Anahit Tsitsikian

Anahit Tsitsikian (Armenian: Անահիտ Ցիցիկյան; born Leningrad, August 26, 1926; death Yerevan, May 2, 1999) was the first renowned Armenian female violinist. She toured around the world through more than 100 cities during the Soviet times; she taught at the State Conservatory for approximately 40 years and wrote more than 300 articles and scenarios for television and radio programs. She was also a scholar who established a new branch of Armenian musicology, history of performing art,[1] and dedicated the last twenty years of her life to research in the field of ancient music history, becoming the founder of a new branch of Armenian musical archaeology.

Tsitsikian was Merited Artist of Armenia or People's Artist of Armenian SSR (1967), PhD of Musical Science (1970) and Professor of Music (1982).

Anahit Tsitsikian
Anahit Tsitsikian statue
Background information
Born26 August 1926
Leningrad, USSR
Died2 May 1999 (aged 72)
Occupation(s)Violinist, musicologist, teacher


Anahit Tsitsikian was born in Leningrad (currently St. Petersburg), Russia, into a family of an engineer and a doctor. She began playing the violin at the age of six. Her teachers were musician Grigory Ginzburg and later on professor Lev Moiseyevich Zeitlin (ru). At the beginning of World War II, at the age of fifteen, she left Leningrad for Armenia. Her birthplace left an unforgettable mark on her development as a person and musician. She remained an individual with fine tastes and a careful and sincere approach and attitude toward historical legacy; and she was gentle and respectful toward her friends, colleagues and students.

She studied at the Yerevan State Conservatory from 1946–1950 as a student of Professor Karp Dombayev. She was granted the Stalin Scholarship. In 1954 she completed her graduate course at the Moscow State Conservatory (adviser - Professor Konstantin Mostras).

She began performing professionally at elementary school age; her performances included many solo performances as well as with symphonic orchestras. Beginning in 1961 she was the principal soloist at the Armenian Philharmonic Hall. Tsitsikian performed throughout the Republics of the former Soviet Union and in 27 countries around the world. As a violinist she produced four vinyl discs under the Melodiya label. The music of modern Armenian composers held a special place in Ms. Tsitsikian’s repertoire. She was often the co-author, editor and first interpreter of their original pieces.

She taught at the Yerevan State Conservatory starting in 1950, and she established three new courses in its curriculum: history and theory of bowed instruments, history of Armenian performing arts, and course of music teaching practice.

Tsitsikian started her scholarly research while she was still a student of the Conservatory. Her research focused on bowing art, organology and musical archaeology,[2] of which she was the founder in Armenia. She spoke five languages, and lectured in English, French, and German. She participated in numerous international scientific conferences[3] and she also published he articles in Armenia and abroad.[4]

During her artistic life, Tsitsikian performed in more than a thousand recitals, recorded sixty pieces of archived music, and authored more than 300 articles and scripts for many radio and television programs. She was a member of many local and international organizations such as: Composer’s Union of Armenia or Union of Soviet Composers, Armenian Theater Union, Journalists Union, Women’s Committee of the USSR, AOKS (cultural liaison committee of Armenia with foreign countries), "History of World Culture" Committee in the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union, The World Scientific Association of Historical Archaeology, etc.

Anahit Tsitsikian died on May 2, 1999. The Anahit Cultural Foundation was established in the same year to continue her work and fulfill her dreams. The mission of the foundation is to facilitate the promotion of Armenian music by supporting musicians in their professional education and work, setting up and implementing cultural programs and events, and stimulating the integration of Armenian music within international music.

Honours and awards

Anahit Tsitsikian was a Merited Artist of Armenia (1967), PhD of Musical Science (1970), and Professor of Music (1982). In 2004 music school was named after her in Yerevan, Armenia.

See also


  1. ^ "Армянское смычковое искусство Анаит Цицикян". Retrieved 2015-02-26.
  2. ^ "1990-1999". Archived from the original on 2015-01-27. Retrieved 2015-02-26.
  3. ^ "AnahitFoundation". YouTube. Retrieved 2015-02-26.
  4. ^ "п я┐п╩я▄я┌я┐я─п╟ п÷п╬я─я┌п╟п╩: "п░я─п╪я▐п╫я│п╨п╬п╣ я│п╪я▀я┤п╨п╬п╡п╬п╣ п╦я│п╨я┐я│я│я┌п╡п╬" п░п╫п╟п╦я┌ п╕п╦я├п╦п╨я▐п╫". 2001-02-22. Archived from the original on 2011-07-16. Retrieved 2015-02-26.

