Amulet

An amulet, also known as a "good luck charm", is an object believed to confer protection upon its possessor. The word "amulet" comes from the Latin word amuletum, which Pliny's Natural History describes as "an object that protects a person from trouble". Anything can function as an amulet; items commonly so used include gems, statues, coins, drawings, plant parts, animal parts, and written words.[1]

Amulets which are said to derive their extraordinary properties and powers from magic or those which impart luck are typically part of folk religion or paganism, whereas amulets or sacred objects of formalised mainstream religion as in Christianity are believed to have no power of their own without being blessed by a clergyman, and they supposedly will also not provide any preternatural benefit to the bearer who does not have an appropriate disposition. Amulets are different from talismans and charms because they may have alleged magical powers other than protection.[2] Amulets are sometimes confused with pendants, small aesthetic objects that hang from necklaces. Any given pendant may indeed be an amulet but so may any other object that purportedly protects its holder from danger.

Iranian amulet
amulet to ward off the evil eye(Nazar)

Ancient Rome

Barnstenen amulet korenaren ValkenvburgZH 101064 RMO Leiden
amulet, amber, with ear of wheat, Roman period (69-96 AD)

Amulets were particularly prevalent in ancient Roman society, being the inheritor of the ancient Greek tradition, and inextricably linked to Roman religion and magic (see magic in the Graeco-Roman world). Amulets are usually outside of the normal sphere of religious experience, though associations between certain gemstones and gods has been suggested. For example, Jupiter is represented on milky chalcedony, Sol on heliotrope, Mars on red jasper, Ceres on green jasper, and Bacchus on amethyst.[3] Amulets are worn to imbue the wearer with the associated powers of the gods rather than for any reasons of piety. The intrinsic power of the amulet is also evident from others bearing inscriptions, such as vterfexix (utere fexix) or "good luck to the user."[4] Amulet boxes could also be used, such as the example from part of the Thetford treasure, Norfolk, UK, where a gold box intended for suspension around the neck was found to contain sulphur for its apotropaic (evil-repelling) qualities.[5]

China and Japan

四国第二十三番札所 薬王寺 お守り 1034843
An omamori, a Japanese amulet

In China, Taoist experts called fulu developed a special style of calligraphy that they said would be able to protect against evil spirits. The equivalent type of amulet in Japan is called an ofuda.

Abrahamic religions

In antiquity and the Middle Ages, most Jews, Christians, and Muslims in the Orient believed in the protective and healing power of amulets or blessed objects. Talismans used by these peoples can be broken down into three main categories: talismans carried or worn on the body, talismans hung upon or above the bed of an infirm person, and medicinal talismans. This third category can be further divided into external and internal talismans. For example, an external amulet can be placed in a bath.

Jews, Christians, and Muslims have also at times used their holy books in a talisman-like manner in grave situations. For example, a bed-ridden and seriously ill person would have a holy book placed under part of the bed or cushion.[6]

Judaism

Ketef hinom scrolls
The Silver Scroll on display at the Israel Museum
Collection of khamsa
Examples of Hand of Miriam in contemporary Israel
Chai
Chai pendant (modern)

Amulets are plentiful in the Jewish tradition, with examples of Solomon-era amulets existing in many museums. Due to the proscription of idols and other graven images in Judaism, Jewish amulets emphasize text and names. The shape, material, and color of a Jewish amulet makes no difference. Examples of textual amulets include the Silver Scroll, circa 630 BCE, and the still contemporary mezuzah[7] and tefillin.[8] A counter-example, however, is the Hand of Miriam, an outline of a human hand. Another non-textual amulet is the Seal of Solomon, also known as the hexagram or Star of David. In one form. it consists of two intertwined equilateral triangles, and in this form it is commonly worn suspended around the neck to this day.

