Anagnostaras

Anagnostaras (Greek: Αναγνωσταράς; 1760 in Poliani – May 8, 1825[1] in Sphacteria) was a Greek revolutionary, a leading member of the Filiki Etaireia, and later a general and War Minister of the Greek War of Independence. Anagnostaras is a nom de guerre, he was born as Christos Papageorgiou (Greek: Χρήστος Παπαγεωργίου) and signed as Anagnostis Papageorgiou (Greek: Αναγνώστης Παπαγεωργίου).[2]

Anagnostis Papageorgiou
Anagnostaras by Hess
Anagnostaras in the Battle of Valtetsi
by Peter von Hess
Birth nameChristos Papageorgiou
Nickname(s)"Anagnostaras"
Born1760
Poliani, Ottoman Empire
DiedMay 8, 1825
Sphacteria, Greece
RankGeneral

Biography

Anagnostaras was born in 1760 at the village of Poliani in Messenia; his family originated from the Leontari area of Arcadia.[2][3] In 1803 he moved to the island Zakynthos and starting his military service in the Imperial Russian Army until 1813, when he moved to Odessa to ask his arrears of salary.[4]

Activity for the Filiki Etaireia

At Odessa in 1817, he was initiated into the Filiki Etaireia by Nikolaos Skoufas, became a "priest" and in March 1817 he was sent to Moscow to meat Athanasios Tsakalov,[5] who sent him to the islands of Hydra and Spetses to search for "neophyte" members.[6] Later in the same year went to Constantinople, were found Papaflessas and initiated him on 21 June 1818, then returned to Zakynthos and initiated Theodoros Kolokotronis on 1 December 1818.[7]

Later he was sent to the Peloponnese to continue his activity,[3] in which paradoxically he used a buzuki to sing poems of Rigas Feraios and songs of Klephts. The result of his tour was to be elected to the higher grade of "Apostle".[8] Emmanuil Xanthos gave to Anagnostaras the code number 108 for correspondence with the other members of society.[9] He was the first initiated Apostle of the Etaireia, after him were initiated Christoforos Perraivos, Yiannis Pharmakis and Ilias Chrysospathis.[10]

Service in the Greek War of Independence

When the Greek War of Independence began in March 1821, Anagnostaras was present at the Liberation of Kalamata on 23 March 1821,[3] when Greek irregular revolutionary forces took control of the city after the surrender of the Ottoman garrison, without fighting, as a Major under the command of Petrobey Mavromichalis. On 30 September 1821, along with Theodoros Kolokotronis, Kyriakoulis Mavromichalis and Panagiotis Giatrakos, he signed an agreement to confirm the position of the Peloponnesian Senate's members, and they came to rupture with Alexandros Ypsilantis, who eventually retreated.[11] Anagnostaras was promoted to General and became member of the War Commission.[3]

In March 1822, Anagnostaras along with Panagiotis Kefalas and Giatrakos' family supported Georgios Kountouriotis to form a new government at Myloi.[12] In May 1822, after the reshuffles of Second National Assembly at Astros, he became War Minister of the provisional government.[13]

He fought in the Battle of Valtetsi (May 12, 1821),[14] the Siege of Tripolitsa (September 1821),[15] the Siege of Corinth (December 1821 – January 1822)[16] and many other battles until 8 May 1825 when he was killed in the Battle of Sphacteria.[17]

