Anabisetia

Anabisetia (/ˌɑːnəbiːˈsɛtiə/ AH-nə-bee-SET-ee-ə) is a genus of iguanodont dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous Period of Patagonia, South America. It was a small bipedal herbivore, around 2 metres (6 ft 7 in) long.

Anabisetia
Temporal range: Late Cretaceous, 95–92 Ma
Anabisetia
Reconstructed skeleton cast
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Clade: Dinosauria
Order: Ornithischia
Genus: Anabisetia
Coria & Calvo, 2002
Species:
A. saldiviai
Binomial name
Anabisetia saldiviai
Coria & Calvo, 2002

Discovery

Argentine paleontologists Rodolfo Coria and Jorge Orlando Calvo named Anabisetia in 2002. The generic name honors the late Ana Maria Biset, an influential archeologist from Neuquén Province in Argentina, where the remains of this animal were found. The one named species is called A. saldiviai, after Roberto Saldivia Blanco, a local farmer who had discovered the fossils in 1985 and brought them to the attention of science in 1993.[1] The finds had already been reported in the scientific literature in 1996.[2][3]

Anabisetia saldiviai copia
Artist's impression of Anabisetia

There are four specimens known, all listed in the original 2002 description. The holotype, MCF-PVPH 74, is the most complete of the four. It consists of fragmentary skull material, including a partial braincase and both dentary (lower jaw) bones, as well as a complete forelimb from shoulder to hand, a complete hindlimb and foot, and representative vertebrae from all sections of the spinal column. The other three specimens are less complete, but include elements not seen in the holotype, including more vertebrae, a complete pelvis and a nearly complete, articulated tail. Two specimens are the paratypes, MCF-PVPH-75 and MCF-PVPH-76. The fourth, MCF-PVPH-77, is referred to the species. When all four specimens are considered, the skeleton is more or less completely known except for the skull. These specimens are housed at the Museo Carmen Funes in Plaza Huincul, Argentina.[1]

All four specimens were discovered at a locality called Cerro Bayo Mesa, thirty kilometers south of Plaza Huincul in the Neuquén province of Argentina. This locality is part of the Cerro Lisandro Formation, which is a geologic formation within the Rio Limay subgroup of the Neuquén Group. The sediments in this formation preserve a swamp which existed from the late Cenomanian through early Turonian stages of the Late Cretaceous Period, or about 95 to 92 million years ago.[4]

Description

Anabisetia was a small bipedal herbivore. In 2010 Gregory S. Paul estimated its length at two meters, its weight at twenty kilograms.[5] The describers established several unique traits of the species. At the back of the head, the connection with the neck, the occipital condyle, pointed rather downwards. The shoulder blade had an extension on its upper lower rim, the acromial process, that relatively was the largest ever found in the Euornithopoda. In the hand the fifth metatarsal was flattened with straight edges, instead of rounded in cross-section. In the pelvis, the ilium had a front blade that accounted for more than half of the total ilium length and extended in front of the prepubis. The ischium had a shaft that in the upper part was triangular in cross-section and in the lower part quadrangular. In the ankle the fibula touched the astragalus.[1]

Classification

This dinosaur is thought to be closely related to another Patagonian ornithopod, Gasparinisaura, although the lack of skull material makes it difficult to place with precision. When originally described, Gasparinisaura and Anabisetia were thought to be basal iguanodontians, more derived than Tenontosaurus and members of the clade Euiguanodontia, and seen as endemic remnants of an early dispersion of basal iguanodontians on Pangea.[1] Relatively recent cladistic analyses performed by Coria and others indicated that Gasparinisaura lies just outside of Iguanodontia, closer to North American ornithopods like Thescelosaurus and Parksosaurus.[6] Anabisetia may fall in a similar position. However, in 2015, both taxa were found to be part of the clade Elasmaria along with other Antarctic and Patagonian ornithopods.[7]

Cladogram based in the phylogenetic analysis of Rozadilla et al., 2015:

Hypsilophodon

Thescelosaurus

Iguanodontia
Elasmaria

Gasparinisaura

Morrosaurus

Trinisaura

Macrogryphosaurus

Notohypsilophodon

Talenkauen

Anabisetia

Parksosaurus

Kangnasaurus

Rhabdodontidae

Tenontosaurus

Dryomorpha

References

  1. ^ a b c d Coria, R.A. & Calvo, J.O. 2002. A new iguanodontian ornithopod from Neuquen Basin, Patagonia, Argentina. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 22(3): 503–509
  2. ^ R. A. Coria, G. Cladero, & L. Salgado, 1996, "Una neuva localidad fosilífera en la Formación Río Limay?, Cretácico Superior, Cerro Bayo Mesa, Provincia de Neuquén", Ameghiniana 33(4): 463
  3. ^ Coria, R.A. & J. O. Calvo, 1996, "Análisis filogenético preliminar del primer dinosaurio Iguanodontia registrado en la Formación Río Limay", Resúmenes XII Jornadas Argentinas de Paleontología de Vertebrados. Ameghiniana 33: 462
  4. ^ Leanza, H.A., Apesteguia, S., Novas, F.E., & de la Fuente, M.S. 2004. Cretaceous terrestrial beds from the Neuquén Basin (Argentina) and their tetrapod assemblages. Cretaceous Research 25(1): 61-87
  5. ^ Paul, G.S., 2010, The Princeton Field Guide to Dinosaurs, Princeton University Press p. 277
  6. ^ Norman, D.B., Sues, H-D., Witmer, L.M., & Coria, R.A. 2004. Basal Ornithopoda. In: Weishampel, D.A., Dodson, P., & Osmolska, H. (Eds.). The Dinosauria (2nd Edition). Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 393–412
  7. ^ Rozadilla, Sebastián, et al. "A new ornithopod (Dinosauria, Ornithischia) from the Upper Cretaceous of Antarctica and its palaeobiogeographical implications." Cretaceous Research 57 (2016): 311-324.
Aralosaurini

Aralosaurini is a tribe of basal lambeosaurine hadrosaurs endemic to Eurasia. It currently contains Aralosaurus (from the Aral sea of Kazakhstan) and Canardia (from Toulouse, Southern France).

Atlascopcosaurus

Atlascopcosaurus (meaning "Atlas Copco lizard") is a genus of herbivorous basal iguanodont dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous of the present Australia.

Canardia

Canardia is an extinct genus of aralosaurin lambeosaurine dinosaur known from the Late Cretaceous Marnes d’Auzas Formation (late Maastrichtian stage) of Toulouse, Haute-Garonne Department, southern France. The type species Canardia garonnensis was first described and named by Albert Prieto-Márquez, Fabio M. Dalla Vecchia, Rodrigo Gaete and Àngel Galobart in 2013.

Dryosauridae

Dryosaurids were primitive iguanodonts. They are known from Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous rocks of Africa, Europe, and North America.

Elasmaria

Elasmaria is a clade of iguanodont ornithopods known from Cretaceous deposits in South America, Antarctica, and Australia.

Gasparinisaura

Gasparinisaura (meaning "Gasparini's lizard") is a genus of herbivorous ornithopod dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous.

The first fossils of Gasparinisaura were in 1992 found in Argentina, near Cinco Saltos in Río Negro Province. The type species, Gasparinisaura cincosaltensis, was named and described in 1996 by Rodolfo Coria and Leonardo Salgado. The generic name honours Argentine palaeontologist Zulma Brandoni de Gasparini. The specific name refers to Cinco Saltos.

Jaxartosaurus

Jaxartosaurus is a genus of hadrosaurid dinosaur similar to Corythosaurus which lived during the Late Cretaceous. Its fossils were found in Kazakhstan.

Koshisaurus

Koshisaurus is a monospecific genus of basal hadrosauroid from the Kitadani Formation in Japan. The discovery of the genus suggests that hadrosauroids had higher diversity along the eastern margin of Asia in the Early Cretaceous. "Koshi" means an old Japanese regional name including Fukui prefecture where fossils of the genus were discovered.

Laiyangosaurus

Laiyangosaurus ("Laiyang lizard") is a genus of saurolophine hadrosaurid from the Late Cretaceous of China. It is known from one species, L.youngi, found in the Laiyang Basin within the province of Shandong.

Lapampasaurus

Lapampasaurus is an extinct genus of hadrosaurid known from the Late Cretaceous Allen Formation (late Campanian or early Maastrichtian stage) of La Pampa Province, Argentina. It contains a single species, Lapampasaurus cholinoi.The generic name refers to the Argentine province of La Pampa. The specific name honours the late collector José Cholino. The material includes cervical, dorsal, sacral and caudal vertebrae, the forelimb girdle, and the partial hindlimb.

