Anarchism and Friedrich Nietzsche

The relation between anarchism and Friedrich Nietzsche has been ambiguous. Even though Nietzsche criticized anarchism,[1] his thought proved influential for many thinkers within what can be characterized as the anarchist movement.[2] As such "[t]here were many things that drew anarchists to Nietzsche: his hatred of the state; his disgust for the mindless social behavior of 'herds'; his anti-Christianity; his distrust of the effect of both the market and the State on cultural production; his desire for an 'übermensch'—that is, for a new human who was to be neither master nor slave".[2]

Overview

Nietzsche187a
Friedrich Nietzsche

During the last decade of the 19th century, Nietzsche was frequently associated with anarchist movements, in spite of the fact that in his writings he seems to hold a negative view of anarchists.[1] This may be the result of a popular association during this period between his ideas and those of Max Stirner.[3][4]

Spencer Sunshine writes that "[t]here were many things that drew anarchists to Nietzsche: his hatred of the state; his disgust for the mindless social behavior of 'herds'; his anti-Christianity; his distrust of the effect of both the market and the State on cultural production; his desire for an 'overman'—that is, for a new human who was to be neither master nor slave; his praise of the ecstatic and creative self, with the artist as his prototype, who could say, 'Yes' to the self-creation of a new world on the basis of nothing; and his forwarding of the 'transvaluation of values' as source of change, as opposed to a Marxist conception of class struggle and the dialectic of a linear history".[2]

For Sunshine, "[t]he list is not limited to culturally-oriented anarchists such as Emma Goldman, who gave dozens of lectures about Nietzsche and baptized him as an honorary anarchist. Pro-Nietzschean anarchists also include prominent Spanish CNTFAI members in the 1930s such as Salvador Seguí and anarcha-feminist Federica Montseny; anarcho-syndicalist militants like Rudolf Rocker; and even the younger Murray Bookchin, who cited Nietzsche's conception of the 'transvaluation of values' in support of the Spanish anarchist project." Also, in European individualist anarchist circles, his influence is clear in thinker/activists such as Emile Armand[5] and Renzo Novatore[6] among others. Also more recently in post-left anarchy Nietzsche is present in the thought of Albert Camus,[7] Hakim Bey, Michel Onfray, and Wolfi Landstreicher.

Max Stirner and Nietzsche

Max Stirner was a Hegelian philosopher whose "name appears with familiar regularity in historically-orientated surveys of anarchist thought as one of the earliest and best-known exponents of individualist anarchism".[8] In 1844, his The Ego and Its Own (Der Einzige and sein Eigentum which may literally be translated as The Unique Individual and His Property[9]) was published, which is considered to be "a founding text in the tradition of individualist anarchism".[8]

Stirner02
Caricature of Max Stirner taken from a sketch by Friedrich Engels during one of the Die Freien meetings.

The ideas of 19th-century German philosophers Max Stirner and Friedrich Nietzsche have often been compared, and many authors have discussed apparent similarities in their writings, sometimes raising the question of influence.[3] In Germany, during the early years of Nietzsche's emergence as a well-known figure, the only thinker discussed in connection with his ideas more often than Stirner was Schopenhauer.[10] It is certain that Nietzsche read about Stirner's book The Ego and Its Own (Der Einzige und sein Eigentum, 1845), which was mentioned in Lange's History of Materialism (1866) and Eduard von Hartmann's Philosophy of the Unconscious (1869), both of which young Nietzsche knew very well.[11] However, there is no irrefutable indication that he actually read it, as no mention of Stirner is known to exist anywhere in Nietzsche's publications, papers or correspondence.[12]

And yet as soon as Nietzsche's work began to reach a wider audience the question of whether or not he owed a debt of influence to Stirner was raised. As early as 1891 (while Nietzsche was still alive, though incapacitated by mental illness) Eduard von Hartmann went so far as to suggest that he had plagiarized Stirner.[13] By the turn of the century the belief that Nietzsche had been influenced by Stirner was so widespread that it became something of a commonplace, at least in Germany, prompting one observer to note in 1907 "Stirner's influence in modern Germany has assumed astonishing proportions, and moves in general parallel with that of Nietzsche. The two thinkers are regarded as exponents of essentially the same philosophy."[14]

Nevertheless, from the very beginning of what was characterized as "great debate"[15] regarding Stirner's possible influence on Nietzsche—positive or negative—serious problems with the idea were noted.[16] By the middle of the 20th century, if Stirner was mentioned at all in works on Nietzsche, the idea of influence was often dismissed outright or abandoned as unanswerable.[17]

But the idea that Nietzsche was influenced in some way by Stirner continues to attract a significant minority, perhaps because it seems necessary to explain in some reasonable fashion the often-noted (though arguably superficial) similarities in their writings.[18] In any case, the most significant problems with the theory of possible Stirner influence on Nietzsche are not limited to the difficulty in establishing whether the one man knew of or read the other. They also consist in establishing precisely how and why Stirner in particular might have been a meaningful influence on a man as widely read as Nietzsche.[19]

Individualist anarchism

Individualist anarchism in the United States

The two men were frequently compared by French "literary anarchists" and anarchist interpretations of Nietzschean ideas appear to have also been influential in the United States.[20] One researcher notes: "Indeed, translations of Nietzsche's writings in the United States very likely appeared first in Liberty, the anarchist journal edited by Benjamin Tucker." He adds "Tucker preferred the strategy of exploiting his writings, but proceeding with due caution: 'Nietzsche says splendid things, – often, indeed, Anarchist things, – but he is no Anarchist. It is of the Anarchists, then, to intellectually exploit this would-be exploiter. He may be utilized profitably, but not prophetably.'"[21]

Individualist anarchism in Europe

In European individualist anarchist circles his influence might have been stronger. As such French individualist anarchist and free love propagandist Emile Armand writes in mixed Stirnerian and Nietzschetian language[22] when he describes the anarchists as those who "are pioneers attached to no party, non-conformists, standing outside herd morality and conventional 'good' and 'evil', 'a-social'. A 'species' apart, one might say. They go forward, stumbling, sometimes falling, sometimes triumphant, sometimes vanquished. But they do go forward, and by living for themselves, these 'egoists', they dig the furrow, they open the broach through which will pass those who deny archism, the unique ones who will succeed them."[5]

Italian individualist anarchist and illegalist Renzo Novatore also shows a strong influence by Nietzsche. "Written around 1921, Toward the Creative Nothing, which visibly feels the effects of Nietzsche's influence on the author, attacks Christianity, socialism, democracy, fascism one after the other, showing the material and spiritual destitution in them."[6] In this poetic essay he writes: "For you, great things are in good as in evil. But we live beyond good and evil, because all that is great belongs to beauty" and "[e]ven the spirit of Zarathustra—the truest lover of war and the most sincere friend of warriors—must have remained sufficiently disgusted and scornful since somebody heard him exclaim: 'For me, you must be those who stretch your eyes in search of the enemy of your enemy. And in some of you hatred blazes at first glance. You must look for your enemy, fight your war. And this for your ideas! And if your idea succumbs, your rectitude cries of triumph!' But alas! The heroic sermon of the liberating barbarian availed nothing."[6]

Individualist anarchism in Latin America

Argentinian anarchist historian Angel Cappelletti reports that in Argentina: "Among the workers that came from Europe in the 2 first decades of the century, there was curiously some Stirnerian individualists influenced by the philosophy of Nietzsche, that saw syndicalism as a potential enemy of anarchist ideology. They established [...] affinity groups that in 1912 came to, according to Max Nettlau, to the number of 20. In 1911 there appeared, in Colón, the periodical El Único, that defined itself as 'Publicación individualista'".[23]

Vicente Rojas Lizcano whose pseudonym was Biófilo Panclasta, was a Colombian individualist anarchist writer and activist. In 1904 he begins using the name Biofilo Panclasta. "Biofilo" in Spanish stands for "lover of life" and "panclasta" for "enemy of all".[24] He visited more than fifty countries propagandizing for anarchism which in his case was highly influenced by the thought of Max Stirner and Friedrich Nietzsche. Among his written works there are Siete años enterrado vivo en una de las mazmorras de Gomezuela: Horripilante relato de un resucitado(1932) and Mis prisiones, mis destierros y mi vida (1929) which talk about his many adventures while living his life as an adventurer, activist and vagabond, as well as his thought and the many times he was imprisoned in different countries.