Another common amulet in contemporary use is the Chai (symbol)—(Hebrew: חַי‎ "living" ḥay), which is also worn around the neck. Other similar amulets still in use consist of one of the names of the god of Judaism, such as ה (He), יה (YaH), or שדי (Shaddai), inscribed on a piece of parchment or metal, usually silver.[9]

During the Middle Ages, Maimonides and Sherira Gaon (and his son Hai Gaon) opposed the use of amulets and derided the "folly of amulet writers."[10] Other rabbis, however, approved the use of amulets.[11]

Rabbi and famous kabbalist Naphtali ben Isaac Katz ("Ha-Kohen," 1645–1719) was said to be an expert in the magical use of amulets. He was accused of causing a fire that broke out in his house and then destroyed the whole Jewish quarter of Frankfurt, and of preventing the extinguishing of the fire by conventional means because he wanted to test the power of his amulets; he was imprisoned and forced to resign his post and leave the city.[12]

Christianity

Small crucifix
A crucifix, considered in Christian tradition as a defense against demons, as the holy sign of Christ's victory over every evil

The Roman Catholic Church maintains that the legitimate use of sacramentals in its proper disposition is encouraged only by a firm faith and devotion to the Triune God, and not by any magical or superstitious belief bestowed on the sacramental. In this regard, rosaries, scapulars, medals, and other devotional religious Catholic paraphernalia derive their power, not simply from the symbolism displayed in the object, but rather from the blessing of the Catholic Church.

Lay Catholics are not permitted to perform solemn exorcisms, but they can use holy water, blessed salt, and other sacramentals, such as the Saint Benedict medal or the crucifix, for warding off evil.[13]

St benedict medal-2006 04 24
Back of the Catholic Saint Benedict medal with the Vade Retro Satana abbreviation

The crucifix, and the associated sign of the cross, is one of the key sacramentals used by Catholics to ward off evil since the time of the Early Church Fathers. The imperial cross of Conrad II (1024–1039) referred to the power of the cross against evil.[14]

A well-known amulet among Catholic Christians is the Saint Benedict medal which includes the Vade Retro Satana formula to ward off Satan. This medal has been in use at least since the 1700s, and in 1742 it received the approval of Pope Benedict XIV. It later became part of the Roman Catholic ritual.[15]

Some Catholic sacramentals are believed to defend against evil, by virtue of their association with a specific saint or archangel. The scapular of St. Michael the Archangel is a Roman Catholic devotional scapular associated with Archangel Michael, the chief enemy of Satan. Pope Pius IX gave this scapular his blessing, but it was first formally approved under Pope Leo XIII.

The form of this scapular is somewhat distinct, in that the two segments of cloth that constitute it have the form of a small shield; one is made of blue and the other of black cloth, and one of the bands likewise is blue and the other black. Both portions of the scapular bear the well-known representation of the Archangel St. Michael slaying the dragon and the inscription "Quis ut Deus?" meaning "Who is like God?".[16]

Catholic saints have written about the power of holy water as a force that repels evil. Saint Teresa of Avila, a Doctor of the Church who reported visions of Jesus and Mary, was a strong believer in the power of holy water and wrote that she used it with success to repel evil and temptations.[17]

Spanish soldiers, especially Carlist units, wore a patch with an image of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the inscription detente bala ("stop, bullet").

Early Egyptian Christians made textual amulets with scriptural incipits, especially the opening words of the Gospels, the Lord’s Prayer and Psalm 91. These amulets have survived from late antiquity (c. 300–700 C.E.), mostly from Egypt. They were written in Greek and Coptic on strips of papyrus, parchment and other materials in order to cure bodily illnesses and/or to protect individuals from demons.[18]

Islam

Amulet Kilim Motif
Amulet Kilim motif (3 examples)
Morocco Hand of Fatima silver
Berber hamsa or "Hand of Fatima" amulet in silver, Morocco, early 20th century

Amulets and talismans are forbidden in Islam,[19] and using them is considered an act of shirk (idolatry).[20][21] However, the practice has historically existed in Islamic folk culture.

In Central and West Asia, amulets (often in the form of triangular packages containing a sacred verse) were traditionally attached to the clothing of babies and young children to give them protection from forces such as the evil eye.[22][23] Triangular amulet motifs were often also woven into oriental carpets such as kilims. The carpet expert Jon Thompson explains that such an amulet woven into a rug is not a theme: it actually is an amulet, conferring protection by its presence. In his words, "the device in the rug has a materiality, it generates a field of force able to interact with other unseen forces and is not merely an intellectual abstraction."[24]

Another popular amulet used to avert the evil gaze is the hamsa (meaning five) or "Hand of Fatima". The symbol is pre-Islamic, known from Punic times.[25]

Buddhism

Tibet

The Tibetan Buddhists have many kinds of talismanic and shamanistic amulets and ritual tools, including the dorje, the bell, and many kinds of portable amulets. The Tibetan Buddhists enclose prayers on a parchment scroll within a prayer wheel, which is then spun around, each rotation being one recitation of all of the stanzas within the prayer wheel.

