Amyzon (Ancient Greek: Ἁμυζών) in Caria (now Mazin, Aydın Province between the villages of Akmescit and Gaffarlar, in Aegean Turkey) was an ancient city 30 km south of modern Koçarlı.[1][2][3]


The city was in the Athenian alliance in 405BC[4]

Under the Seleucids, Amyzon was one of the cities in the Chrysaorian League of Carian cities that lasted at least until 203 BCE, when Antiochus III confirmed the privileges of Amyzon.[5] The League had a form of reciprocal citizenship whereby a citizen of a member city was entitled to certain rights and privileges in any other member city.[6][7]

The city was dismissed by Strabo[8] as a mere peripolion ('suburb' or 'township') of Alabanda; Amyzon was mentioned by Pliny, Ptolemy and Hierocles. In the wars among the successors of Alexander, in the 3rd century BCE, the city allied with the less immediately threatening power, first with the Ptolemies, then with the Seleucids. In the second city it concluded an alliance with Heracleia under Latmos. On one occasion it sent a delegation to the oracle of Apollo at Clarus. The few coins identified as from the mint at Amyzon are Hellenistic and Imperial Roman.


A stretch of the city wall stands 6 m high (in fact, the terrace wall of the shrine); inside it are a few ruined and unidentifiable buildings, as well as a row of a dozen large vaulted underground chambers, apparently storerooms.[9] There are also Byzantine structures. Outside the city a series of ruined terraces mark the site of the Doric temple of Artemis,[10] which dates from the time of the Hecatomnids: an architrave block has been found bearing a dedication by Idrieus. Numerous other inscriptions abound.

Amyzon was excavated by Louis Robert.[11] Amyzon was mentioned in the Byzantine lists of bishops. No longer a residential diocese, it is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.[12]


Amyzon is a titular see In the provence of Caria; a suffrant to Stauropoli. It was a neighbour to the bishopric of Alinda.[13] [14][15][16][17][18]

Known bishops

Bischof Borgna Quilon 1
Bishop Borgna
  • Philetus fl451[19]
  • Jean Baptiste Gillis (3 Aug 1729 Appointed – 1 Dec 1736 Died) [20]
  • Charles Alexandre d'Arberg et de Valengin (31 Aug 1767 Appointed – 19 Dec 1785 Confirmed, Bishop of Ypres (Ieper))
  • Godefroid Philippe Joseph de La Porte, (29 Nov 1790 Appointed – 9 Aug 1796 Succeeded, Archbishop of Naxos)
  • Miguel Joaquín Matías Suárez, (20 Dec 1802 Appointed – 2 May 1831 Died)
  • Franz Großmann (Grossmann) (17 Jun 1844 Appointed – 5 May 1852 Died)
  • Ireneus Frederic Baraga (29 Jul 1853 Appointed – 9 Jan 1857 Appointed, Bishop of Sault Sainte Marie, Michigan)
  • Józef Twarowski (3 Aug 1857 Appointed – 19 Jan 1868 Died)
  • Ildefonso Giovanni Battista Borgna, (24 May 1871 Appointed – 14 Dec 1886 Appointed, Titular Archbishop of Marcianopolis)
  • Heinrich Feiten (20 Sep 1887 Appointed – 17 Feb 1892 Died)
  • Ignacio Ibáñez, (4 May 1893 Appointed – 14 Oct 1893 Died)
  • Pio Gaetano Secondo Stella (22 Dec 1893 Appointed – 21 Sep 1927 Died)
  • Gabriele Perlo, (22 Dec 1927 Appointed – 26 Sep 1948 Died)
  • Charles Dauvin, (9 Dec 1948 Appointed – 28 Dec 1948 Died)
  • Baltasar Álvarez Restrepo † (7 May 1949 Appointed – 18 Dec 1952 Appointed, Bishop of Pereira)
  • Luigi Cicuttini (6 Apr 1953 Appointed – 30 Nov 1956 Appointed, Bishop of Città di Castello) [21]
  • Antonin Fishta, (17 Dec 1956 Appointed – 12 Jan 1980 Died) [22]