Anarcho-syndicalists and anarcho-communists

The American anarchist publication Anarchy: A Journal of Desire Armed reports that German "[a]narchist Gustav Landauer’s major work, For Socialism, is also squarely based on Nietzschean ideas."[25] Rudolf Rocker was yet another anarchist admirer of Nietzsche. A proponent of anarcho-syndicalism, "Rocker invokes Nietzsche repeatedly in his tome Nationalism and Culture, citing him especially to back up his claims that nationalism and state power have a destructive influence on culture, since 'Culture is always creative', but 'power is never creative.' Rocker even ends his book with a Nietzsche quote."[2] Rocker begins Nationalism and Culture using the theory of will to power to refute Marxism, stating that "[t]he deeper we trace the political influences in history, the more are we convinced that the 'will to power' has up to now been one of the strongest motives in the development of human social forms. The idea that all political and social events are but the result of given economic conditions and can be explained by them cannot endure careful consideration."[26]Rocker also translated Thus Spoke Zarathustra into Yiddish.

Sunshine says that the "Spanish anarchists also mixed their class politics with Nietzschean inspiration". Murray Bookchin, in The Spanish Anarchists, describes prominent CNT–FAI member Salvador Seguí as "an admirer of Nietzschean individualism, of the superhombre to whom 'all is permitted'". Bookchin, in his 1973 introduction to Sam Dolgoff's The Anarchist Collectives, even describes the reconstruction of society by the workers as a Nietzschean project. Bookchin says that "workers must see themselves as human beings, not as class beings; as creative personalities, not as 'proletarians,' as self-affirming individuals, not as 'masses' [...] [the] economic component must be humanized precisely by bringing an 'affinity of friendship' to the work process, by diminishing the role of onerous work in the lives of producers, indeed by a total 'transvaluation of values' (to use Nietzsche's phrase) as it applies to production and consumption as well as social and personal life".[2]

"Alan Antliff documents [in I Am Not A Man, I Am Dynamite] how the Indian art critic and anti-imperialist Ananda Coomaraswamy combined Nietzsche's individualism and sense of spiritual renewal with both Kropotkin's economics and with Asian idealist religious thought. This combination was offered as a basis for the opposition to British colonization as well as to industrialization."[2]

Anarcha-feminists

Although Nietzsche has been accused of misogyny, nevertheless he gained the admiration of two important anarcha-feminists writer/activists. This is the case of Emma Goldman[27] and Federica Montseny.[2]

Emma Goldman

Emma Goldman was profoundly influenced by Nietzsche "so much so that all of Nietzsche’s books could be mail-ordered through her magazine Mother Earth".[25] Ultimately Goldman's view of Nietzsche can be summarized when she manifests in her autobiography Living My Life, "I pointed out that Nietzsche was not a social theorist but a poet, a rebel and innovator. His aristocracy was neither of birth nor of purse; it was of the spirit. In that respect Nietzsche was an anarchist, and all true anarchists were aristocrats, I said" and "[i]n Vienna one could hear interesting lectures on modern German prose and poetry. One could read the works of the young iconoclasts in art and letters, the most daring among them being Nietzsche. The magic of his language, the beauty of his vision, carried me to undreamed-of heights. I longed to devour every line of his writings, but I was too poor to buy them."[28] Goldman even went as far as to "baptize" Nietzsche "as an honorary anarchist".[2] Emma Goldman "always combined his championing of the self-creating individual with a kind of Kropotkinist anarcho-communism".[2]

Emma Goldman, in the introductory essay called "Anarchism: What It Really Stands For" from Anarchism and Other Essays, passionately defends both Nietzsche and Max Stirner from attacks within anarchism, stating that "[t]he most disheartening tendency common among readers is to tear out one sentence from a work, as a criterion of the writer's ideas or personality. Friedrich Nietzsche, for instance, is decried as a hater of the weak because he believed in the Uebermensch. It does not occur to the shallow interpreters of that giant mind that this vision of the Uebermensch also called for a state of society which will not give birth to a race of weaklings and slaves."[29]

Emma Goldman seated
Emma Goldman, circa 1911

Another similar application of Nietzsche to feminist criticism happens in "Victims of Morality" where she states: "Morality has no terrors for her who has risen beyond good and evil. And though Morality may continue to devour its victims, it is utterly powerless in the face of the modern spirit, that shines in all its glory upon the brow of man and woman, liberated and unafraid."[30]

Later in a feminist reading of Nietzsche she writes the following: "Nietzsche's memorable maxim, 'When you go to woman, take the whip along,' is considered very brutal, yet Nietzsche expressed in one sentence the attitude of woman towards her gods [...].Religion, especially the Christian religion, has condemned woman to the life of an inferior, a slave. It has thwarted her nature and fettered her soul, yet the Christian religion has no greater supporter, none more devout, than woman. Indeed, it is safe to say that religion would have long ceased to be a factor in the lives of the people, if it were not for the support it receives from woman. The most ardent churchworkers, the most tireless missionaries the world over, are women, always sacrificing on the altar of the gods that have chained her spirit and enslaved her body."[29]

In the controversial essay "Minorities Versus Majorities", clear Nietzschetian themes emerge when she manifests that "[i]f I were to give a summary of the tendency of our times, I would say, Quantity. The multitude, the mass spirit, dominates everywhere, destroying quality."[29] "Today, as then, public opinion is the omnipresent tyrant; today, as then, the majority represents a mass of cowards, willing to accept him who mirrors its own soul and mind poverty."[29] "That the mass bleeds, that it is being robbed and exploited, I know as well as our vote-baiters. But I insist that not the handful of parasites, but the mass itself is responsible for this horrible state of affairs. It clings to its masters, loves the whip, and is the first to cry Crucify!"[29]

Federica Montseny

Federica Montseny was an editor of the Spanish individualist anarchist magazine La Revista Blanca, who later achieved infamy when as an important member of the CNT-FAI was one of the four anarchists who accepted cabinet positions in the Spanish Popular Front government.[2] "Nietzsche and Stirner—as well as the playwright Ibsen and anarchist-geographer Elisee Reclus—were her favorite writers, according to Richard Kern (in Red Years / Black Years: A Political History of Spanish Anarchism, 1911–1937). Kern says she held that the "emancipation of women would lead to a quicker realization of the social revolution" and that "the revolution against sexism would have to come from intellectual and militant 'future-women.' According to this Nietzschean concept of Federica Monteseny's, women could realize through art and literature the need to revise their own roles."[2]

Existentialist anarchism

Albert Camus is often cited as a proponent of existentialism (the philosophy that he was associated with during his own lifetime), but Camus himself refused this particular label.[31] Camus is also known as an ardent critic of Marxism and regimes based on it, and aligned himself with anarchism[7] while also being a critic of modern capitalist society and fascism.[7] Camus' The Rebel (1951) presents an anarchist view on politics,[7] influenced as much by Nietzsche as by Max Stirner. "Like Nietzsche, he maintains a special admiration for Greek and Persian heroic values and pessimism for classical virtues like courage and honor. What might be termed Romantic values also merit particular esteem within his philosophy: passion, absorption in being, sensory experience, the glory of the moment, the beauty of the world."[32] "The general secretary of the Fédération Anarchiste, Georges Fontenis, also reviewed Camus's book [The Rebel] in Le Libertaire. To the title question 'Is the revolt of Camus the same as ours?', Fontenis replied that it was."[7]

In the United Kingdom Herbert Read, who was highly influenced by Max Stirner and later came close to existentialism (see existentialist anarchism), said of Nietzsche: "It was Nietzsche who first made us conscious of the significance of the individual as a term in the evolutionary process—in that part of the evolutionary process which has still to take place."[33]

Post-left anarchy and insurrectionary anarchism

Post-left anarchist Hakim Bey while explaining his main concept of immediatism says that "[t]he penetration of everyday life by the marvelous--the creation of 'situations'—belongs to the 'material bodily principle', and to the imagination, and to the living fabric of the present [...]. The individual who realizes this immediacy can widen the circle of pleasure to some extent simply by waking from the hypnosis of the 'Spooks' (as Stirner called all abstractions); and yet more can be accomplished by 'crime'; and still more by the doubling of the Self in sexuality. From Stirner's 'Union of Self-Owning Ones' we proceed to Nietzsche's circle of 'Free Spirits' and thence to Charles Fourier's 'Passional Series', doubling and redoubling ourselves even as the Other multiplies itself in the eros of the group."[34]