External links

August 26

August 26 is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 127 days remaining until the end of the year.

Jean Ter-Merguerian

Jean Ter-Merguerian (Armenian: Ժան Տեր-Մերկերյան; Marseille, 5 October 1935 – Marseille, 29 September 2015) was a French-Armenian virtuoso violinist and violin pedagogue.

Komitas State Conservatory of Yerevan

Komitas State Conservatory of Yerevan (Armenian: Կոմիտասի անվան Երևանի Պետական Երաժշտական Կոնսերվատորիա), is a state-owned college of music located in Yerevan, Armenia. At the beginning, the institute was founded in 1921 as a music studio. However, in 1923, it was turned into a higher musical education institution. It is named after the founder of the Armenian national school of music, Komitas (1869−1935).

List of Melodiya artists

List of recording artists performing on or signed to Melodiya at one time or another.

List of classical violinists

This is a list of notable classical violinists from the baroque era to the 20th century.

For a more comprehensive list of contemporary classical violinists, see List of contemporary classical violinists.

List of female violinists

This is a chronological list of female classical professional concert violinists.NOTE: any add should be done in chronological birth date order.

Total listed: 258

List of musicologists

A musicologist is someone who studies music (see musicology). A historical musicologist studies music from a historical perspective. An ethnomusicologist studies music in its cultural and social contexts (see ethnomusicology). A systematic musicologist asks general questions about music from the perspective of relevant disciplines (psychology, sociology, acoustics, philosophy, physiology, computer science) (see systematic musicology). Systematic musicologists often identify more strongly with their non-musical discipline than with musicology.

List of violists

This is a list of Wikipedia articles on notable viola players. In cases where a violist has also achieved fame in another musical area, such as conducting or composing, this is noted.

Music of Armenia

The music of Armenia has its origins in the Armenian Highlands, where people traditionally sang popular folk songs. Armenia has a long musical tradition that was primarily collected and developed by Komitas, a prominent priest and musicologist, in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Armenian music has been presented internationally by composers Aram Khachaturian, Alexander Arutiunian, Arno Babadjanian, Karen Kavaleryan as well as by pop musicians and performers such as duduk player Djivan Gasparyan, composer/instrumentalist Ara Gevorgyan, singers Sirusho, Eva Rivas and many others.


Musicology (from Greek, Modern μουσική (mousikē), meaning 'music', and -λογία (-logia), meaning 'study of') is the scholarly analysis and research-based study of music. Musicology departments traditionally belong to the humanities, although music research is often more scientific in focus (psychological, sociological, acoustical, neurological, computational). A scholar who participates in musical research is a musicologist.Traditionally, historical musicology (commonly termed "music history") has been the most prominent sub-discipline of musicology. In the 2010s, historical musicology is one of several large musicology sub-disciplines. Historical musicology, ethnomusicology, and systematic musicology are approximately equal in size. Ethnomusicology is the study of music in its cultural context. Systematic musicology includes music acoustics, the science and technology of acoustical musical instruments, and the musical implications of physiology, psychology, sociology, philosophy and computing. Cognitive musicology is the set of phenomena surrounding the computational modeling of music. In some countries, music education is a prominent sub-field of musicology, while in others it is regarded as a distinct academic field, or one more closely affiliated with teacher education, educational research, and related fields. Like music education, music therapy is a specialized form of applied musicology which is sometimes considered more closely affiliated with health fields, and other times regarded as part of musicology proper.

