The Anarta tradition or Anarta ware is a chalcolithic culture tentatively dated between c. 3950 BCE to 1900 BCE based on radio carbon dates from Loteshwar and Gola Dhoro. The sites associated with it are located in Gujarat, India.
|Geographical range||South Asia (Gujarat)|
|Dates||c. 3950 BCE to 1900 BCE|
|Major sites||Loteshwar, Datrana|
|Preceded by||possibly Mesolithic peoples|
|Followed by||Harappan Civilization|
|Defined by||P. Ajithprasad and V. H. Sonawane|
During the earlier excavations at Surkotada, the ceramics of this culture were described as the coarse red or gray "local" ware. P. Ajitprasad and V. H. Sonawane described these non-Harappan ceramics from north Gujarat as the "Anarta ware". Anarta is a historical name of north Gujarat. The name later applied retrospectively to this type of ceramics found from other sites.
The core area of Anarta tradition is located in north Gujarat having 67 sites while four sites are reported from Kutch and three sites from Saurashtra regions. The Padri Ware is not very different from the Anarta tradition. So if it is considered as the Anarta tradition, its ten sites in Saurashtra can be added to the Anarta tradition.
The ceramics similar to the Anarta tradition was first reported from Surkotada with Classical Harappan (IA, IB and IC periods) ceramics. When Nagwada in Surendranagar district was excavated, this distinctive regional type of ceramics were first recognized where it was associated with Pre-Urban and Urban Harappan artifacts. The Anarta tradition was recognized as an independent culture when Loteshwar in Patan district was excavated in 1991-92. These ceramics are also associated with Pre-Urban Harappan Sindh Type Pottery/Burial pottery (Amri Nal type) found at Motipipli and Datrana and with Pre-Prabhas pottery at Datrana. These ceramics are also compared and found similar to the Padri Ware. These ceramics are also found in the association of the Classical Harappan and Sorath Harappan elements at Gola Dhoro (Bagasara) in Saurashtra and Shikarpur in Kutch. These ceramics are also found Rangpur IIC period. They are not found associated with Post-Urban Harrapan artefacts at any sites. Other sites are Panchasar, Santhli, Lothal, Zekhada, Rojdi and possibly Desalpur. These sites are concentrated in Patan, Mehsana and Banaskantha districts in north Gujarat. These sites in north Gujarat are located in sand dunes which may have provided fresh water from its interdunal depressions and pastures for animals. These people may have originated from the early Mesolithic people settled here.
The Anarta ceramics include gritty red ware, fine red ware, burnished red ware and burnished grey/black wares. The pottery from this tradition are hand or slow wheel made and are coarse and well-fired. The vessel forms include straight or convex sided bowls with incurved rims; basins with thick flaring rim; pots or jars with flaring rim, narrow neck and bulging body. These vessels are treated with red slip with paintings in red, black and white.
The Ahar culture, also known as the Banas culture is a Chalcolithic archaeological culture on the banks of Ahar River of southeastern Rajasthan state in India, lasting from c. 3000 to 1500 BCE, contemporary and adjacent to the Indus Valley Civilization. Situated along the Banas and Berach Rivers, as well as the Ahar River, the Ahar–Banas people were exploiting the copper ores of the Aravalli Range to make axes and other artefacts. They were sustained on a number of crops, including wheat and barley.Chalukyas of Lata
The Chalukyas of Lata were an Indian dynasty, which ruled the Lata region of present-day Gujarat during 10th and 11th centuries. They ruled as feudatories of the Western Chalukyas in their early years, and were ultimately defeated by the Chaulukyas of Gujarat (Solankis).Chudasama dynasty
The Chudasama dynasty ruled parts of the present-day Saurashtra region of Gujarat state in India between the 9th and 15th centuries. Their capital was based in Junagadh and Vamanasthali, and they were later classified among the Rajput clans.
The early history of Chudasama dynasty is almost lost. The bardic legends differs very much in names, order and numbers so they are not considered reliable. Traditionally, the dynasty is said to have been founded in the late 9th century by Chudachandra. Subsequent rulers such as Graharipu, Navaghana and Khengara were in conflict with Chaulukya rulers Mularaja and Jayasimha Siddharaja. Thus they are mentioned in contemporary and later Jain chronicles. After end of the rule of Chaulukya and their successor Vaghela dynasty in Gujarat, the Chudasamas continued to rule independently or as a vassal of successor states, Delhi Sultanate and Gujarat Sultanate. Mandalika I was the first known ruler from inscriptions during whose reign Gujarat was invaded by Khalji dynasty of Delhi. The last king of the dynasty, Mandalika III, was defeated and forcibly converted to Islam in 1472 by Gujarat Sultan Mahmud Begada, who also annexed the state.Deva dynasty
Deva Dynasty (c. 12th – 13th centuries) was a Hindu dynasty which originated in the Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent; the dynasty ruled over eastern Bengal after the Sena dynasty. The capital of the dynasty was Bikrampur in present-day Munshiganj District of Bangladesh.