A Nietzschean criticism of identity politics was provided by insurrectionary anarchist Feral Faun in "The ideology of victimization" when he affirms there's a "feminist version of the ideology of victimization—an ideology which promotes fear, individual weakness (and subsequently dependence on ideologically based support groups and paternalistic protection from the authorities)",[35] but in the end, "[l]ike all ideologies, the varieties of the ideology of victimization are forms of fake consciousness. Accepting the social role of victim—in whatever one of its many forms—is choosing to not even create one's life for oneself or to explore one's real relationships to the social structures. All of the partial liberation movements—feminism, gay liberation, racial liberation, workers' movements and so on—define individuals in terms of their social roles. Because of this, these movements not only do not include a reversal of perspectives which breaks down social roles and allows individuals to create a praxis built on their own passions and desires; they actually work against such a reversal of perspective. The 'liberation' of a social role to which the individual remains subject."[35]

Post-anarchism

Post-anarchism is a contemporary hybrid of anarchism and post-structuralism. Post-structuralism in itself is profoundly influenced by Nietzsche in its main thinkers such as Michel Foucault and Gilles Deleuze as well as the early influence of Georges Bataille on these authors. Nevertheless, within post-anarchism the British Saul Newman wrote an article called "Anarchism and the politics of ressentiment"[36] in which he notes how Nietzsche "sees anarchism as poisoned at the root by the pestiferous weed of ressentiment—the spiteful politics of the weak and pitiful, the morality of the slave"[36] and so his essay decides to "take seriously his charge against anarchism".[36] And so he proposes how "anarchism could become a new 'heroic' philosophy, which is no longer reactive but, rather, creates values"[36] and proposes a notion of community that "of active power—a community of 'masters' rather than 'slaves'. It would be a community that sought to overcome itself—continually transforming itself and revelling in the knowledge of its power to do so."[36] On the other hand, the proponent of postmodern anarchism Lewis Call wrote an essay called "Toward an Anarchy of Becoming: Nietzsche"[37] in which he argues that "despite Nietzsche's hostility towards anarchism, his writing contains all the elements of a nineteenth century anarchist politics [...] Nietzsche unleashes another kind of anarchy, an anarchy of becoming. By teaching us that we must pursue a perpetual project of self-overcoming and self-creation, constantly losing and finding ourselves in the river of becoming, Nietzsche ensures that our subjectivity will be fluid and dispersed, multiple and pluralistic rather than fixed and centered, singular and totalitarian. These twin anarchies, the critical anarchy of the subject and the affirmative anarchy of becoming, form the basis for a postmodern Nietzschetian anarchism".[38]

Recently, the French anarchist and hedonist philosopher Michel Onfray has embraced the term postanarchism to describe his approach to politics and ethics.[39] He has said that the May 68 revolts were "a Nietzschetian revolt in order to put an end to the 'One' truth, revealed, and to put in evidence the diversity of truths, in order to make disappear ascetic Christian ideas and to help arise new possibilities of existence".[40] In 2005 he published the essay De la sagesse tragique – Essai sur Nietzsche[41] which could be translated as On tragic wisdom – Essay on Nietzsche.

References

  1. ^ a b In Beyond Good and Evil (6.2:126) he refers to "anarchist dogs"
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Spencer Sunshine, "Nietzsche and the Anarchists"
  3. ^ a b "Nietzsche's possible reading, knowledge, and plagiarism of Max Stirner's The Ego and Its Own (1845) has been a contentious question and frequently discussed for more than a century now." Thomas H. Brobjer, "Philologica: A Possible Solution to the Stirner-Nietzsche Question", in The Journal of Nietzsche Studies - Issue 25, Spring 2003, pp. 109–114
  4. ^ Bernd A. Laska: Nietzsche's initial crisis. New Light on the Stirner/Nietzsche Question In: Germanic Notes and Reviews, vol. 33, n. 2, fall/Herbst 2002, pp. 109–133 (German orig.)
  5. ^ a b The Anarchism of Émile Armand by Emile Armand
  6. ^ a b c Toward the Creative Nothing by Renzo Novatore
  7. ^ a b c d e "Camus also supported the Groupes de Liaison Internationale which sought to give aid to opponents of fascism and Stalinism, and which refused to take the side of American capitalism.""Albert Camus and the Anarchists" by ORGANISE! Archived 2008-05-16 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ a b Leopold, David (2006-08-04). "Max Stirner". In Zalta, Edward N. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  9. ^ Moggach, Douglas. The New Hegelians. Cambridge University Press. p. 177
  10. ^ While discussion of possible influence has never ceased entirely, the period of most intense discussion occurred between c. 1892 and 1906 in the German-speaking world. During this time, the most comprehensive account of Nietzsche's reception in the German language, the 4 volume work of Richard Frank Krummel: Nietzsche und der deutsche Geist, indicates 83 entries discussing Stirner and Nietzsche. The only thinker more frequently discussed in connection with Nietzsche during this time is Schopenhauer, with about twice the number of entries. Discussion steadily declines thereafter, but is still significant. Nietzsche and Stirner show 58 entries between 1901 and 1918. From 1919 to 1945 there are 28 entries regarding Nietzsche and Stirner.
  11. ^ Nietzsche discovered Lange's book immediately after its appearance and praised it as "the most important philosophical work in decades" (letter to Hermann Mushacke, mid November 1866); as to Hartmann, who was also developing the ideas of Schopenhauer, Nietzsche singled out his book in his second Untimely Meditation for a caustic criticism, and concentrated on precisely the chapter dealing with Stirner, though he did not once mention Stirner's name; Hartmann wrote: ""Nietzsche does not mention at any place the name of Stirner or his writings. That he must have known my emphatic hint to Stirner's standpoint and its importance in the 'Philosophy of the Unconscious' arises from his polemic criticism of exactly that chapter which it contains. That he did not see himself prompted by this hint to get acquainted more closely with this thinker so congenial with himself is of little plausibility." Eduard von Hartmann, Ethische Studien, Leipzig: Haacke 1898, pp. 34–69
  12. ^ Albert Levy, Stirner and Nietzsche, Paris, 1904, p. 9
  13. ^ Eduard von Hartmann, Nietzsches "neue Moral", in Preussische Jahrbücher, 67. Jg., Heft 5, Mai 1891, S. 501–521; augmented version with more express reproach of plagiarism in: Ethische Studien, Leipzig, Haacke 1898, pp. 34–69
  14. ^ This author believes that one should be careful in comparing the two men. However, he notes: "It is this intensive nuance of individualism that appeared to point from Nietzsche to Max Stirner, the author of the remarkable work Der Einzige und sein Eigentum. Stirner's influence in modern Germany has assumed astonishing proportions, and moves in general parallel with that of Nietzsche. The two thinkers are regarded as exponents of essentially the same philosophy." Oscar Ewald, "German Philosophy in 1907", in The Philosophical Review, Vol. 17, No. 4, Jul., 1908, pp. 400–426
  15. ^ [in the last years of the 19th century] "The question of whether Nietzsche had read Stirner was the subject of great debate" R.A. Nicholls, "Beginnings of the Nietzsche Vogue in Germany", in Modern Philology, Vol. 56, No. 1, Aug., 1958, pp. 29–30
  16. ^ Levy pointed out in 1904 that the similarities in the writing of the two men appeared superficial. Albert Levy, Stirner and Nietzsche, Paris, 1904
  17. ^ R.A. Nicholls, "Beginnings of the Nietzsche Vogue in Germany", in Modern Philology, Vol. 56, No. 1, Aug., 1958, pp. 24–37
  18. ^ "Stirner, like Nietzsche, who was clearly influenced by him, has been interpreted in many different ways", Saul Newman, From Bakunin to Lacan: Anti-authoritarianism and the Dislocation of Power, Lexington Books, 2001, p. 56; "We do not even know for sure that Nietzsche had read Stirner. Yet, the similarities are too striking to be explained away." R. A. Samek, The Meta Phenomenon, p70, New York, 1981; Tom Goyens, (referring to Stirner's book The Ego and His Own) "The book influenced Friedrich Nietzsche, and even Marx and Engels devoted some attention to it." T. Goyens, Beer and Revolution: The German Anarchist Movement In New York City, p197, Illinois, 2007
  19. ^ "We have every reason to suppose that Nietzsche had a profound knowledge of the Hegelian movement, from Hegel to Stirner himself. The philosophical learning of an author is not assessed by the number of quotations, nor by the always fanciful and conjectural check lists of libraries, but by the apologetic or polemical directions of his work itself." Gilles Deleuze (translated by Hugh Tomlinson), Nietzsche and Philosophy, 1962 (2006 reprint, pp. 153–154)
  20. ^ O. Ewald, "German Philosophy in 1907", in The Philosophical Review, Vol. 17, No. 4, Jul., 1908, pp. 400–426; T. A. Riley, "Anti-Statism in German Literature, as Exemplified by the Work of John Henry Mackay", in PMLA, Vol. 62, No. 3, Sep., 1947, pp. 828–843; C. E. Forth, "Nietzsche, Decadence, and Regeneration in France, 1891-95", in Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 54, No. 1, Jan., 1993, pp. 97–117; see also Robert C. Holub's Nietzsche: Socialist, Anarchist, Feminist, an essay available online at the University of California, Berkeley website.
  21. ^ Robert C. Holub, Nietzsche: Socialist, Anarchist, Feminist Archived 2007-06-21 at the Wayback Machine
  22. ^ "The life of Emile Armand (1872-1963) spanned the history of anarchism. He was influenced by Leo Tolstoy and Benjamin Tucker, and to a lesser extent by Whitman and Emerson. Later in life, Nietzsche and Stirner became important to his way of thinking."Introduction to The Anarchism of Émile Armand by Emile Armand
  23. ^ El Anarquismo en América Latina por Carlos M. Rama y Ángel J. Cappelletti. pg. CLVII
  24. ^ PANCLASTA, Biófilo (1928): Comprimidos psicológicos de los revolucionarios criollos. Periódico Claridad, Bogotá, Nº 52, 53, 54, 55 y 56.
  25. ^ a b {{Cite web |url=http://www.anarchymag.org/index.php/issues/38-70-71/56-reply-to-brian-morrisarsquos-review-of-qi-am-not-a-man-i-am-dynamiteq |title=Reply to Brian Morris's review of "I Am Not A Man, I Am Dynamite!" in [[Anarchy: A Journal of Desire Armed |access-date=2011-12-08 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120306235209/http://anarchymag.org/index.php/issues/38-70-71/56-reply-to-brian-morrisarsquos-review-of-qi-am-not-a-man-i-am-dynamiteq |archive-date=2012-03-06 |dead-url=yes |df= }}
  26. ^ http://flag.blackened.net/rocker/works.htm#Nationalism%20and%20Culture Archived 2009-11-04 at the Wayback Machine Nationalism and Culture by Rudolf Rocker
  27. ^ Living My Life by Emma Goldman
  28. ^ http://theanarchistlibrary.org/HTML/Emma_Goldman__Living_My_Life.html Living My Life by Emma Goldman
  29. ^ a b c d e Anarchism and Other Essays by Emma Goldman
  30. ^ ""Victims of Morality" by Emma Goldman". Archived from the original on 2001-02-20. Retrieved 2009-11-04.
  31. ^ Solomon, Robert C. (2001). From Rationalism to Existentialism: The Existentialists and Their Nineteenth Century Backgrounds. Rowman and Littlefield. p. 245. ISBN 0-7425-1241-X.
  32. ^ "Albert Camus (1913—1960)" Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  33. ^ http://dwardmac.pitzer.edu/anarchist_archives/bright/read/philsofanar.html
  34. ^ Immediatism by Hakim Bey Archived 2009-12-05 at the Wayback Machine
  35. ^ a b "The ideology of victimization" by Feral Faun
  36. ^ a b c d e "Anarchism and the politics of ressentiment" by Saul Newman
  37. ^ Lewis Call. Postmodern Anarchism. Lexington: Lexington Books. 2002.
  38. ^ Lewis Call. Postmodern Anarchism. Lexington: Lexington Books. 2002. Pg. 33
  39. ^ Michel Onfray : le post anarchisme expliqué à ma grand-mère Archived 2009-11-22 at the Wayback Machine
  40. ^ "qu'il considère comme une révolte nietzschéenne pour avoir mis fin à la Vérité "Une", révélée, en mettant en évidence la diversité de vérités, pour avoir fait disparaître les idéaux ascétiques chrétiens et fait surgir de nouvelles possibilités d'existence."Michel Onfray : le post anarchisme expliqué à ma grand-mère Archived 2009-11-22 at the Wayback Machine
  41. ^ https://www.amazon.fr/sagesse-tragique-Essai-sur-Nietzsche/dp/2253082813 De la sagesse tragique - Essai sur Nietzsche (Poche) de Michel Onfray (Auteur)