Thailand

The people of Thailand, with Buddhist and animist beliefs, also have a vast pantheon of amulets, which are still popular and in common use by most people even in the present day. The belief in magic is impregnated into Thai culture and religious beliefs and folk superstitions, and this is reflected in the fact that we can still see commonplace use of amulets and magical rituals in everyday life. Some of the more commonly known amulets are of course the Buddhist votive tablets, such as the Pra Somdej Buddha image, and guru monk coins. But Thailand has an immensely large number of magical traditions, and thousands of different types of amulet and occult charm can be found in use, ranging from the takrut scroll spell, to the necromantic Ban Neng Chin Aathan, which uses the bones or flesh of the corpse of a 'hoeng prai' ghost (a person who died unnaturally, screaming, or in other strange premature circumstances), to reanimate the spirit of the dead, to dwell within the bone as a spirit, and assist the owner to achieve their goals. The list of Thai Buddhist amulets in existence is a lifetime study in its own right, and indeed, many people devote their lives to the study of them, and collection. Thai amulets are still immensely popular both with Thai folk as well as with foreigners, and in recent years, a massive increase in foreign interest has caused the subject of Thai Buddhist amulets to become a commonly known topic around the world. Amulets can fetch prices ranging from a few dollars right up to millions of dollars for a single amulet. Due to the money that can be made with sorcery services, and with rare collector amulets of the master class, there is also a forgery market in existence, which ensures that the experts of the scene maintain a monopoly on the market. With so many fakes, experts are needed for collectors to trust for obtaining authentic amulets, and not selling them fakes.[26]

Other cultures

Amulets vary considerably according to their time and place of origin. In many societies, religious objects serve as amulets, e.g. deriving from the ancient Celts, the clover, if it has four leaves, symbolizes good luck (not the Irish shamrock, which symbolizes the Christian Trinity).[27]

In Bolivia, the god Ekeko furnishes a standard amulet, to whom one should offer at least one banknote or a cigarette to obtain fortune and welfare.[28]

In certain areas of India, Nepal and Sri Lanka, it is traditionally believed that the jackal's horn can grant wishes and reappear to its owner at its own accord when lost. Some Sinhalese believe that the horn can grant the holder invulnerability in any lawsuit.[29]

The Native American movement of the Ghost Dance wore ghost shirts to protect them from bullets.

In the Philippines, amulets are called agimat or anting-anting. According to folklore, the most powerful anting-anting is the hiyas ng saging (directly translated as pearl or gem of the banana). The hiyas must come from a mature banana and only comes out during midnight. Before the person can fully possess this agimat, he must fight a supernatural creature called kapre. Only then will he be its true owner. During Holy Week, devotees travel to Mount Banahaw to recharge their amulets.[30]

Gallery

Escapulariocafe

Scapular of Our Lady of Mount Carmel or "Brown Scapular"

MagicAmuletSquare

Sator Square, an ancient Roman amulet in the form of a palindromic word square

Amulette Rajasthan 6

Amulet from Rajasthan

Tintinnabulum Pompeii MAN Napoli Inv27839

Ancient Roman amulet from Pompeii with a phallus

Cheshm-Nazar

Turkish nazar-talisman to ward off the Evil eye

Talis02

An amulet from the Black Pullet grimoire

Magical mirror Louvre AA10

Magical mirror with Zodiac signs

NEPE Talisman

A talisman, American Indian medicine made by wolf skin, wool, mirrors, feathers, buttons and brass bell

Tropenmuseum Royal Tropical Institute Objectnumber H-2977 Amulet van acht hangers gesneden uit aw

