Anarta tradition

The Anarta tradition or Anarta ware is a chalcolithic culture tentatively dated between c. 3950 BCE to 1900 BCE based on radio carbon dates from Loteshwar and Gola Dhoro.[1] The sites associated with it are located in Gujarat, India.

Anarta Tradition
Geographical rangeSouth Asia (Gujarat)
Datesc. 3950 BCE to 1900 BCE
Major sitesLoteshwar, Datrana
Preceded bypossibly Mesolithic peoples
Followed byHarappan Civilization
Defined byP. Ajithprasad and V. H. Sonawane


During the earlier excavations at Surkotada, the ceramics of this culture were described as the coarse red or gray "local" ware. P. Ajitprasad and V. H. Sonawane described these non-Harappan ceramics from north Gujarat as the "Anarta ware". Anarta is a historical name of north Gujarat. The name later applied retrospectively to this type of ceramics found from other sites.[2]

Geographical range

The core area of Anarta tradition is located in north Gujarat having 67 sites while four sites are reported from Kutch and three sites from Saurashtra regions. The Padri Ware is not very different from the Anarta tradition. So if it is considered as the Anarta tradition, its ten sites in Saurashtra can be added to the Anarta tradition.[1][2][3]

Sites and association with Harappans

The ceramics similar to the Anarta tradition was first reported from Surkotada with Classical Harappan (IA, IB and IC periods) ceramics. When Nagwada in Surendranagar district was excavated, this distinctive regional type of ceramics were first recognized where it was associated with Pre-Urban and Urban Harappan artifacts. The Anarta tradition was recognized as an independent culture when Loteshwar in Patan district was excavated in 1991-92. These ceramics are also associated with Pre-Urban Harappan Sindh Type Pottery/Burial pottery (Amri Nal type) found at Motipipli and Datrana and with Pre-Prabhas pottery at Datrana. These ceramics are also compared and found similar to the Padri Ware. These ceramics are also found in the association of the Classical Harappan and Sorath Harappan elements at Gola Dhoro (Bagasara) in Saurashtra and Shikarpur in Kutch. These ceramics are also found Rangpur IIC period. They are not found associated with Post-Urban Harrapan artefacts at any sites.[1][2][4] Other sites are Panchasar, Santhli, Lothal, Zekhada, Rojdi and possibly Desalpur.[2] These sites are concentrated in Patan, Mehsana and Banaskantha districts in north Gujarat.[3] These sites in north Gujarat are located in sand dunes which may have provided fresh water from its interdunal depressions and pastures for animals. These people may have originated from the early Mesolithic people settled here.[3]


The Anarta ceramics include gritty red ware, fine red ware, burnished red ware and burnished grey/black wares. The pottery from this tradition are hand or slow wheel made and are coarse and well-fired. The vessel forms include straight or convex sided bowls with incurved rims; basins with thick flaring rim; pots or jars with flaring rim, narrow neck and bulging body. These vessels are treated with red slip with paintings in red, black and white.[1][2]


  1. ^ a b c d K., Krishnan; S. V., Rajesh (2015). Dr., Shakirullah; Young, Ruth, eds. "Scenario of Chalcolithic Site Surveys in Gujarat". Pakistan Heritage. Department of Archaeology, Hazara University, Mansehra, Pakistan. 7: 4–5 – via
  2. ^ a b c d e Suzanne, Harris (2011). Mobility and Variation in Chalcolithic North Gujarat, India (Ca 3600 – 1800 Bc) (Thesis). University of Pennsylvania. pp. 101–106. open access publication – free to read Publicly accessible Penn Dissertations. Paper 359.
  3. ^ a b c SV, Rajesh (2011). "I. Introduction". A Comprehensive Study of the Regional Chalcolithic Cultures of Gujarat (Ph.D.). Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Faculty of Arts, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda. pp. 3–4, 168–169 – via Academia.
  4. ^ Rajesh, S.V.; Krishnan, K (2014-01-01). Chalcolithic Cultures of Gujarat (c. 3950 – 900 BCE): An Appraisal In "Pracyabodha – Indian Archaeology and Tradition (Professor T.P. Verma Festschrift Volume I)". p. 198. doi:10.13140/2.1.2989.3925. ISBN 9789350501450.
Ahar–Banas culture

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The early history of Chudasama dynasty is almost lost. The bardic legends differs very much in names, order and numbers so they are not considered reliable. Traditionally, the dynasty is said to have been founded in the late 9th century by Chudachandra. Subsequent rulers such as Graharipu, Navaghana and Khengara were in conflict with Chaulukya rulers Mularaja and Jayasimha Siddharaja. Thus they are mentioned in contemporary and later Jain chronicles. After end of the rule of Chaulukya and their successor Vaghela dynasty in Gujarat, the Chudasamas continued to rule independently or as a vassal of successor states, Delhi Sultanate and Gujarat Sultanate. Mandalika I was the first known ruler from inscriptions during whose reign Gujarat was invaded by Khalji dynasty of Delhi. The last king of the dynasty, Mandalika III, was defeated and forcibly converted to Islam in 1472 by Gujarat Sultan Mahmud Begada, who also annexed the state.

Deva dynasty

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This Hindu Vaishnava dynasty is different from an earlier Buddhist Dabnyawatti dynasty (c. 8th-9th centuries) of Samatata, whose capital was Danyawatti. Four rulers of this dynasty are known from the inscriptions: Shantideva, Viradeva, Anandadeva and Bhavadeva. The rule of the Devas was indeed a period of peace, prosperity, and creative excellence, and may be designated as the "Golden Age".

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Gandhara grave culture

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The main Iron Age archaeological cultures of present-day northern India are the Painted Grey Ware culture (1200 to 600 BCE) and the Northern Black Polished Ware (700 to 200 BCE). This corresponds to the transition of the Janapadas or tribal kingdoms of the Vedic period to the sixteen Mahajanapadas or kingdoms of the proto-historic period, culminating in the emergence of the historical Buddhist Maurya Empire towards the end of the period.

As elsewhere, the earliest evidence of iron smelting predates the emergence of the Iron Age proper by several centuries.

Jorwe culture

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Kanva dynasty

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Loteshwar is a village and an archaeological site belonging to Indus Valley Civilisation located at Patan district, Gujarat, India. This site is locally also known as Khari-no-timbo and located on a high sand dune on left bank of Khari river, a tributary of Rupen river.

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Nanda Empire

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Northern Black Polished Ware

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Yavana Kingdom

Yavana or Yona refers to a community in Indian texts and history. They are grouped under western countries along with Sindhu, Madra, Kekeya, Gandhara and Kamboja as per the descriptions in the epic Mahabharata. This word has been used in Indian history to refer to Greeks, such as those who arrived with Alexander the Great, and Indo-Greeks in the 1st millennium BCE.

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