External links

Anarchist schools of thought

Anarchism is generally defined as the political philosophy which holds ruling classes and the state to be undesirable, unnecessary and harmful, or alternatively as opposing authority and hierarchical organization in the conduct of human relations. Proponents of anarchism, known as "anarchists", advocate stateless societies based on non-hierarchical voluntary associations. However, anarchist schools of thought can differ fundamentally, supporting anything from extreme individualism to complete collectivism. Strains of anarchism have often been divided into the categories of social and individualist anarchism or similar dual classifications. Anarchism is often considered a radical left-wing ideology and much of anarchist economics and anarchist legal philosophy reflect anti-authoritarian interpretations of communism, collectivism, syndicalism, mutualism or participatory economics. At some point "the collectivist, communist, and liberal and individualist strands of thought from which anarchists drew their inspiration began to assume an increasingly distinctive quality, supporting the rise of a number of anarchist schools". Anthropologist David Graeber has noted that while the major schools of Marxism always have founders (e.g. Leninism, Trotskyism and Maoism), schools of anarchism "almost invariably emerge from some kind of organizational principle or form of practice", citing anarcho-syndicalism, individualist anarchism and platformism as examples.

Egoist anarchism

Egoist anarchism is a school of anarchist thought that originated in the philosophy of Max Stirner, a 19th-century existentialist philosopher whose "name appears with familiar regularity in historically orientated surveys of anarchist thought as one of the earliest and best known exponents of individualist anarchism".

Friedrich Nietzsche

Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (, German: [ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈvɪlhɛlm ˈniːtʃə] (listen) or [- ˈniːtsʃə]; 15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist, and Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history. He began his career as a classical philologist before turning to philosophy. He became the youngest ever to hold the Chair of Classical Philology at the University of Basel in 1869 at the age of 24. Nietzsche resigned in 1879 due to health problems that plagued him most of his life; he completed much of his core writing in the following decade. In 1889 at age 44, he suffered a collapse and afterward, a complete loss of his mental faculties. He lived his remaining years in the care of his mother until her death in 1897 and then with his sister Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche. Nietzsche died in 1900.Nietzsche's body of work touched a wide range of topics, including art, philology, history, religion, tragedy, culture, and science. His early inspiration was drawn from figures such as Arthur Schopenhauer, Richard Wagner and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. His writing spans philosophical polemics, poetry, cultural criticism and fiction while displaying a fondness for aphorism and irony. Prominent elements of his philosophy include his radical critique of truth in favor of perspectivism; his genealogical critique of religion and Christian morality and his related theory of master–slave morality; his aesthetic affirmation of existence in response to the "death of God" and the profound crisis of nihilism; his notion of the Apollonian and Dionysian; and his characterization of the human subject as the expression of competing wills, collectively understood as the will to power. He also developed influential concepts such as the Übermensch and the doctrine of eternal return. In his later work, he became increasingly preoccupied with the creative powers of the individual to overcome social, cultural and moral contexts in pursuit of new values and aesthetic health.Nietzsche was explicitly opposed to antisemitism and nationalism, although his sister attempted to associate his work with fascism and Nazism.Nietzsche's thought enjoyed renewed popularity in the 1960s and his ideas have since had a profound impact on 20th and early-21st century thinkers across philosophy—especially in schools of continental philosophy such as existentialism, postmodernism and post-structuralism—as well as art, literature, psychology, politics and popular culture.

Index of contemporary philosophy articles

This is a list of articles in contemporary philosophy.