Winti- amulet, an Afro-Surinamese traditional religion's amulet

Taweret amulet

Ancient Egyptian Taweret amulet, New Kingdom, Dynasty XVIII, c. 1539–1292 BC

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Gonzalez-Wippler 1991, p. 1.
  2. ^ Campo, Juan Eduardo, ed. (2009). "amulets and talismans". Encyclopedia of Islam. Encyclopedia of World Religions: Facts on File Library of Religion and Mythology. Infobase Publishing. pp. 40–1. ISBN 978-1-4381-2696-8.
  3. ^ Henig, Martin (1984). Religion in Roman Britain. London: B.T. Batsford. ISBN 978-0-7134-1220-8.
  4. ^ Collingwood, Robin G.; Wright, Richard P. (1991). Roman Inscriptions of Britain (RIB). Volume II, Fascicule 3. Stround: Alan Sutton. RIB 2421.56–8.
  5. ^ Henig 1984, p. 187.
  6. ^ Canaan, Tewfik (2004). "The Decipherment of Arabic Talismans". In Savage-Smith, Emilie. Magic and Divination in Early Islam. The Formation of the Classical Islamic World. 42. Ashgate. pp. 125–49. ISBN 978-0-86078-715-0.
  7. ^ Kosior, Wojciech. ""It Will Not Let the Destroying [One] Enter". The Mezuzah as an Apotropaic Device according to Biblical and Rabbinic Sources, "The Polish Journal of the Arts and Culture" 9 (1/2014), pp. 127-144". Retrieved 2016-07-30.
  8. ^ Kosior, Wojciech. ""The Name of Yahveh is Called Upon You". Deuteronomy 28:10 and the Apotropaic Qualities of Tefillin in the Early Rabbinic Literature, "Studia Religiologica" 2 48/2015, pp. 143-154". Retrieved 2016-07-30.
  9. ^ Encyclopedia Judaica: Amulet.
  10. ^ Guide to the Perplexed, 1:61; Yad, Tefillin 5:4.
  11. ^ For example, Solomon ben Abraham Adret ("Rashba," 1235–1310, Spain) and Naḥmanides ("Ramban," 1194-1270, Spain). Ency. Jud., op. cit.
  12. ^ Ency. Jud.: Katz, Naphtali ben Isaac. See also Naphtali Cohen#Biography.
  13. ^ Scott, Rosemarie (2006). "Meditation 26: The Weapons of Our Warfare". Clean of Heart. p. 63. ISBN 978-0-9772234-5-9.
  14. ^ Fahlbusch, Erwin; Lochman, Jan Milič; Mbiti, John; Pelikan, Jaroslav; Vischer, Lukas, eds. (1999). The Encyclopedia of Christianity. Translator and English language editor: Bromiley, Geoffrey W. Boston: Eerdmans. p. 737. ISBN 978-0-8028-2413-4.
  15. ^ Lea, Henry Charles (1896). "Chapter 12: Indulged Objects". A History of Auricular Confession and Indulgences in the Latin Church. Volume 3: Indulgences. Philadelphia: Lea Brothers & Co. p. 520. OCLC 162534206.
  16. ^ Ball, Ann (2003). Encyclopedia of Catholic Devotions and Practices. Our Sunday Visitor. p. 520. ISBN 978-0-87973-910-2.
  17. ^ Teresa of Ávila (2007). "Chapter 21: Holy Water". The Book of My Life. Translated by Starr, Mirabai. Boston: Shambhala Publications. pp. 238–41. ISBN 978-0-8348-2303-7.
  18. ^ Sanzo, Joseph E. "Ancient Amulets with Incipits Early Christian amulets". biblicalarchaeology,org. Retrieved 5 August 2018.
  19. ^ "Chapter 4: Other Beliefs and Practices". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 2012-08-09. Archived from the original on 2018-08-11. Retrieved 2018-08-11. Islamic tradition also holds that Muslims should rely on God alone to keep them safe from sorcery and malicious spirits rather than resorting to talismans, which are charms or amulets bearing symbols or precious stones believed to have magical powers, or other means of protection. Perhaps reflecting the influence of this Islamic teaching, a large majority of Muslims in most countries say they do not possess talismans or other protective objects. The use of talismans is most widespread in Pakistan (41%) and Albania (39%), while in other countries fewer than three-in-ten Muslims say they wear talismans or precious stones for protection. Although using objects specifically to ward off the evil eye is somewhat more common, only in Azerbaijan (74%) and Kazakhstan (54%) do more than half the Muslims surveyed say they rely on objects for this purpose.
  20. ^ "Ruling on amulets and hanging them up; do amulets ward off the evil eye and hasad (envy)? - islamqa.info". islamqa.info. Retrieved 2018-05-23.
  21. ^ "Prohibition of wearing amulets". Islamweb. Retrieved 2018-05-23.
  22. ^ Erbek, Güran (1998). Kilim Catalogue No. 1. May Selçuk A. S. Edition=1st. pp. 4–30.
  23. ^ "Kilim Motifs". Kilim.com. Retrieved 28 January 2016.
  24. ^ Thompson, Jon (1988). Carpets from the Tents, Cottages and Workshops of Asia. Barrie & Jenkins. p. 156. ISBN 0-7126-2501-1.
  25. ^ Achrati, Ahmed (2003). "Hand and Foot Symbolism: From Rock Art to the Qur'an" (PDF). Arabica. 50 (4): 463–500 (see p. 477). Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 November 2017.
  26. ^ Littlewood, Ajarn Spencer (2016). The Book of Thai Lanna Sorcery (PDF). Thailand: Buddha Magic Multimedia & Publications. pp. 1–2.
  27. ^ Cleene, Marcel; Lejeune, Marie Claire (2003). Compendium of Symbolic and Ritual Plants in Europe. p. 178. ISBN 978-90-77135-04-4.
  28. ^ Fanthorpe, R. Lionel; Fanthorpe, Patricia (2008). Mysteries and Secrets of Voodoo, Santeria, and Obeah. Mysteries and Secrets Series. 12. Dundurn Group. p. 183–4. ISBN 978-1-55002-784-6.
  29. ^ Tennent, Sir, James Emerson (1999) [1861]. Sketches of the Natural History of Ceylon with Narratives and Anecdotes Illustrative of the Habits and Instincts of the Mammalia, Birds, Reptiles, Fishes, Insects, Including a Monograph of the Elephant and a Description of the Modes of Capturing and Training it with Engravings from Original Drawings (reprint ed.). Asian Educational Services. p. 37. ISBN 978-81-206-1246-4.
  30. ^ "The Agimat and Anting-Anting: Amulet and Talisman of the Philippines". amuletandtalisman.com. 2012. Archived from the original on 2016-09-24.