References

  1. ^ Note: Greece officially adopted the Gregorian calendar on 16 February 1923 (which became 1 March). All dates prior to that, unless specifically denoted, are Old Style.
  2. ^ a b Filimon, I. (1834), p. 185: Note (a).
  3. ^ a b c d Great Military and Naval Encyclopedia (1929), vol. 2, p. 130.
  4. ^ Flessas, C. (1842), pp. 144-145.
  5. ^ Flessas, C. (1842), pp. 34-35.
  6. ^ Flessas, C. (1842), pp. 41, 145.
  7. ^ History of the Hellenic Nation (1971), vol. 12, pp. 76-77.
  8. ^ Filimon, I. (1834), pp. 201-202.
  9. ^ Flessas, C. (1842), p. 36: File of Xanthos, no. 1818/11a.
  10. ^ Flessas, C. (1842), p. 44: List of 12 Etairoi and 15 Apostles.
  11. ^ History of the Hellenic Nation (1971), vol. 12, pp. 197-198.
  12. ^ History of the Hellenic Nation (1971), vol. 12, pp. 328-329.
  13. ^ History of the Hellenic Nation (1971), vol. 12, p. 299.
  14. ^ Autobiography of Kolokotrones (1892), p. 141.
  15. ^ Autobiography of Kolokotrones (1892), p. 149.
  16. ^ History of the Hellenic Nation (1971), vol. 12, pp. 182, 217.
  17. ^ History of the Hellenic Nation (1971), vol. 12, p. 382.

Sources

  • Kolokotrones, the Klepht and the Warrior, Sixty Years of Peril and Daring. An autobiography. London: T. Fisher Unwin. 1892. pp. 135–205. Retrieved 5 March 2018.
  • Filimon, Ioannis (1834). Dokimion peri tis Filikis Etairias (in Greek). Nauplio: Kondaxis-Loulakis. p. 185.
  • Flessas, Konstantinos (1842). History of the Sacred Struggle (PDF) (in Greek). Athens: P.A. Komnenos. pp. 34–44, 144–145. Retrieved 5 March 2018.
  • "Anagnostaras". Μεγάλη Στρατιωτική και Ναυτική Εγκυκλοπαιδεία. Τόμος Β′: Αλαρκόν – Γωνιόμετρον (in Greek). Athens: Έκδοσις Μεγάλης Στρατιωτικής και Ναυτικής Εγκυκλοπαιδείας. 1929. p. 130.
  • History of the Hellenic Nation, Vol. XII: The Greek Revolution (1821–1832) (in Greek). Ekdotiki Athinon. 1971. pp. 373–380. ISBN 960-213-097-0. OCLC 636806977. OL 18546042M.
Anastasios Tsamados

Anastasios Tsamados (Greek: Αναστάσιος Τσαμαδός; 1774 in Hydra – 1825 in Sphacteria) was a Greek admiral of the Greek War of Independence. He was the famous captain of the brig Aris and an admiral who led a naval squadron under Andreas Miaoulis. Anastasios Tsamados was the first to rush to the greek island of Chios and attack the naval warships of Kapudan Pasha during the massacre of Chios. He also fought in the naval battle of Patras (1822). Anastasios Tsamados died heroically during the famous Battle of Sphacteria.

Battle of Andros (1825)

The Battle of Andros took place on 29 April 1825 between the fleets of the Ottoman Empire and Revolutionary Greece. The Greek fleet, under Georgios Sachtouris, comprising 20 warships and eight fireships, defeated the Ottoman fleet of 51 vessels by attacking and burning with two fireships the Ottoman flagship—a 66-gun ship of the line—and a 34-gun frigate. The Ottoman fleet dispersed, allowing the Greeks to capture a sloop with its crew, as well five Austrian cargo ships destined to support the Ottoman Siege of Missolonghi.

Battle of Doliana

The Battle of Doliana took place during the Greek War of Independence on 18 May 1821.

Battle of Karpenisi

The Battle of Karpenisi took place near the town of Karpenisi (in Evrytania, central Greece) on the night of 8 August 1823 between units of the Greek revolutionary army and Ottoman troops.

Battle of Petra

The Battle of Petra was the final battle fought in the Greek War of Independence.

Battle of Sphacteria (1825)

The Battle of Sphacteria was fought on 8 May 1825 in Sphacteria, Greece between the Egyptian forces of Ibrahim Pasha and Greek forces led by Captain Anastasios Tsamados along with Alexandros Mavrokordatos.