1926 in philosophy

1962 in philosophy

20th-century philosophy

A New Philosophy of Society: Assemblage Theory and Social Complexity

A New Refutation of Time

A. C. Grayling

A.P. Martinich

Abandonment (existentialism)

Abraham Edel

Abstract expressionism

Abstract labour and concrete labour

Accumulation by dispossession

Against His-Story, Against Leviathan

Alain Badiou

Alain de Benoist

Alain Etchegoyen

Alan Ross Anderson

Alan Soble

Alan Stout (philosopher)

Albert Camus

Albert Chernenko

Alberto Jori

Alberto Toscano

Albrecht Wellmer

Aldo Gargani

Alejandro Deustua

Alejandro Rozitchner

Alexander Bard

Alexandre Koyré

Alexandru Dragomir

Alexis Kagame

Alf Ross

Alfred Adler

Alfred I. Tauber

Alfred Jules Ayer

Alfred Jules Émile Fouillée

Alfred North Whitehead

Allan Bloom

Alvin Plantinga

Anarchism

Anarchism and anarcho-capitalism

Anarchism and Friedrich Nietzsche

Anarchism in Israel

Anarchism in Russia

Anarchism in Spain

Anarchism in Sweden

Anarchism in the United States

Anarchism in Turkey

Anarchism: A Documentary History of Libertarian Ideas

Anarchist Studies

Anarcho-capitalism and minarchism

Anatoly Lunacharsky

Anders Nygren

André Malet (philosopher)

Andreas Speiser

Andrew Chignell

Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka

Anomalous monism

Anthony Gottlieb

Anti-consumerism

Anti-Dühring

Anti-Semite and Jew

Anti-statism

Antonio Caso Andrade

Antonio Gramsci

Antonio Negri

Arborescent

Arda Denkel

Aretaic turn

Armin Mohler

Arthur Danto

Artificial consciousness

Arvi Grotenfelt

Asa Kasher

Asiatic mode of production

Association for Logic, Language and Information

Attitude polarization

Aurel Kolnai

Australasian Journal of Philosophy

Avrum Stroll

Barrows Dunham

Bas van Fraassen

Base and superstructure

Being and Nothingness

Being in itself

Benedetto Croce

Berlin Circle

Bernard Bosanquet (philosopher)

Bernard Williams

Bert Mosselmans

Bertrand de Jouvenel

Between Past and Future

Black swan theory

Bob Hale (philosopher)

Boris Furlan

Boris Grushin

Bracha L. Ettinger

Bracketing (phenomenology)

Bronius Kuzmickas

Bryan Magee

Bureaucracy

C. D. Broad

C. S. Lewis

C. Stephen Evans

Capital accumulation

Capital, Volume I

Capitalist mode of production

Carl Gustav Hempel

Carlos Castrodeza

Ramsey sentence

Carveth Read

Categories (Peirce)

Charles Morris, Baron Morris of Grasmere

Charles Parsons (philosopher)

Charles Taylor (philosopher)

Chicago school (mathematical analysis)

Chinese room

Christine Buci-Glucksmann

Christoph Schrempf

Clarence Irving Lewis

Claude Lefort

Claude Lévi-Strauss

Claudio Canaparo

Clive Bell

Cognitive map

Colin Howson

Colin McGinn

Commodification

Commodity (Marxism)

Confirmation holism

Connexive logic

Consensual living

Constant capital

Constantin Noica

Consumption of fixed capital

Contemporary philosophy

Contemporary Political Theory

Contemporary Pragmatism

Contingency, irony, and solidarity

Contrast theory of meaning

Contributions to Philosophy (From Enowning)

Cora Diamond

Cornel West

Cornelius Castoriadis

Critical pedagogy

Criticism of capitalism

Criticism of postmodernism

Criticisms of electoralism

Critique of Cynical Reason

Critique of Dialectical Reason

Critiques of Slavoj Žižek

Curt John Ducasse

Czesław Znamierowski

Daniel Dennett

Daniel Rynhold

Dariush Shayegan

Das Argument (journal)

Dasein

David Benatar

David Braine (philosopher)

David Chalmers

David Cockburn

David Kellogg Lewis

David Oswald Thomas

David Pearce (philosopher)

David Prall

David S. Oderberg

David Schmidtz

David Wong (philosopher)

Dean Zimmerman

Degenerated workers' state

Deleuze and Guattari

Delfim Santos

Democracy in Marxism

Democratic Rationalization

Denis Dutton

Dermot Moran

Dewitt H. Parker

Dialectica

Dieter Henrich

Differential and Absolute Ground Rent

Dimitrije Mitrinović

Dimitris Dimitrakos

Diogenes (journal)

Doctrine of internal relations

Dominant ideology

Dominik Gross

Donald Burt

Donald Davidson (philosopher)

Dorothy Emmet

Doxastic logic

Dual power

Dudley Knowles

Eckart Schütrumpf

Edith Wyschogrod

Edmund Gettier

Edward Bullough

Elaine Scarry

Eleutherius Winance

Elliott Sober

Émile Durkheim

Émile Meyerson

Emotivism

Epistemological anarchism

Eric Higgs (philosopher)

Erich Fromm

Erkenntnis

Ernest Gellner

Ernesto Garzón Valdés

Ernst Cassirer

Ernst Ehrlich

Ernst Gombrich

Ernst Nolte

Erwin Panofsky

Erwin Schrödinger

Esperanza Guisán

Ethical problems using children in clinical trials

Ethics Bowl

Étienne Balibar

Étienne Borne

Étienne Souriau

Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy

Exchange value

Exploitation

Exploitation theory

F. C. S. Schiller

F. H. Bradley

Fact, Fiction, and Forecast

False consciousness

Falsifiability

Faux frais of production

Feng Youlan

Ferdinand Ebner

Fi Zilal al-Qur'an

Finance capitalism

Form of life (philosophy)

Francis Fukuyama

Frank R. Wallace

Frantz Fanon

Franz Rosenzweig

Fred Miller (philosopher)

Frederick C. Beiser

Frederick Copleston

Frederick Ferré

Frederick Suppe

Fredric Jameson

Freudo-Marxism

Friedrich Waismann

From Bakunin to Lacan

Future Primitive and Other Essays

G. E. M. Anscombe

Gabriel Nuchelmans

Gani Bobi

Gary Drescher

General intellect

Geneviève Fraisse

Geoffrey Hellman

Geoffrey Hunter (logician)

Georg Klaus

George Caffentzis

George Dickie (philosopher)

George Edward Moore

George H. Smith

George Santayana

Gettier problem

Gila Sher

Gilbert Harman

Giles Fraser

Gilles Deleuze

Giorgio Agamben

Giovanni Gentile

Giuseppe Peano

Gödel's ontological proof

Gopal Balakrishnan

Gordon Park Baker

Gottlob Frege

Graham Priest

Gray Dorsey

Gricean maxims

Günter Abel

Gustav Bergmann

Guy Debord

György Lukács

György Márkus

Hajime Tanabe

Han Yong-un

Hans-Georg Gadamer

Hans Hahn

Hans Lipps

Hans Reichenbach

Hans Sluga

Hao Wang (academic)

Harald K. Schjelderup

Hassan Kobeissi

Hegemony

Helen Longino

Hélène Cixous

Helene von Druskowitz

Henri Berr

Henri Lefebvre

Henry Corbin

Herbert Feigl

Herbert Marcuse

Heterophenomenology

Hilary Putnam

Historicity (philosophy)

History and Future of Justice

History of the Church–Turing thesis

Honorio Delgado

Hossein Ziai

Howard Adelman

Howison Lectures in Philosophy

Hubert Damisch

Hubert Dreyfus

Hugh Mellor

Humana.Mente – Journal of Philosophical Studies

Huston Smith

Hypothetico-deductive model

I Heart Huckabees

I. A. Richards

Ideal observer theory

Idealistic Studies

Ideology

Igor Pribac

Illtyd Trethowan

Imperialism

In Defense of Anarchism

Indeterminacy of translation

Indexicality

Individualist anarchism

Information processing

Institutional cruelty

Instrumental rationality

Integral (spirituality)

Integral ecology

International Association for Philosophy of Law and Social Philosophy

International Journal of Žižek Studies

International Philosophical Quarterly

Interpellation (philosophy)

Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy

Irving Copi

Irving Singer

Is God Dead?