References

External links

Abrams Books

Abrams, formerly Harry N. Abrams, Inc. (HNA), is an American publisher of art and illustrated books, children's books, and stationery.

The enterprise is a subsidiary of the French publisher La Martinière Groupe. Run by President and CEO Michael Jacobs, Abrams publishes and distributes approximately 250 titles annually and has more than 3,000 titles in print.

Abrams also distributes publications for the Victoria and Albert Museum, Tate, Vendome Press (in North America), Booth Clibborn Editions, SelfMadeHero, MoMA Children's Books, and 5 Continents.

Amulet, Saskatchewan

Amulet is an unincorporated community in Norton Rural Municipality No. 69, Saskatchewan, Canada. It previously held the status of a village until January 1, 1965. The community has a population of 33 people.

The townsite was formally founded in 1911 when the railway station was constructed in 1910. A post office, a general store, and two grain elevators were also built in 1910, but all were closed in 1973. A school was also built in 1910 and a second room added in 1919, but it was closed in 1961. St. Boniface Anglican Church was built in 1916, but moved to Weyburn Heritage Village in 1990.

Ankh

The ankh is an ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic symbol that was most commonly used in writing and in art to represent the word for "life" and, by extension, as a symbol of life itself. Its use continued through the Coptic Egyptians who adapted it as the crux ansata, a variant form of the Christian cross.

The sign has a cross shape but with an oval loop in place of an upper bar. The origins of the symbol are not known, although many hypotheses have been proposed. It was used in writing as a triliteral sign, representing a sequence of three consonants, Ꜥ-n-ḫ. This sequence was found in several Egyptian words, including the words meaning "mirror", "floral bouquet", and "life". In art the symbol often appeared as a physical object representing either life or substances such as air or water that are related to it. It was especially commonly held in the hands of deities, or being given by them to the pharaoh, to represent their power to sustain life and to revive human souls in the afterlife. It was one of the most common decorative motifs in ancient Egypt and was adopted by neighbouring cultures as an artistic motif. Since the late 20th century, in the Western world, the symbol has come to be used decoratively, as a symbol of African cultural identity, Neopagan belief systems, and the Goth subculture.