  1. ^ George Ewart Bean: Amyzon (Mazın Kalesi) Turkey. In: Richard Stillwell u. a. (Hrsg.): The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J. 1976, ISBN 0-691-03542-3.
  2. ^ Gernot Lang: Klassische antike Stätten Anatoliens. BoD, 2003, ISBN 3833000686, p 88–89.
  3. ^ Louis und Jeanne Robert: Fouilles d'Amyzon en Carie. Tome 1. Exploration, histoire, monnaies et inscriptions. de Boccard, Paris 1983.
  4. ^ Mogens Herman Hansen & Thomas Heine Nielsen, Caria, in An inventory of archaic and classical poleis, New York, (Oxford University Press, 2004), p. 1111–1112, ISBN 0-19-814099-1.
  5. ^ J. Ma, Antiochos III and the Cities of Western Asia Minor, :175.
  6. ^ "Hazlitt, The Classical Gazetteer, s.v. "Chrysaorium"". p. 109. Archived from the original on 2007-03-05. Retrieved 2016-03-30.
  7. ^ María Marta González González, Cartas de la cancillería helenística (II) en la revista Memorias de historia antigua, ISSN 0210-2943, Nº 11-12, 1990–1991, págs. 127-146 (p.129)
  8. ^ Strabo, 658.
  9. ^ The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites: s.v. "Amyzon".
  10. ^ See the Bagadates who was a neokoros, at the article Bagadates I.
  11. ^ Louis Robert, with Jeanne Robert, Fouilles d'Amyzon en Carie I, (Paris: De Boccard) 1983.
  12. ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 831
  13. ^ Rosemary Morris, Monks and Laymen in Byzantium, 843-1118(Cambridge University Press, 2002)
  14. ^ Henry Mourice, A Defence of Diocesan Episcopacy, in answer to a book of Mr D. Clarkson ... entituled"Primitive Episcopacy.".(1691)
  15. ^ David Clarkson, Primitive Episcopacy, evincing from Scripture and ancient records, that a bishop in the Apostles times, and for the space of the first three centuries of the Gospel-Church, was no more than a pastor to one single church or congregation, etc. [With a prefatory epistle by Isaac Chauncy].(Nath. Ponder, 1688)
  16. ^ Bingham, J.; Bingham, R. (1834). Origines ecclesiasticæ; or, The antiquities of the Christian church, and other works. To which are now added, several sermons. p. 334. Retrieved 2016-03-30.
  17. ^ Joseph Bingham, Origines ecclesiasticæ; or, The antiquities of the Christian church, and other works. To which are now added, several sermons (Joseph Bingham, 1834) p 334
  18. ^ Robert Knaplock, The Works, Volume 1 (Robert Knaplock, 1726)p834
  19. ^ Authoritative Christianity. The third world council ... which was held A.D. 431.
  20. ^ Amyzona at
  21. ^ Amyzon at
  22. ^ Le Petit Episcopologe, Issue 188, Number 15,318

Coordinates: 37°36′31″N 27°42′40″E / 37.6087°N 27.711°E

Amyzon (fish)

Amyzon is an extinct genus belonging to the sucker family Catostomidae first described in 1872 by E. D. Cope. There are 4 valid species in the genus. Amyzon are found in North American fossil sites dated from the Early Eocene in Washington USA, and several Early Eocene sites in British Columbia Canada including the McAbee Fossil Beds, Driftwood Canyon, and the Horsefly Beds, as well as Early Oligocene sites in Nevada USA.


Ariassus or Ariassos (Ancient Greek: Άριασσός) was a town in Pisidia, Asia Minor built on a steep hillside about 50 kilometres inland from Attaleia (modern Antalya).

Aydın Archaeological Museum

Aydın Archaeological Museum (Turkish: Aydın Arkeoloji Müzesi) is in Aydın, western Turkey. Established in 1959, it contains numerous statues, tombs, columns and stone carvings from the Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, Seljuk and Ottoman periods, unearthed in ancient cities such as Alinda, Alabanda, Amyzon, Harpasa, Magnesia on the Maeander, Mastaura, Myus, Nisa, Orthosia, Piginda, Pygela and Tralleis. The museum also has a section devoted to ancient coin finds.

Bagadates I

Bagadates I (Greek; from the Old Iranian Baga-dāta, "Given by [the] god"), also Bagdates or Baydad (Middle Persian), was a frataraka or "Keeper of the Fire", and a governor or sub-dynast for the Seleucids during the 3rd century BCE, ruling as a priest-king at Istakhr in the former Achaemenid heartland, the territory of Persis (Fars), after Alexander the Great's conquests. He was the first indigenous Persian satrap to be appointed - or at least tolerated - by the Seleucids, who held the higher administrative posts tightly within the Greco-Macedonian circle that was headed by the "Companions" and their heirs.


Caloe was a town in the Roman province of Asia. It is mentioned as Kaloe or Keloue in 3rd-century inscriptions, as Kalose in Hierocles's Synecdemos (660), and as Kalloe, Kaloe, and Kolone in Parthey's Notitiæ episcopatuum, in which it figures from the 6th to the 12fth or 13th century.


The Catostomidae are the suckers of the order Cypriniformes, with about 78 species in this family of freshwater fishes. The Catostomidae are almost exclusively native to North America. The only exceptions are Catostomus catostomus, found in both North America and Russia, and Myxocyprinus asiaticus found only in China. In the Ozarks they are a common food fish and a festival is held each year to celebrate them. Ictiobus cyprinellus can reach an age up to 112 years, making it the oldest known freshwater teleost.