Isaiah Berlin

Ivan Aguéli

Ivan Sviták

Jaap Kruithof

Jack Copeland

Jack Russell Weinstein

Jacques Derrida

Jacques Lacan

Jacques Maritain

Jacques Rancière

James DiGiovanna

James E. Faulconer

James Franklin (philosopher)

James G. Lennox

James Griffin (philosopher)

James Gustafson

James M. Edie

Jamie Whyte

Janet Coleman

Jason Walter Brown

Jawaharlal Nehru

Jean-François Lyotard

Jean-Luc Nancy

Jean-Marc Ferry

Jean-Paul Sartre

Jean Baudrillard

Jean Clam

Jean Grenier

Jeff Malpas

Jens Staubrand

Jerry Fodor

Jerzy Perzanowski

Jesse Prinz

Jesús Mosterín

Joel J. Kupperman

Johannes Agnoli

John Corcoran (logician)

John Finnis

John Foster (philosopher)

John Greco (philosopher)

John Hospers

John Kekes

John L. Pollock

John McDowell

John N. Gray

John P. Burgess

John Rawls

John Searle

John von Neumann

John Weckert

John Wisdom

Jon Barwise

Jordi Pigem

José Ortega y Gasset

Josefina Ayerza

Joseph Beuys

Joseph de Torre

Joseph Henry Woodger

Joseph Hilbe

Joseph J. Spengler

Joseph Margolis

Joseph Runzo

Josiah Royce

Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism

Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics

Journal of Logic, Language and Information

Journal of Philosophical Logic

Juan Manuel Guillén

Judith Butler

Juha Varto

Julia Kristeva

Jürgen Habermas

Jürgen Mittelstraß

Kancha Ilaiah

Kang Youwei

Karen J. Warren

Karl Ameriks

Karl Jaspers

Karl Loewenstein

Karl Menger

Karl Popper

Katarzyna Jaszczolt

Keiji Nishitani

Kit Fine

Konstantin Chkheidze

Konstanty Michalski

Krastyo Krastev

Krishna Chandra Bhattacharya

Kurt Almqvist

Kurt Baier

Kurt Gödel

Kurt Grelling

Kyle Stanford

L'existentialisme est un humanisme

Labor aristocracy

Lacan at the Scene

Larry Sanger

Latitudinarianism (philosophy)

Laughter (Bergson)

Laurence BonJour

Law of accumulation

Law of value

Lawrence Jarach

Leo Mikhailovich Lopatin

Leo Strauss

Leonardo Moledo

Leonidas Donskis

Les jeux sont faits

Lev Chernyi

Lewis Call

Lewis White Beck

Lila: An Inquiry into Morals

Linguistics and Philosophy

List of contributors to Marxist theory

Listen, Anarchist!

Ljubomir Cuculovski

Logic of information

Logica Universalis

Logical holism

Logical positivism

Logicomix

Logocentrism

Lorenzo Peña

Louis Althusser

Louis Pojman

Ludwig Wittgenstein

Luitzen Egbertus Jan Brouwer

Luxemburgism

Lwow-Warsaw School of Logic

Lynn Pasquerella

Mao Zedong

Marek Siemek

Mario Bunge

Mark Addis

Mark de Bretton Platts

Mark Philp

Mark Sacks

Mark Vernon

Mark Wrathall

Marshall McLuhan

Martha Nussbaum

Martin Buber

Martin Heidegger

Martin Hollis (philosopher)

Marvin Minsky

Marx W. Wartofsky

Masakazu Nakai

Maurice Blanchot

Maurice De Wulf

Maurice Merleau-Ponty

Mauricio Suarez

Maxence Caron

Meera Nanda

Mental representation

Mereological nihilism

Michael Oakeshott

Michael Tye (philosopher)

Michel Foucault

Michel Foucault bibliography

Michel Onfray

Michel Serres

Milan Damnjanović (philosopher)

Minimum programme

Mirror stage

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi

Monroe Beardsley

Moritz Geiger

Moritz Schlick

Morris Weitz

Muhammad Husayn Tabatabaei

Murray Rothbard

Myth of Progress

Narhar Ambadas Kurundkar

Nassim Nicholas Taleb

Nathan Salmon

National-Anarchism

Nationalism and Culture

Ned Block

Nelson Goodman

Neocolonial Dependence

Neurophilosophy

New Foundations

New Libertarian Manifesto

New Sincerity

New Times (politics)

Nicholas Rescher

Nick Bostrom

Nicola Abbagnano

Nietzsche and Philosophy

Nina Karin Monsen

Noël Carroll

Non-politics

Non-voting

Norbert Bolz

Norbert Leser

Norman Malcolm

Norman Swartz

Norwood Russell Hanson

Notes on "Camp"

Now and After

Objet petit a

Oets Kolk Bouwsma

Okishio's theorem

Olaf Helmer

Olavo de Carvalho

Olga Hahn-Neurath

On Certainty

On Contradiction (Mao Zedong)

On Formally Undecidable Propositions of Principia Mathematica and Related Systems

OntoClean

Organic composition of capital

Oriental despotism

Original proof of Gödel's completeness theorem

Orlando J. Smith

Orthodox Trotskyism

Osvaldo Lira

Otto Bauer

Otto Neurath

Outline of anarchism

Overproduction

Oxford Literary Review

P. F. Strawson

Panait Cerna

Parametric determinism

Patricia Churchland

Paul Churchland

Paul de Man

Paul Grice

Paul Guyer

Paul Häberlin

Paul R. Patton

Paul Ricœur

Paul Virilio

Paulo Freire

Penelope Maddy

Per Bauhn

Per Martin-Löf

Periyar E. V. Ramasamy

Permanent war economy

Peter Caws

Peter Geach

Peter Hacker

Peter Millican

Peter Simons

Peter Singer

Peter Steinberger

Peter Stillman (academic)

Philip Hallie

Philipp Frank

Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe

Philippe Nys

Phillip Cary

Philosophical interpretation of classical physics

Philosophical Investigations

Philosophical Investigations (journal)

Philosophy and Phenomenological Research

Philosophy and Real Politics

Philosophy and Social Hope

Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature

Philosophy in a New Key

Philosophy of artificial intelligence

Philosophy of dialogue

Philosophy of engineering

Philosophy of information

Philosophy of technology

Philotheus Boehner

Pieranna Garavaso

Pierre Bourdieu

Pierre Boutang

Piotr Chmielowski

Pirmin Stekeler-Weithofer

Pirsig's metaphysics of Quality

Plato and a Platypus Walk Into a Bar

Polish Logic

Popper's experiment

Post-anarchism

Post-colonial anarchism

Post-industrial society

Post-left anarchy

Post-Scarcity Anarchism

Post-structuralism

Postanalytic philosophy

Postmodern Christianity

Postmodern social construction of nature

Postmodernism

Postmodernism, or, the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism

Pragmatic maxim

Praxis School

Prefigurative politics

Preintuitionism

Prices of production

Principia Ethica

Principia Mathematica

Productive forces

Proletarian internationalism

Proletarianization

Psychical distance

Psychoanalysis and Religion

R. G. Collingwood

Rabindranath Tagore

Rachida Triki

Radical interpretation

Radical translation

Rado Riha

Ralph Johnson (philosopher)

Ralph Tyler Flewelling

Ramón Xirau

Randolph Clarke

Ranjana Khanna

Raphaël Enthoven

Rate of profit

Raymond Aron

Raymond Smullyan

Re.press

Reading Capital

Received view of theories

Recuperation (sociology)

Reflective disclosure

Reformism

Religion & Ethics Newsweekly

Religious interpretations of the Big Bang theory

Ren Jiyu

Rentier capitalism

Repressive hypothesis

Reproduction (economics)