Battle of Valtetsi

The Battle of Valtetsi was fought on May 12 (O.S.), 1821 in Valtetsi between the Ottoman army and Greek revolutionaries.

Battle of Vasilika

The Battle of Vasilika was fought between Greek revolutionaries and the Ottoman Empire during the Greek War of Independence on August 25, 1821, near Thermopylae. The Greek insurgents managed to destroy an Ottoman relief army on its way to the forces of Omer Vrioni in Attica, and captured the supplies and baggage.

800 Turks were killed and 220 captured. Greek trophies included 18 flags, 2 cannons, and 800 horses. The Turks retreated to Lamia, to the north of Thermopylae.This victory prevented the Ottoman army in Attica and Evia to enter the Peloponnese and deliver the Ottoman garrisons besieged by the Greeks.

Battle of the Trench (1821)

The Battle of the Trench (Greek: μάχη της Γράνας) was fought near Tripolitsa in Arcadia in August 1821 during the first year of the Greek War of Independence between the Greek revolutionary forces led by Theodoros Kolokotronis and the Ottoman garrison of Tripolitsa. The battle ended with the complete victory of the Greeks.

Dimitrie Macedonski

Dimitrie Macedonski (c. 1780 or 1782–1843) was a Wallachian Pandur captain and revolutionary leader.

Eleftheria i thanatos

Eleftheria i thanatos (Greek: Ελευθερία ή θάνατος, pronounced [elefθeˈria ˈi ˈθanatos], "freedom or death") is the motto of Greece.

Greece on the Ruins of Missolonghi

Greece on the Ruins of Missolonghi (French: La Grèce sur les ruines de Missolonghi) is an 1826 oil painting by French painter Eugène Delacroix, and now preserved at the Musée des Beaux-Arts de Bordeaux. This painting was inspired by the Third Siege of Missolonghi by the Ottoman forces in 1826, during which many people of the city after the long-time siege (almost a year) decided to attempt a mass breakout (sortie) to escape famine and epidemics. The attempt resulted in a disaster, with the larger part of the Greeks slain.

Greek Socialist League

The Greek Socialist League was a socialist organization in Greece. The Socialist Party of Greece had merged with the Democratic Party, forming the Democratic Party of Working People, in September 1953. The Socialist League was founded on December 6, 1953, as a platform for socialist politics inside the new party. The Socialist League did not consider itself as a political party as such, but rather an organized faction. The Socialist League published the journal Sosialistika fylla ("Socialist papers").As of 1957, the Executive Committee of the Socialist League consisted of Dimitris Stratis (Chairman), Stratis Someritis (Vice-Chairman), Agnes Roussopoulos (General Secretary), Takis Kyrkos (Joint Secretary), D. Goutas, I. Sakellariou, I. Papatheodorou, E. Paraskevas, E. Anastassiadis, Katerina Athanassiadou, I. Laoutaris, T. Tzaveas, M. Anagnostaras, S. Issaris and G. Katsoulis.The Socialist League became an observer to the Socialist International, at the 1955 congress of the International in London.

Greek local statutes

The Greek Local Statutes were the local assemblies of Greece (the Charter of the Senate of Western Continental Greece, the Legal Order of Eastern Continental Greece, the Peloponnesian Senate Organization, the Provisional Regime of Crete, and the Military-Political Organization of the Island of Samos) during the Greek War of Independence who codified certain 'proto-constitutions' ratified by local assemblies with the aim of eventually establishing a centralized Parliament under a single constitution.

London Protocol (1828)

The London Protocol of 16 November 1828 was an agreement between the three Great Powers (Britain, France and Russia), which established the creation of an internally autonomous, but tributary Greek state under Ottoman suzerainty.

