was plagued by the nomadic Turks who were harassing him from the north but were driven back.He avenged the death of King Gagik II by killing his assassins. This act of revenge was often used by chroniclers of the 12th century as direct evidence connecting the Roupenians to the Bagratid lineage.During his time he bestowed favors and gave gifts and money to many monasteries for their decoration and adornment, in particular those of Drazark (Trassarg) and Mashgevar.

Thoros II, Prince of Armenia

Toros II the Great (Armenian: Թորոս Բ), also Thoros II, (unknown – February 6, 1169) was the sixth lord of Armenian Cilicia or “Lord of the Mountains” (1144/1145–1169).

Thoros (together with his father, Leo I and his brother, Roupen) was taken captive and imprisoned in Constantinople in 1137 after the Byzantine Emperor John II Comnenus, during his campaign against Cilicia and the Principality of Antioch, successfully had laid siege to Gaban and Vahka (today Feke in Turkey). All Cilicia remained under Byzantine rule for eight years.Unlike his father and brother, Thoros survived his incarceration in Constantinople and was able to escape in 1143. Whatever the conditions in which Thoros entered Cilicia, he found it occupied by many Greek garrisons. He rallied around him the Armenians in the eastern parts of Cilicia and after a persistent and relentless pursuit of the Greeks, he successfully ousted the Byzantine garrisons from Pardzerpert (now Andırın in Turkey), Vahka, Sis (today Kozan in Turkey), Anazarbus, Adana, Mamistra and eventually Tarsus. His victories were aided by the lack of Muslim attacks in Cilicia and from the setbacks the Greeks and the Crusaders suffered on the heels of the loss of Edessa.Emperor Manuel I Comnenus, unhappy with Thoros's progress in the areas still claimed by the Byzantine Empire, sought peaceful means to settle his conflict with Thoros, but his attempts bore him no fruits. The recovery before 1150 of the Taurus fortresses by Thoros had not seriously affected Greek power, but his conquest of Mamistra in 1151 and the rest of Cilicia in 1152 had necessitated a great expedition. As a result, during the course of the next 20 years there were no less than three separate military campaigns launched by the emperor against Thoros, but each campaign was only able to produce a limited success.Thoros's accomplishments during his reign placed Armenian Cilicia on a firm footing.

Thoros was of a tall figure and of a strong mind: his compassion was universal; like the light of the sun he shone by his good works, and flourished by his faith; he was the shield of truth and the crown of righteousness; he was well versed in the Holy Scriptures and in the profane sciences. It is said that he was of such profound understanding, as to be able to explain the difficult expressions of the prophets – his explanations even still exist.

Aegean
Black Sea
Central Anatolia
Eastern Anatolia
Marmara
Mediterranean
Southeastern
Anatolia
Aegean
Region
Black Sea
Region
Central Anatolia
Region
Eastern Anatolia
Region
Marmara
Region
Mediterranean
Region
Southeastern Anatolia
Region
All over Turkey

Languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.