Asmodeus (Marvel Comics)

Asmodeus is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. Asmodeus is an extradimensional demon, subordinate to Mephisto, who has clashed on numerous occasions with the first Ghost Rider.

Bulla (amulet)

Bulla, an amulet worn like a locket, was given to male children in Ancient Rome nine days after birth. Rather similar objects are rare finds from Late Bronze Age Ireland.

Chinese numismatic charm

Yansheng Coin (simplified Chinese: 厌胜钱; traditional Chinese: 厭勝錢; pinyin: yàn shèng qián), in the west they are more commonly known as Chinese numismatic charms or simply Chinese charms (alternatively they may be known as Chinese amulets or Chinese talismans), refers to a collection of special kinds of coins and coin-shaped objects used mainly for ritual uses as well as fortune telling and are involved in almost all forms of Chinese superstitions and Feng shui. It was very popular in ancient China and even the Republic of China era. Normally these coins are privately funded or cast, such as by a rich family for their own family ceremony, though a few types have been known to be cast by various governments or religious orders over the centuries. They originated during the Han dynasty as a variant of the contemporary Ban Liang and Wu Zhu cash coins but evolved into their right right and into many different categories in various shapes and sizes over the centuries. Chinese numismatic charms typically contain a lot of hidden symbolism and visual puns. Unlike cash coins which usually only contain two or four Hanzi characters on one side Chinese numismatic charms often contain more characters and may or may not also contain pictures on the same side.

Chinese numismatic charms and amulets are not a real kind of currency, however as Chinese coins were valued by their weight in bronze or brass, Chinese numismatic charms tended to circulate on the Chinese market alongside regular government issued coinages as Chinese charms and amulets were often made from copper-alloys and in some cases from precious metals or jade, and in certain cases some variants were sometimes used as alternative currencies especially temple coins issued by Buddhist temples during the Yuan dynasty when copper currency was scarce or its production was intentionally limited by the Mongol government. As some types of Chinese charms and amulets were used as daily fashion accessories many of them are worn.

The collection (e.g. antique collection, coin collection) of this kind of coins has a long history, and has been very popular since the Western Han Dynasty. Normally this kind of coins are heavily decorated, have complicated patterns, and even engraved. Sometimes actual government cast Chinese cash coins can become Chinese numismatic charms such as the fact that in Feng shui Qing dynasty era cash coins with inscriptions of the five emperors Shunzhi, Kangxi, Yongzheng, Qianlong, and Jiaqing placed together are said to bring wealth and good fortune to those that string these five coins together.Chinese numismatic charms and amulets have inspired a similar tradition in Japan, Korea, and Vietnam and often charms and amulets from these other countries can be confused for Chinese charms due to their similar symbolism and inscriptions. Similarly Chinese cash coins themselves may be treated as "lucky charms" outside of China.

Cornicello

A cornicello (IPA: [korniˈtʃɛllo]), cornetto (IPA: [korˈnetto]; Italian for "little horn" or "hornlet"), corno (Italian for "horn"), or corno portafortuna (literally "lucky horn" in Italian) is an Italian amulet or talisman worn to protect against the evil eye (or malocchio [maˈlɔkkjo]) and bad luck in general, and, historically, to promote fertility and virility. In Neapolitan, it is called curniciello or variants thereof. The amulet is also sometimes referred to as the Italian horn.

Doctor Fate

Doctor Fate (also known as Fate) is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The character has appeared in various incarnations, with Doctor Fate being the name of several different individuals in the DC Universe who are a succession of sorcerers. The original version of the character was created by writer Gardner Fox and artist Howard Sherman, and first appeared in More Fun Comics #55 (May 1940).