Richard A. Macksey

Richard Rorty

Richard Schacht

Richard Tarnas

Richard von Mises

Richard Wollheim

Robert Audi

Robert Brandom

Robert Nozick

Robert Rowland Smith

Robert Stalnaker

Roberto Refinetti

Rodolfo Mondolfo

Roger Caillois

Roger Scruton

Roland Barthes

Rolf Sattler

Romanas Plečkaitis

Ronald Dworkin

Rosa Luxemburg

Rose Rand

Rüdiger Safranski

Rudolf Carnap

Rudolf Schottlaender

Ruling class

Rupert Read

Ruth Barcan Marcus

Ryle's regress

Saint Genet

Sakae Osugi

Samuel Maximilian Rieser

Sanjaya Belatthaputta

Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan

Sathya Sai Baba

Saul Kripke

Sayyid al-Qimni

Scientific essentialism

Search for a Method

Semantic view of theories

Semeiotic

Sergio Panunzio

Simon Blackburn

Simple commodity production

Six Myths about the Good Life

Sketch for a Theory of the Emotions

Slavoj Žižek

Social conflict theory

Social ecology

Socially necessary labour time

South Park and Philosophy: You Know, I Learned Something Today

Spomenka Hribar

Sri Aurobindo

Stanisław Leśniewski

Stanley Sfekas

State monopoly capitalism

Stefan Pawlicki

Stephen David Ross

Stephen Laurence

Stephen Mulhall

Stephen Pepper

Stephen Toulmin

Steven Tainer

Stewart Shapiro

Subject of labor

Sun Yat-sen

Superprofit

Surplus product

Surplus value

Susan Haack

Susan Oyama

Susan Sontag

Susan Stebbing

Syed Ali Abbas Jallapuri

Tadeusz Kotarbiński

Taha Abdurrahman

Takiyyetin Mengüşoğlu

Tasos Zembylas

Technological determinism

Technological Somnambulism

Temporal single-system interpretation

Tendency of the rate of profit to fall

The Absence of the Book

The Birth of the Clinic

The Bounds of Sense

The Case for God

The Imaginary (Sartre)

The Logic of Scientific Discovery

The Myth of Sisyphus

The Philosophical Forum

The Royal Way

The Seminars of Jacques Lacan

The Sublime Object of Ideology

The Transcendence of the Ego

Theodor Lipps

Thierry de Duve

Third camp

Thomas Munro

Thomas Nagel

Thomas Samuel Kuhn

Thoralf Skolem

Three Worlds Theory

Tim Dean

Tom Polger

Tomonubu Imamichi

Tore Nordenstam

Toronto School of communication theory

Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus

Transformation problem

Transitional demand

Two Dogmas of Empiricism

Type physicalism

Ugo Spirito

Ultra-imperialism

Underconsumption

Unequal exchange

Universal class

Uri Gordon

Ursula Wolf

Use value

Vale (author)

Valentin Ferdinandovich Asmus

Valorisation

Value added

Value product

Vanja Sutlić

Varadaraja V. Raman

Verification theory

Verificationism

Vianney Décarie

Victor Kraft

Vienna Circle

Vincent F. Hendricks

Vittorio Hösle

Vojin Rakic

W. D. Ross

Wage labour

Walter Berns

Walter Terence Stace

Warren Shibles

Wendell Berry

Werner Hamacher

Werner Heisenberg

Werner Krieglstein

What Is Literature?

What Is Your Dangerous Idea?

Whitny Braun

Why I Am Not a Christian

Wilfrid Sellars

Willard Van Orman Quine

Willem B. Drees

William Craig (philosopher)

William Fontaine

William Irwin Thompson

William James Lectures

William Kneale

William L. Rowe

William McNeill (philosopher)

William W. Tait

Władysław Mieczysław Kozłowski

Władysław Weryho

Wolfgang Smith

Wolfgang Stegmüller

Word and Object

Workerism

World communism

Xu Liangying

Yujian Zheng

Yves Brunsvick

Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance

Zeno Vendler

Zofia Zdybicka

Zollikon Seminars

Index of continental philosophy articles

This is a list of articles in continental philosophy.

Abandonment (existentialism)

Abjection

Absurdism

Achieving Our Country

Albert Camus

Alberto Moreiras

Albrecht Wellmer

Alexandru Dragomir

Alfred Adler

Allan Bloom

Alterity

Always already

Anarchism and Friedrich Nietzsche

André Malet (philosopher)

Ángel Rama

Angst

Anguish

Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka

Answering the Question: What Is Enlightenment?

Anti-Semite and Jew

Antonio Caso Andrade

Aous Shakra

Apperception

Arborescent

Atheist existentialism

Aufheben

Aurel Kolnai

Authenticity (philosophy)

Autonomism

Avital Ronell

Ayyavazhi phenomenology

Bad faith (existentialism)

Barbara Herrnstein Smith

Beatriz Sarlo

Being and Nothingness

Being and Time

Being in itself

Benedetto Croce

Beyond Good and Evil

Black existentialism

Boredom

Bracketing (phenomenology)

Cahiers pour l'Analyse

Carmen Laforet

Cartesian Meditations

Charles Sanders Peirce

Christian Discourses

Christian existentialism

Christopher Norris (critic)

Citationality

Claude Lefort

Claudio Canaparo

Concluding Unscientific Postscript to Philosophical Fragments

Consciousness

Constantin Noica

Continental philosophy

Contributions to Philosophy (From Enowning)

Cornelius Castoriadis

Course in General Linguistics

Critical discourse analysis

Critical historiography

Critical pedagogy

Critical theory

Criticism of postmodernism

Critique of Cynical Reason

Critique of Dialectical Reason

Critique of Pure Reason

Critiques of Slavoj Žižek

Cultural materialism (anthropology)

Cultural studies

Cyborg theory

Dasein

David Farrell Krell

Deconstruction

Delfim Santos

Dermot Moran

Discontinuity (Postmodernism)

Discourse ethics

Duality of structure

Ecce Homo (book)

Eco-criticism

Écriture féminine

Edifying Discourses in Diverse Spirits

Edith Wyschogrod

Edmund Husserl

Edward Said

Egoist anarchism

Either/Or

Epic and Novel

Epoché

Eranos

Ernst Cassirer

Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy

Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick

Exceptionalism

Exile and the Kingdom

Existential crisis

Existential humanism

Existential phenomenology

Existentiell

Face-to-face

Facticity

Fear and Trembling

Ferdinand de Saussure

For Self-Examination

Foucault–Habermas debate

Franz Rosenzweig

Frederick C. Beiser

Fredric Jameson

French structuralist feminism

Freudo-Marxism

Friedrich Nietzsche

Friedrich Nietzsche bibliography

Friedrich Pollock

Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling

Gabriel Marcel

Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak

Geist

Gender studies

Genealogy (philosophy)

Geocriticism

Geoffrey Bennington

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

Giles Fraser

Giorgio Agamben

Guy Debord

Hans-Georg Gadamer

Hans Lipps

Hegelianism

Hélène Cixous

Helene von Druskowitz

Henri Bergson

Herbert Marcuse

Hermeneutics

Heteronormativity

Heterophenomenology

Historicity (philosophy)

History of Consciousness

Honorio Delgado

Human, All Too Human

Humanistic psychology

Husserliana

Hypermodernity

Idea for a Universal History with a Cosmopolitan Purpose

Igor Pribac

Influence and reception of Søren Kierkegaard

Influence and reception of Friedrich Nietzsche

Instrumental rationality

International Journal of Žižek Studies

Intersubjectivity

Irrational Man: A Study in Existential Philosophy

Irrealism (the arts)

Jacques Derrida

Jacques Lacan

James E. Faulconer

James M. Edie

Jan Patočka

Jean-François Lyotard

Jean-Luc Nancy

Jean-Paul Sartre

Jean Grenier

Jeff Malpas

Jena romantics

Johann Gottlieb Fichte

John D. Caputo

Josefina Ayerza

Juan-David Nasio

Judge for Yourselves!

Judith Butler

Juha Varto

Julia Kristeva

Julie Rivkin

Jürgen Habermas

Karl Ameriks

Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel

Keiji Nishitani

L'existentialisme est un humanisme

Lacan at the Scene

Laura Kipnis

Leo Strauss

Léon Dumont

Les jeux sont faits

Les Temps modernes

Lewis White Beck

Lifeworld

List of critical theorists

List of postmodern critics

List of works in critical theory

Literary criticism

Literary theory

Lived body

Logocentrism

Logos: A Journal of Modern Society and Culture

Louis Althusser

Louis H. Mackey

Luce Irigaray

Ludwig Landgrebe

Man's Fate

Marek Siemek

Mark Sacks

Mark Wrathall

Marshall Berman

Martin Buber

Martin Heidegger

Mary Louise Pratt

Maurice Merleau-Ponty

Max Horkheimer

Maxence Caron

Metaphor in philosophy

Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science

Metaphysics of Morals

Metaphysics of presence

Michael Vavrus

Michel Foucault bibliography

Michel Henry

Mikhail Ovsyannikov

Minima Moralia

Mirror stage

Modalities (sociology)

Modernism

Mythologies (book)