As a result of the Greek War of Independence, which had begun in 1821, and the Great Powers' intervention in the conflict after the Treaty of London in the Battle of Navarino (1827), the creation of some form of Greek state in southern Greece had become certain. In 1827, the Greek Third National Assembly entrusted the governance of the fledgling nation to Ioannis Kapodistrias, who arrived in Greece in January 1828. Alongside his efforts to lay the foundations for a modern state, Kapodistrias undertook negotiations with the Great Powers as to the extent and constitutional status of the new Greek state, especially during the Poros Conference of the Great Powers' ambassadors in September 1828.

Although the ambassadors recommended a broad territorial basis for the new Greek state, in November 1828, disregarding the ambassadors' recommendations, the Great Powers agreed on the first London Protocol, which created an autonomous Greek state, which would be tributary to the Sultan and limited to the Peloponnese (Morea) and the Cyclades islands. This left out Central Greece, Crete, and other islands which had participated in the Greek uprising and/or were at the time under Greek control.

In the event, the Protocol was amended on 22 March 1829 by the signature of the second London Protocol, which largely accepted the Poros Conference's recommendations.

Nikolaos Petimezas

Nikolaos Petimezas (Greek: Νικόλαος Πετιμεζάς, 1790–1865) was a Greek revolutionary leader during the Greek War of Independence, politician and officer of the Hellenic Gendarmerie.

He was born in 1790 in Soudena near Kalavryta. He was the son of Athanasios Petimezas. After his father was murdered in 1804 he fled to British-held Zakynthos, and enrolled in the British-sponsored Greek light infantry units.

He returned to the Peloponnese at the outbreak of the War of Independence, and fought in several battles. In 1826, with 600 men, he occupied Mega Spilaio and drove back the attacks of Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt. He was chosen as a representative of his native Kalavryta in the Greek National Assemblies, and became an MP in the independent Kingdom of Greece.

He died in Kalavryta in 1865.

Second National Assembly at Astros

The Second National Assembly at Astros (Greek: Βʹ Εθνοσυνέλευση στο Άστρος) was the second Greek National Assembly, a national representative body of the Greeks who had rebelled against the Ottoman Empire.

It convened at Astros between 29 March and 18 April 1823 under the chairmanship of Petros Mavromichalis. Its most important task was the revision of the Constitution of Epidaurus, adopted in the First National Assembly. The new Constitution was voted on April 13, and was called the Epidaurus Law to stress its continuity with the one of 1822. It was legally more articulate as compared to its predecessor. It allowed a slight superiority to the Legislative power as opposed to the Executive, given the fact that the latter's veto power was circumcised from an absolute to a suspending one. The new Constitution also marked an improvements as far as the protection of human rights was concerned: property was protected, as was the honor and the security not only of Greeks but of all persons on Greek territory; it established the freedom of the press and abolished slavery. It also abolished local governments. However, the great disadvantage of the yearly term of the Administrative branches remained unaltered, a result of the ever-growing distrust between politicians and the military. The Assembly of Astros passed a new electoral law, according to which the right to vote was bestowed to men rather than to seniors, while the voting age went down from 30 to 25 years.

Siege of Tripolitsa

The Siege of Tripolitsa or the Fall of Tripolitsa (Greek: Άλωση της Τριπολιτσάς, Álosi tis Tripolitsás, Greek pronunciation: [ˈalosi tis tripoliˈt͡sas]; Turkish: Tripoliçe Katliamı) to revolutionary Greek forces in the summer of 1821 marked an early victory in the Greek War of Independence against the Ottoman Empire, which had begun earlier in that year.

It is further notorious for the massacre mainly of its Muslim plus Jewish population (the Massacre of Tripolitsa), which occurred after the city's fall to the Greek revolutionary forces. As historian of the war W. Alison Phillips noted, "the other atrocities of Greeks paled before the awful scenes which followed the storming of Tripolitza".

Third National Assembly at Troezen

The Third Greek National Assembly at Troezen (Greek: Γʹ Εθνοσυνέλευση της Τροιζήνας) was convened during the latter stages of the Greek Revolution.

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