This Hindu Vaishnava dynasty is different from an earlier Buddhist Dabnyawatti dynasty (c. 8th-9th centuries) of Samatata, whose capital was Danyawatti. Four rulers of this dynasty are known from the inscriptions: Shantideva, Viradeva, Anandadeva and Bhavadeva. The rule of the Devas was indeed a period of peace, prosperity, and creative excellence, and may be designated as the "Golden Age".Eastern Ganga dynasty
The Eastern Ganga dynasty was a medieval Indian dynasty that reigned from Kalinga from the 11th century to the early 15th century. The territory ruled by the dynasty consisted of the whole of the modern-day Indian state of Odisha as well as parts of West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh and Chhattisgarh. The early rulers of the dynasty ruled from Dantapura; the capital was later moved to Kalinganagara (modern Mukhalingam), and ultimately to Kataka (modern Cuttack). Today, they are most remembered as the builders of the Konark Sun Temple, a UNESCO World Heritage site at Konark, Odisha.
The rulers of Eastern Ganga dynasty defended their kingdom from the constant attacks of the Muslim rulers. This kingdom prospered through trade and commerce and the wealth was mostly used in the construction of temples. The rule of the dynasty came to an end under the reign of King Bhanudeva IV (1414–34), in the early 15th century. Their currency was called Ganga fanams and was greatly influenced by the Cholas and Eastern Chalukyas of southern India.Gandhara grave culture
The Gandhara grave culture, also called Swat culture, emerged c. 1600 BC, and flourished c. 1500 BC to 500 BC in Gandhara, which lies in modern-day Pakistan and Afghanistan. It has been regarded as a token of the Indo-Aryan migrations, but has also been explained by local cultural continuity.Iron Age in India
In the prehistory of the Indian subcontinent, an "Iron Age" is recognized as succeeding the Late Harappan (Cemetery H) culture.
The main Iron Age archaeological cultures of present-day northern India are the Painted Grey Ware culture (1200 to 600 BCE) and the Northern Black Polished Ware (700 to 200 BCE). This corresponds to the transition of the Janapadas or tribal kingdoms of the Vedic period to the sixteen Mahajanapadas or kingdoms of the proto-historic period, culminating in the emergence of the historical Buddhist Maurya Empire towards the end of the period.
As elsewhere, the earliest evidence of iron smelting predates the emergence of the Iron Age proper by several centuries.Jorwe culture
The Jorwe culture was a Chalcolithic archaeological culture which existed in large areas of what is now Maharashtra state in Western India, and also reached north into the Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh. It is named after the type site of Jorwe. The early phase of the culture is dated to c. 1400-1000 BCE, while the late phase is dated to c. 1000-700 BCE.Over 200 settlements of the Jorwe culture have been found, ranging from several large and medium-sized farming villages, to many small villages, as well as temporary and seasonal camp-sites used by pastoralists. It likely reflects a chiefdom level of social organization. The largest settlement was Daimabad, which had a mud fortification during this period, as well as an elliptical temple with fire pits. Some settlements show evidence of planning in the layout of rectangular houses and streets or lanes. Most dwellings were small, single-room dwellings, but the chiefs lived in large houses with multiple rooms, and had granaries to store grain.The pottery is red and orange, and painted with geometric patterns in black. Agriculture was largely the same as the earlier Malwa culture, including wheat, barley, and legumes, but with the addition of new kinds of millet. The people traded with Karnataka for gold and ivory, and with coastal India (Gujarat and Konkan) for fish, conch shell, and haematite. Their dead were typically buried with the feet cut off, in urns which were placed under house floors or courtyards. Most Jorwe culture sites were abandoned around 1000 BCE, possibly due to famine or drought, and the remaining sites show signs of increased poverty until their abandonment c. 700 BCE. Sites of the Jorwe culture include Jorwe, Daimabad, Inamgaon, Prakashe, Navdatoli (near Maheshwar), Walki (in Pune District).
The Jorwe culture was preceded by the Malwa culture and succeeded by the Iron Age megalithic culture of the Deccan, and the Northern Black Polished Ware culture.Kalabhra dynasty
The Kalabhra dynasty (Tamil: களப்பிரர் Kalappirar) ruled over the entire ancient Tamil country between the 3rd and the 7th century in an era of South Indian history called the Kalabhra interregnum. The Kalabhras, possibly Jain, displaced the kingdoms of the early Cholas, early Pandyas and Chera dynasties by a revolt.
