Anatolius of Laodicea

Anatolius of Laodicea (early 3rd century – July 3, 283[1]), also known as Anatolius of Alexandria, was Bishop of Laodicea on the Mediterranean coast of Roman Syria, and was one of the foremost scholars of his day in the physical sciences as well as in Aristotelean philosophy. He was also a great computist. The seventeen centuries old enigma of his famous 19-year Paschal cycle has recently been completely resolved by the Irish scholars Daniel P. Mc Carthy and Aidan Breen[2]. He is considered a saint by the Eastern Orthodox and the Roman Catholic Churches

Saint Anatolius
Bishop and Confessor
Bornearly 3rd century
Alexandria, Ptolemaic Egypt
DiedJuly 3, 283
Laodicea, Roman Syria (now Latakia, Syria)
Venerated inRoman Catholic Church; Eastern Orthodox Church;
FeastJuly 3

Life

Anatolius was born and raised in Alexandria, Egypt, during the early 3rd century. Prior to becoming one of the great lights of the Church, Anatolius enjoyed considerable prestige at Alexandria, and was credited with a rich knowledge of arithmetic, geometry, physics, rhetoric, dialectic, and astronomy.[3] According to Eusebius of Caesarea, Anatolius was deemed worthy to maintain the school of the Aristotelian succession in Alexandria.[4] The pagan philosopher Iamblichus studied among his disciples for a short time.[5]

There are fragments of ten books on arithmetic written by him, and also a treatise on time of the Paschal celebration.[3]

A story is told by Eusebius of the way in which Anatolius broke up a rebellion in a part of Alexandria known then as Bruchium. It was held by the forces of Zenobia, and being strictly beleaguered by the Romans was in a state of starvation. The saint, who was living in Bruchium at the time, made arrangements with the besiegers to receive all the women and children, as well as the old and infirm, continuing at the same time to let as many as wished profit by the means of escaping. It broke up the defence and the rebels surrendered. It was a patriotic action on the part of the saint, as well as one of great benevolence, in saving so many innocent victims from death.[6]

In going to Laodicea he was seized by the people and made bishop. Whether his friend Eusebius had died, or whether they both occupied the see together, is a matter of much discussion. The question is treated at length in the Bollandists.

St Anatolius' feast day, like that of his namesake Saint Anatolius of Constantinople, is celebrated on July 3.

Notes

  1. ^ "Lives of the Saints," Omer Englebert New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1994, p. 256
  2. ^ "The Ante-Nicene Christian Pasch: De ratione paschali, the Paschal Tract of Anatolius, bishop of Laodicea" by Daniel P. Mc Carthy and Aidan Breen (2003) Dublin: Four Courts Press
  3. ^ a b "Lives of the Saints," p. 256
  4. ^ Eusebius, Historia Ecclesiastica 7.32.6.
  5. ^ Eunapius, Lives of the Philosophers and Sophists
  6. ^ Eusebius, Historia Ecclesiastica 7.32.6-13

References

  • Acta Sanctorum, I, July
  • Michaud, Biog. Univ.
  • Sabine Baring-Gould, Lives of the Saints (London, 1872)
  • "Lives of the Saints," Omer Englebert, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1994, pp 532, ISBN 1-56619-516-0 (casebound)
  • "The Ante-Nicene Christian Pasch: De ratione paschali, the Paschal Tract of Anatolius, bishop of Laodicea" by Daniel P. Mc Carthy and Aidan Breen (2003) Dublin: Four Courts Press

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainCampbell, Thomas Joseph (1907). "St. Anatolius (1)" . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. 1. New York: Robert Appleton.

Further reading

  • Kieffer, John (1970). "Anatolius of Alexandria". Dictionary of Scientific Biography. 1. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. pp. 148–149. ISBN 0-684-10114-9.
  • Zuidhoek, Jan (2017). "The initial year of De ratione Paschali and the relevance of its paschal dates". Studia Traditionis Theologiae. 26. Turnhout: Brepols Publishers. pp. 71–93. ISBN 978-2-503-57709-8.

External links

Anatolius

Anatolius is both a given name and a surname. Notable people with the name include:

Given nameAnatolius of Laodicea (died 283), Bishop of Laodicea in Syria, also known as Anatolius of Alexandria

Anatolius, Vicarius of the Diocese of Asia in 352

Anatolius (praetorian prefect), Praetorian prefect of Illyricum in 360, probably identical to Vindonius Anatolius

Anatolius (magister militum) (421–451), East Roman general, politician and diplomat

Patriarch Anatolius of Constantinople, Patriarch of Constantinople (449 - 458)

Anatolius (curator), Byzantine honorary consul, killed in an earthquake in 557

Anatolius (Osroene), Byzantine governor of Osroene, executed as a crypto-pagan c. 579

Frans Anatolius Sjöström (1840–1885), Finnish architectSurnameVindonius Anatolius, 4th century Greek writer

Aristobulus of Alexandria

Aristobulus of Alexandria (Greek: Ἀριστόβουλος) also called Aristobulus the Peripatetic (fl. 181–124 B.C.E.) and once believed to be Aristobulus of Paneas, was a Hellenistic Jewish philosopher of the Peripatetic school, though he also used Platonic and Pythagorean concepts. Like his successor, Philo, he attempted to fuse ideas in the Hebrew Scriptures with those in Greek thought.