Nader El-Bizri

Nelly Richard

Néstor García Canclini

Nicola Abbagnano

Nietzsche's views on women

Nietzsche and free will

Nietzsche and Philosophy

Nietzsche contra Wagner

Nietzschean affirmation

Objet petit a

Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime

On the Concept of Irony with Continual Reference to Socrates

On the Genealogy of Morality

On Truth and Lies in a Nonmoral Sense

Ontic

Orientalism (book)

Orthotes

Outline of critical theory

Paul de Man

Paul R. Patton

Paul Rée

Per Martin-Löf

Phenomenological Sociology

Phenomenology (philosophy)

Phenomenology of essences

Phenomenology of Perception

Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe

Philippe Nys

Philosophical Fragments

Philosophical Inquiries into the Essence of Human Freedom

Philosophy and Phenomenological Research

Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks

Philosophy of dialogue

Philosophy of Existence

Philosophy of Max Stirner

Philosophy of Søren Kierkegaard

Philosophy of technology

Pirmin Stekeler-Weithofer

Post-Marxism

Post-structuralism

Postcolonialism

Posthegemony

Postmodern Christianity

Postmodern philosophy

Postmodern psychology

Postmodern social construction of nature

Postmodern vertigo

Postmodernism

Postmodernism, or, the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism

Practice in Christianity

Pragmatic maxim

Prefaces

Private sphere

Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics

Public sphere

Queer heterosexuality

Queer pedagogy

Queer theory

Ranjana Khanna

Reflective disclosure

Relationship between Friedrich Nietzsche and Max Stirner

Repetition (Kierkegaard)

Repressive hypothesis

Res Extensa

Ressentiment

Richard A. Macksey

Richard Schacht

Robert C. Solomon

Robert Rowland Smith

Roger Caillois

Romanticism

Rudolf Schottlaender

Rudolf Seydel

Russian formalism

Saint Genet

Sarah Coakley

Scheler's Stratification of Emotional Life

Schizoanalysis

Schopenhauer's criticism of the proofs of the parallel postulate

Search for a Method

Secondary antisemitism

Self-deception

Semeiotic

Siegfried Kracauer

Situationist International

Sketch for a Theory of the Emotions

Slavoj Žižek

Slavoj Žižek bibliography

Social alienation

Socialisme ou Barbarie

Søren Kierkegaard

Søren Kierkegaard and Friedrich Nietzsche

Sous rature

Spomenka Hribar

Stages on Life's Way

Stephen Mulhall

Stirrings Still: The International Journal of Existential Literature

Strategic essentialism

Structural Marxism

Sturm und Drang

Sublime (philosophy)

Telos (journal)

Teresa de Lauretis

The Absence of the Book

The Adulterous Woman

The Antichrist (book)

The Art of Being Right

The Birth of the Clinic

The Birth of Tragedy

The Blood of Others

The Book on Adler

The Case of Wagner

The Concept of Anxiety

The Crisis and a Crisis in the Life of an Actress

The Existential Negation Campaign

The False Subtlety of the Four Syllogistic Figures

The Gay Science

The Imaginary (Sartre)

The Metamorphosis

The Myth of Sisyphus

The Only Possible Argument in Support of a Demonstration of the Existence of God

The Origin of the Work of Art

The Pigeon (novella)

The Plague

The Point of View of My Work as an Author

The Possessed (play)

The Postmodern Condition

The Question Concerning Technology

The Renegade (Camus short story)

The Royal Way

The Seminars of Jacques Lacan

The Sickness Unto Death

The Silent Men

The Society of the Spectacle

The Stranger (Camus novel)

The Sublime Object of Ideology

The Transcendence of the Ego

The Will to Power (manuscript)

Theatre of the Absurd

Theodor W. Adorno

Thoughts on the True Estimation of Living Forces

Thus Spoke Zarathustra

Tim Dean

Time and Free Will

Tomonubu Imamichi

Trace (deconstruction)

Tui (intellectual)

Twilight of the Idols

Two Ages: A Literary Review

Universal Natural History and Theory of Heaven

Untimely Meditations (Nietzsche)

Vanja Sutlić

Waiting for Godot

Waking Life

Walter Benjamin

What Is Literature?

Wilhelm Dilthey

William McNeill (philosopher)

Colin Wilson

Wolfgang Fritz Haug

Works of Love

World disclosure

Writing Sampler

Zarathustra's roundelay

Zollikon Seminars

Individualism

Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes the moral worth of the individual. Individualists promote the exercise of one's goals and desires and so value independence and self-reliance and advocate that interests of the individual should achieve precedence over the state or a social group, while opposing external interference upon one's own interests by society or institutions such as the government. Individualism is often defined in contrast to totalitarianism, collectivism, and more corporate social forms.Individualism makes the individual its focus and so starts "with the fundamental premise that the human individual is of primary importance in the struggle for liberation." Classical liberalism, existentialism, and anarchism are examples of movements that take the human individual as a central unit of analysis. Individualism thus involves "the right of the individual to freedom and self-realization".It has also been used as a term denoting "The quality of being an individual; individuality" related to possessing "An individual characteristic; a quirk." Individualism is thus also associated with artistic and bohemian interests and lifestyles where there is a tendency towards self-creation and experimentation as opposed to tradition or popular mass opinions and behaviors, as with humanist philosophical positions and ethics.

Individualist anarchism

Individualist anarchism refers to several traditions of thought within the anarchist movement that emphasize the individual and his will over external determinants such as groups, society, traditions and ideological systems. Individualist anarchism is not a single philosophy, but it refers to a group of individualistic philosophies that sometimes are in conflict. Benjamin Tucker, a famous 19th century individualist anarchist, held that "if the individual has the right to govern himself, all external government is tyranny".

Individualist anarchism in Europe

Individualist anarchism refers to several traditions of thought within the anarchist movement that emphasize the individual and his or her will over external determinants such as groups, society, traditions, and ideological systems. European individualist anarchism proceeded from the roots laid by William Godwin, Individualist anarchism expanded and diversified through Europe, incorporating influences from American individualist anarchism.

Early European individualist anarchism was influenced by many philosophers, including Pierre Joseph Proudhon, Max Stirner, and Henry David Thoreau. Proudhon was an early pioneer of anarchism as well as of the important individualist anarchist current of mutualism. Stirner became a central figure of individualist anarchism through the publication of his seminal work The Ego and Its Own which is considered to be "a founding text in the tradition of individualist anarchism." The philosophy of Max Stirner supports the individual doing exactly what he pleases – taking no notice of God, state, or moral rules. To Stirner, rights were spooks in the mind, and he held that society does not exist but "the individuals are its reality"– he supported property by force of might rather than moral right. Stirner advocated self-assertion and foresaw "Union of egoists" drawn together by respect for each other's self-ownership. Thoreau emphasized the promotion of simple living, environmental stewardship, and civil disobedience were influential in European individualist anarchists.An important tendency within European individualist anarchism in general is the emphasis on individual subjective exploration and defiance of social conventions. Individualist anarchist philosophy attracted "amongst artists, intellectuals and the well-read, urban middle classes in general." As such Murray Bookchin describes a lot of individualist anarchism as people who "expressed their opposition in uniquely personal forms, especially in fiery tracts, outrageous behavior, and aberrant lifestyles in the cultural ghettos of fin de siecle New York, Paris, and London. As a credo, individualist anarchism remained largely a bohemian lifestyle, most conspicuous in its demands for sexual freedom ('free love') and enamored of innovations in art, behavior, and clothing.". In this way free love currents and other radical lifestyles such as naturism had popularity among individualist anarchists. Other important currents common within European individual anarchism include free love, illegalism, and freethought.Influential European individualist anarchists include Albert Libertad, Bellegarrigue, Oscar Wilde, Émile Armand, Lev Chernyi, John Henry Mackay, Han Ryner, Adolf Brand, Miguel Gimenez Igualada, Renzo Novatore, and Michel Onfray.

Renzo Novatore

For the American musician, see Novatore (hip-hop).Abele Rizieri Ferrari (May 12, 1890 – November 29, 1922), better known by the pen name Renzo Novatore, was an Italian individualist anarchist, illegalist and anti-fascist poet, philosopher and militant, now mostly known for his posthumously published book Toward the Creative Nothing (Verso il nulla creatore) and associated with ultra-modernist trends of futurism. His thought is influenced by Max Stirner, Friedrich Nietzsche, Georges Palante, Oscar Wilde, Henrik Ibsen, Arthur Schopenhauer and Charles Baudelaire.

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