Cestrus was a city in the Roman province of Isauria, in Asia Minor. Its placing within Isauria is given by Hierocles, Georgius Cyprius, and Parthey's (Notitiae episcopatuum). While recognizing what the ancient sources said, Lequien supposed that the town, whose site has not been identified, took its name from the River Cestros and was thus in Pamphylia. Following Lequien's hypothesis, the 19th-century annual publication Gerarchia cattolica identified the town with "Ak-Sou", which Sophrone Pétridès called an odd mistake, since this is the name of the River Cestros, not of a city.

Chrysaorian League

The Chrysaorian League (Ancient Greek: σύστημα Χρυσαορικόν, systema Chrysaorikon) was an informal loose federation of several cities in ancient region of Caria, Anatolia that was apparently formed in the early Seleucid period and lasted at least until 203 BC. The League had its primary focus on unified defense, and secondarily on trade, and may have been linked by ethnic bonds (the Chrysaorians). It had an assembly and financial institutions, and a form of reciprocal citizenship whereby a citizen of a member city was entitled to certain rights and privileges in any other member city. The capital of the League was Chrysaorium where the assembly met. [1]

Other member cities included: Alabanda (renamed Antiochia of the Chrysaorians), Alinda, Amyzon, Ceramus, Mylasa, Kaunos, Stratonicea, Thera.

For periods of time, some of the member cities were subject to Rhodes as part of the Rhodian Peraea.


Cotenna was a city in the Roman province of Pamphylia I in Asia Minor. It corresponds to modern Gödene, near Konya, Turkey.

Heraclea at Latmus

Heraclea at Latmus (Ancient Greek: Ἡράκλεια πρὸς Λάτμῳ, romanized: Herakleia pros Latmo; Latin: Heraclea ad Latmum), or simply Heraclea or Herakleia (Ἡράκλεια), also transliterated as Heracleia, was a town on the confines between ancient Caria and Ionia, situated at the western foot of Mount Latmus on the Gulf of Latmus, which has since silted up. During the Hellenistic period it bore the name Pleistarcheia, probably after Pleistarchus. It was a small place in the south-east of Miletus, and south-west of Amyzon. In its neighbourhood a cave was shown with the tomb of Endymion. Ruins of this town still exist at the foot of mount Latmus on the borders of Lake Bafa, which is probably a portion of the ancient Sinus Latmicus, formed by the deposits of the river Maeander.

The place must have Christianised early as an early bishopric is attested. No longer a residential see, it remains a titular see of the Roman Catholic Church.Its site is located near Kapıkırı, Asiatic Turkey.


Jianghanichthys is an extinct genus of Cypriniformes fish. It is also known as Osteohilus or Chan Han Fish.


Koçarlı is a town and a district of Aydın Province, in the Aegean region of Turkey, 24 km (15 mi) from the city of Aydın.

List of ancient settlements in Turkey

Below is the list of ancient settlements in Turkey. There are innumerable ruins of ancient settlements spread all over the country. While some ruins date back to Neolithic times, most of them were settlements of Hittites, Phrygians, Lydians, Ionians, Urartians, and so on.

List of prehistoric bony fish genera

This List of prehistoric bony fish is an attempt to create a comprehensive listing of all genera from the fossil record that have ever been considered to be bony fish (class osteichthyes), excluding purely vernacular terms. The list includes all commonly accepted genera, but also genera that are now considered invalid, doubtful (nomina dubia), or were not formally published (nomina nuda), as well as junior synonyms of more established names, and genera that are no longer considered members of osteichthyes.

This list includes 1,386 generic names.

Extinct genera are marked with a dagger (†).

Extant genera are bolded.


Lyrbe (spelled Lyrba in the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia; Ancient Greek: Λύρβη) was a city and episcopal see in the Roman province of Pamphylia Prima and is now a titular see.

Stratonicea (Lydia)

Stratonicea – (Greek: Στρατoνικεια, or Στρατονίκεια) also transliterated as Stratoniceia and Stratonikeia, earlier Indi, and later for a time Hadrianapolis – was an ancient city in the valley of the Caicus river, between Germe and Acrasus, in Lydia, Anatolia; its site is currently near the village of Siledik, in the district of Kırkağaç, Manisa Province, in the Aegean Region of Turkey.


Thydonos was a town of ancient Caria, mentioned by Pliny the Elder. Thydonos was a member of the Delian League since it appears in tribute records of Athens for 451/0 BCE.Its site is unlocated, but Pliny's recitation of Thydonos among Euromus, Heraclea, Amyzon, and Alabanda, indicates that it was in the northern part of Caria.


Tyana (Ancient Greek: Τύανα; Hittite Tuwanuwa) was an ancient city in the Anatolian region of Cappadocia, in modern Kemerhisar, Niğde Province, Central Anatolia, Turkey. It was the capital of a Luwian-speaking Neo-Hittite kingdom in the 1st millennium BC.

Üçayaklı ruins

The Üçayaklı ruins are in Mersin Province, Turkey.

Black Sea
Central Anatolia
Eastern Anatolia


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