Computus

Computus (Latin for "computation") is a calculation that determines the calendar date of Easter. Because the date is based on a calendar-dependent equinox rather than the astronomical one, there are differences between calculations done according to the Julian calendar and the modern Gregorian calendar. The name has been used for this procedure since the early Middle Ages, as it was considered the most important computation of the age.

For most of their history Christians have calculated Easter independently of the Jewish calendar. In principle, Easter falls on the Sunday following the full moon on or after the northern spring equinox (the paschal full moon). However, the vernal equinox and the full moon are not determined by astronomical observation. The vernal equinox is fixed to fall on 21 March (previously it varied in different areas and in some areas Easter was allowed to fall before the equinox). The full moon is an ecclesiastical full moon determined by reference to a conventional cycle. While Easter now falls at the earliest on the 15th of the lunar month and at the latest on the 21st, in some areas it used to fall at the earliest on the 14th (the day of the paschal full moon) and at the latest on the 20th, or between the sixteenth and the 22nd. The last limit arises from the fact that the crucifixion was considered to have happened on the 14th (the eve of the Passover) and the resurrection therefore on the sixteenth. The "computus" is the procedure of determining the first Sunday after the first ecclesiastical full moon falling on or after 21 March, and the difficulty arose from doing this over the span of centuries without accurate means of measuring the precise tropical year. The synodic month had already been measured to a high degree of accuracy. The schematic model that eventually was accepted is the Metonic cycle, which equates 19 tropical years to 235 synodic months.

In 1583, the Catholic Church began using 21 March under the Gregorian calendar to calculate the date of Easter, while the Eastern churches have continued to use 21 March under the Julian calendar. The Catholic and Protestant denominations thus use an ecclesiastical full moon that occurs four, five or thirty-four days earlier than the eastern one.

The earliest and latest dates for Easter are 22 March and 25 April, in the Gregorian calendar as those dates are commonly understood. However, in the Orthodox churches, while those dates are the same, they are reckoned using the Julian calendar; therefore, on the Gregorian calendar as of the 21st century, those dates are 4 April and 8 May.

First Council of Nicaea

The First Council of Nicaea (; Greek: Νίκαια [ˈnikεa]) was a council of Christian bishops convened in the Bithynian city of Nicaea (now İznik, Bursa province, Turkey) by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in AD 325.

This ecumenical council was the first effort to attain consensus in the Church through an assembly representing all of Christendom. Hosius of Corduba, who was probably one of the papal legates, may have presided over its deliberations.Its main accomplishments were settlement of the Christological issue of the divine nature of God the Son and his relationship to God the Father, the construction of the first part of the Nicene Creed, establishing uniform observance of the date of Easter, and promulgation of early canon law.

Iamblichus

Iamblichus (; Greek: Ἰάμβλιχος; c. AD 245 – c. 325) was a Syrian Neoplatonist philosopher of Arab origin. He determined the direction that would later be taken by Neoplatonic philosophy. He was also the biographer of Pythagoras, a Greek mystic, philosopher and mathematician.

Aside from Iamblichus' own philosophical contribution, his Protrepticus is of importance for the study of the Sophists, owing to its preservation of approximately ten pages of an otherwise unknown Sophist known as the Anonymus Iamblichi.

July 3

July 3 is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 181 days remain until the end of the year.

July 3 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)

July 2 - Eastern Orthodox Church calendar - July 4

All fixed commemorations below are celebrated on July 16 by Old Calendar.For July 3rd, Orthodox Churches on the Old Calendar commemorate the Saints listed on June 20.

List of medieval European scientists

Scientific activity in medieval Europe was maintained by the activity of a number of significant scholars, active in a wide range of scientific disciplines and working in Greek, Latin, and Arabic-speaking cultures. This list provides a brief summary of their work.

List of people from Latakia

The following is a list of notable people from Latakia and ancient Laodicea.

List of saints from Africa

This is a list of saints, blesseds, venerables, and Servants of God from Africa, as recognized by the Roman Catholic Church or other Christian denomination. These people were born, died, or lived their religious life in any of the states or territories of Africa.

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