Morrosaurus

Morrosaurus is an extinct genus of herbivorous ornithischian dinosaur member of the Euornithopoda, that lived in the late Cretaceous in the Antarctica. The only known species is the type Morrosaurus antarcticus.

Notohypsilophodon

Notohypsilophodon (meaning "southern Hypsilophodon") is a genus of euornithopod dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous of Argentina. It was described as the only "hypsilophodont" known from South America, although this assessment is not universally supported, and Gasparinisaura is now believed to have been a basal euornithopod as well.

Penelopognathus

Penelopognathus ("wild duck jaw") is a genus of dinosaur which lived during the Early Cretaceous. It was an iguanodont ancestral to hadrosaurids. Fossils have been found in the Bayin-Gobi Formation in what is now China. The type species, Penelopognathus weishampeli, was described by Godefroit, Li, and Shang in 2005, based on fragmentary jaw fossils.

Plesiohadros

Plesiohadros is an extinct genus of hadrosauroid dinosaur. It is known from a partial skeleton including the skull collected at Alag Teg locality, from the Campanian Djadochta Formation of southern Mongolia. The type species is Plesiohadros djadokhtaensis.

Rhabdodontomorpha

Rhabdodontomorpha is a clade of basal iguanodont dinosaurs. This group was named in 2016 in the context of the description, based on Spanish findings, of an early member of the Rhabdodontidae. A cladistic analysis was conducted in which it was found that Muttaburrasaurus was the sister species of the Rhabdodontidae sensu Weishampel. Therefore, Paul-Emile Dieudonné, Thierry Tortosa, Fidel Torcida Fernández-Baldor, José Ignacio Canudo and Ignacio Díaz-Martínez defined Rhabdodontomorpha as a nodal clade: the group consisting of the last common ancestor of Rhabdodon priscus Matheron, 1869 and Muttaburrasaurus langdoni Bartholomai and Molnar, 1981; and all its descendants. Within the clade are included also Zalmoxes and Mochlodon.The group consists of small to large plant eaters from Europe and Gondwana. It must have split from other iguanodont groups during the Middle Jurassic.

Talenkauen

Talenkauen (meaning "small skull" in Aonikenk, referring to the proportionally small skull) is a genus of basal iguanodont dinosaur from the Cenomanian-age Late Cretaceous Cerro Fortaleza Formation, formerly known as the Pari Aike Formation of Patagonian Lake Viedma in the Austral Basin of Santa Cruz, Argentina. It is based on MPM-10001, a partial articulated skeleton missing the rear part of the skull, the tail, and the hands. Its most unusual feature is the presence of several thin mineralized plates along the sides of the ribs.

Trinisaura

Trinisaura is an extinct genus of ornithopod dinosaur known from the lower levels of the Late Cretaceous Snow Hill Island Formation (lower Campanian stage) of James Ross Island, Antarctica. It contains a single species, Trinisaura santamartaensis.The species was in 2013 named by Rodolfo Aníbal Coria e.a. The generic name honours the geologist Trinidad Diaz. The specific name refers to the Santa Marta Cove site where the specimen was in 2008 found by Coria and Juan José Moly. That same year, the find was reported in the scientific literature.The holotype, MLP-III-1-1, consists of a partial skeleton lacking the skull, of a subadult individual about 1.5 metres (4.9 ft) in length.

Turonian

The Turonian is, in the ICS' geologic timescale, the second age in the Late Cretaceous epoch, or a stage in the Upper Cretaceous series. It spans the time between 93.9 ± 0.8 Ma and 89.8 ± 1 Ma (million years ago). The Turonian is preceded by the Cenomanian stage and underlies the Coniacian stage.At the beginning of the Turonian an anoxic event took place which is called the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary event or the "Bonarelli Event".

Xuwulong

Xuwulong is a genus of hadrosauroid dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous period. It lived during the early Cretaceous period (Aptian-Albian age) in what is now Yujingzi Basin in the Jiuquan area, Gansu Province of northwestern China. It is known from the holotype – GSGM F00001, an articulated specimen including a complete cranium, almost complete axial skeleton, and complete left pelvic girdle from Xinminpu Group. Xuwulong was named by You Hailu, Li Daqing and Liu Weichang in 2011 and the type species is Xuwulong yueluni.

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