Information about the origin and reign of the Kalabhras is scarce. They left neither artefacts nor monuments, and the only sources of information are scattered mentions in Sangam, Buddhist and Jain literature. The Kalabhras were defeated by the joint efforts of the Pallavas, Pandyas and Chalukyas of Badami.Kanva dynasty
The Kanva dynasty or Kanvayana was a Brahmin dynasty that replaced the Shunga dynasty in parts of Eastern and Central India, and ruled from 75 BCE to 30 BCE.Although the Puranic literature indicates that the Kanva Dynasty ruled in Magadha (in eastern India), their coins are primarily found in and around Vidisha in central India, which had also been the capital of the later Shunga rulers.The last ruler of the Shunga dynasty, Devabhuti, was overthrown by his minister Vasudeva, who founded the Kanva dynasty in 75 BC. The Kanva ruler allowed the kings of the Shunga dynasty to continue to rule in obscurity in a corner of their former dominions. There were four Kanva rulers. According to the Puranas, their dynasty was brought to an end by the Satavahanas.Loteshwar
Loteshwar is a village and an archaeological site belonging to Indus Valley Civilisation located at Patan district, Gujarat, India. This site is locally also known as Khari-no-timbo and located on a high sand dune on left bank of Khari river, a tributary of Rupen river.Mahameghavahana dynasty
The Mahameghavahana dynasty (Mahā-Mēgha-Vāhana, c. 250s BC to 5th century CE) was an ancient ruling dynasty of Kalinga after the decline of the Maurya Empire. The third ruler of the dynasty, Kharavela is known by his Hathigumpha inscription.
Kharavela patronised Jainism, but did not discriminate against other religions.Malwa culture
The Malwa culture was a Chalcolithic archaeological culture which existed in the Malwa region of Central India and parts of Maharashtra in the Deccan Peninsula. It is mainly dated to c. 1600 – c. 1300 BCE, but calibrated radiocarbon dates have suggested that the beginning of this culture may be as early as c. 2000-1750 BCE.
This culture is characterized by the increasing dominance of the agricultural way of life, but also incorporated pastoralist and hunting groups. The people cultivated wheat, barley, legumes, and later rice, and domesticated cattle, sheep, goats, and pigs. At most of the settlements, there is no evidence of urban planning, rather a "haphazard" distribution of houses, but some of the largest sites have evidence of planned settlement, large houses, and public architecture. Most dwellings were round huts made from wattle-and-daub. There are also small round huts used for storing grain, and large rectangular structures which may have been used for religious performances.Their pottery was red or orange, and painted with geometric, floral, animal, and human designs in black. Copper and stone were used to make tools. Beads of semi-precious stones have been found. Objects made from seashells indicate trade with coastal communities in Gujarat, such as Bharuch. Evidence of religion includes bull idols, worship of trees, snakes, and goddesses, and altars for fire sacrifices.Sites of the Malwa Culture include Daimabad, Inamgaon, Kayatha, Nagda, Vidisha, Eran, Mandsaur, and Navdatoli (near Maheshwar).It is preceded by the Kayatha, Ahar-Banas, and Savalda cultures, and succeeded by the Jorwe culture and the Black and red ware culture.Maukhari dynasty
The Maukhari dynasty was a royal Indian dynasty that controlled vast areas of Northern India for over six generations. They earlier served as vassals of the Guptas as well as related to Harsha and his short-lived Vardhan dynasty. The Maukharis established their independence at Kannauj, during the 6th century. The dynasty ruled over much of Uttar Pradesh and Magadha. Around 606 CE, a large area of their empire was reconquered by the Later Guptas.Nanda Empire
The Nanda dynasty was an ancient Indian dynasty that originated in Magadha region during the 4th century BCE and lasted between 345–321 BCE. At its greatest extent, the empire ruled by the Nanda Dynasty extended from Bengal in the east, to the Punjab region in the west and as far south as the Vindhya Range. The rulers of this dynasty were famed for the great wealth which they had accumulated. According to the Greek sources, the Nanda army was five times larger than the Macedonian army. The Nanda Empire was finally conquered by Chandragupta Maurya, founder of the Mauryan Empire.Northern Black Polished Ware
The Northern Black Polished Ware culture (abbreviated NBPW or NBP) is an urban Iron Age Indian culture of the Indian Subcontinent, lasting c. 700–200 BCE, succeeding the Painted Grey Ware culture and Black and red ware culture. It developed beginning around 700 BC, in the late Vedic period, and peaked from c. 500–300 BC, coinciding with the emergence of 16 great states or mahajanapadas in Northern India, and the subsequent rise of the Mauryan Empire.Tondaiman
The Tondaiman family were Tamil rulers of the ancient Tondai Nadu (Tondaimandalam) division of Tamilakkam in South India. Their capital was at Kanchipuram.They ruled with the Pallava dynasty, which controlled northern Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh and had its capital at Kanchipuram. Hundreds of records and edicts exist pertaining to the Tondaiman rulers of Chola dynasty.Tosham rock inscription
The Tosham rock inscription, dating from 4th to 5th century, on Tosham hill in Tosham town of Haryana state in India, is an epigraph documenting the establishment of a monastery and the building of water tanks for followers of the Satvata (ancient Yadava kingdom (who also built the Kalayat Ancient Bricks Temple Complex), who might have possibly been a branch or vassals of contemporary Satavahana dynasty 1 BCE to 2 CE which disintegrated into smaller kingdoms during 3rd CE) during the time of late Gupta Empire (240 CE to 550 CE).Yavana Kingdom
Yavana or Yona refers to a community in Indian texts and history. They are grouped under western countries along with Sindhu, Madra, Kekeya, Gandhara and Kamboja as per the descriptions in the epic Mahabharata. This word has been used in Indian history to refer to Greeks, such as those who arrived with Alexander the Great, and Indo-Greeks in the 1st millennium BCE.