Women in music

Women in music describes the role of women as composers, songwriters, instrumental performers, singers, conductors, music scholars, music educators, music critics/music journalists and other musical professions. As well, it describes music movements (e.g., women's music, which is music written and performed by women for women), events and genres related to women, women's issues and feminism. In the 2010s, while women constitute a significant proportion of popular music and classical music singers, and a significant proportion of songwriters (many of them being singer-songwriters), there are few women record producers, rock critics and rock instrumentalists. Notable women artists in pop, such as Bjork and Lady Gaga have commented about sexism and gender discrimination in the music industry. Additionally, a recent study led by Dr. Smith announced that "...over the last six years, the representation of women in the music industry has been even lower". In classical music, although there have been a huge number of women composers from the Medieval period to the present day, women composers are significantly underrepresented in the commonly performed classical music repertoire, music history textbooks and music encyclopedias; for example, in the Concise Oxford History of Music, Clara Schumann is one of the only female composers who is mentioned.

Women constitute a significant proportion of instrumental soloists in classical music and the percentage of women in orchestras is increasing. A 2015 article on concerto soloists in major Canadian orchestras, however, indicated that 84% of the soloists with the Orchestre Symphonique de Montreal were men. In 2012, women still made up just 6% of the top-ranked Vienna Philharmonic orchestra. Women are less common as instrumental players in popular music genres such as rock and heavy metal, although there have been a number of notable female instrumentalists and all-female bands. Women are particularly underrepresented in extreme metal genres. Women are also underrepresented in orchestral conducting, music criticism/music journalism, music producing, and sound engineering. While women were discouraged from composing in the 19th century, and there are few women musicologists, women became involved in music education "to such a degree that women dominated [this field] during the later half of the 19th century and well into the 20th century."According to Jessica Duchen, a music writer for London's The Independent, women musicians in classical music are "too often judged for their appearances, rather than their talent" and they face pressure "to look sexy onstage and in photos." Duchen states that while "[t]here are women musicians who refuse to play on their looks...the ones who do tend to be more materially successful." According to the UK's Radio 3 editor, Edwina Wolstencroft, the music industry has long been open to having women in performance or entertainment roles, but women are much less likely to have positions of authority, such as being the conductor of an orchestra, a profession which has been called "one of the last glass ceilings in the music industry". In popular music, while there are many women singers recording songs, there are very few women behind the audio console acting as music producers, the individuals who direct and manage the recording process. One of the most recorded artists is a woman, Asha Bhosle, an Indian singer who is best known as a playback singer in Hindi cinema.

Women in musicology

Women in musicology describes the role of women professors, scholars and researchers in postsecondary education musicology departments at postsecondary education institutions, including universities, colleges and music conservatories. Traditionally, the vast majority of major musicologists and music historians have been men. Nevertheless, some women musicologists have reached the top ranks of the profession. Carolyn Abbate (born 1956) is an American musicologist who did her PhD at Princeton University. She has been described by the Harvard Gazette as "one of the world's most accomplished and admired music historians".Susan McClary (born 1946) is a musicologist associated with the "New Musicology" who incorporates feminist music criticism in her work. McClary holds a PhD from Harvard University. One of her best known works is Feminine Endings (1991), which covers musical constructions of gender and sexuality, gendered aspects of traditional music theory, gendered sexuality in musical narrative, music as a gendered discourse and issues affecting women musicians. In the book, McClary suggests that the sonata form (used in symphonies and string quartets) may be a sexist or misogynistic procedure that constructs of gender and sexual identity. McClary's Conventional Wisdom (2000) argues that the traditional musicological assumption of the existence of "purely musical" elements, divorced from culture and meaning, the social and the body, is a conceit used to veil the social and political imperatives of the worldview that produces the classical canon most prized by supposedly objective musicologists.

American musicologist Marcia Citron has asked "[w]hy is music composed by women so marginal to the standard 'classical' repertoire?" Citron "examines the practices and attitudes that have led to the exclusion of women composers from the received 'canon' of performed musical works." She argues that in the 1800s, women composers typically wrote art songs for performance in small recitals rather than symphonies intended for performance with an orchestra in a large hall, with the latter works being seen as the most important genre for composers; since women composers did not write many symphonies, they were deemed to be not notable as composers.Other notable women scholars include:

Eva Badura-Skoda

Margaret Bent

Suzanne Cusick

Ursula Günther

Maud Cuney Hare

Liudmila Kovnatskaya

Kendra Preston Leonard

Rosetta Reitz

Elaine Sisman

Hedi Stadlen

Rose Rosengard Subotnik

Anahit Tsitsikian

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