Eye of Agamotto

The Eye of Agamotto () is a fictional mystical item appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics and in their Marvel Cinematic Universe films, with its first appearance in Doctor Strange. The item appears in publications in particular those featuring Doctor Strange. The Eye of Agamotto is the name commonly given to the amulet Strange wears on his chest, though the Eye actually resides within the amulet and is released from time to time. Created by writer Stan Lee and artist Steve Ditko, it first appeared in "The Origin of Dr. Strange", an eight-page story in Strange Tales #115 (December 1963). In designing the Eye, Ditko drew inspiration from the real world charm The All Seeing Eye of the Buddha, known among Buddhists as The Amulet of Snail Martyrs, a Nepali symbol meant to protect its wearer against evil. In film, the Eye contains the Time Stone, one of the fictional universe's Infinity stones, diverging from the comics' continuity where the Time Gem is owned by an ancient being named Ord Zyonz.

Hercules' Club (amulet)

Hercules' Club (also Hercules-club, Club-of-Hercules; German Herkuleskeule, Donarkeule) is a Roman Empire and Migration era artefact type.

Roman era Hercules's Clubs appear from the 2nd to 3rd century, spread over the empire (including Roman Britain, c.f. Cool 1986), mostly made of gold, shaped like wooden clubs.

A specimen found in Köln-Nippes bears the inscription "DEO HER[culi]", confirming the association with Hercules. Indeed, already Tacitus mentions a special affinity of the Germans for Hercules, stating

they say that Hercules, too, once visited them; and when going into battle, they sing of him first of all heroes.There are two basic types, the smaller type (ca. 3 cm) cast in molds,

and the larger (ca. 5 cm) wrought from sheet metal. A type of bone pendants found in Iron Age (Biblical period) Palestine is also associated with the Club-of-Hercules jewelry of the Roman era (Platt 1978). A votive mace made of bronze found in Willingham Fen, Cambridgeshire in 1857 follows the Roman model in shape and the representation of wooden knobs on the club, but adding indigenous (Celtic) iconography by depicting animal heads, anthropomorphic figures and a wheel at the club's base.

In the 5th to 7th centuries, during the Germanic migration, the amulet type rapidly spreads from the Elbe Germanic area across Europe. These Germanic "Donar's Clubs" were made from deer antler, bone or wood, more rarely also from bronze or precious metals. They are found exclusively in female graves, apparently worn either as a belt pendant, or as an ear pendant.

The amulet type is replaced by the Viking Age Thor's hammer pendants in the course of the Christianization of Scandinavia from the 8th to 9th century.

Horse coin

Horse coins (Traditional Chinese: 馬錢; Simplified Chinese: 马钱; Pinyin: mǎ qián) are a type of Chinese numismatic charm that originated in the Song dynasty presumably as gambling tokens although many literary figures wrote about these coins their usage has always been failed to be mentioned by them, most horse coins tend to be round coins 3 centimeters in diameter with a circular or square hole in the middle of the coin. The horses featured on horse coins are depicted in various positions such as lying on the ground sleep, turning their head while neighing, or galloping forward with their tails rising high. it is currently unknown how horse coins were actually used though it is speculated that Chinese horse coins were actually used as game board pieces or gambling counters. Horse coins are most often manufactured from copper or bronze, but in a few documented cases they may also be made from animal horns or ivory. The horse coins produced during the Song dynasty are considered to be those of the best quality and craftsmanship and tend be made from better metal than the horse coins produced after. Some horse coins would feature the name of the famous horses they depicted. It is estimated that there are over three hundred variants of the horse coin. Some horse coins contained only an image of a horse while others also included an image of the rider and others had inscriptions which identify the horse or rider. During the beginning of the year of the horse in 2002 Chinese researchers Jian Ning and Wang Liyan of the National Museum of Chinese History wrote articles on horse coins the "China Cultural Relics Newspaper", the researchers noted that they found it a pity that the holes in the coins covered the saddles of the horses as this could've revealed more about ancient horse culture. Horse coins from the Song dynasty are the horse coins that are produced at the highest quality while horse coins from subsequent dynasties tend to be inferior compared to them.Horse coins often depicted famous horses from Chinese history or famous horses from Chinese mythology, while commemorative horse coins would also feature riders, such as the horse coin that features “General Yue Yi of the State of Yan” commemorating the event that a Yan general attempted to conquer the city of Jimo. It is rare for horse coins to also feature images of horses in armour but a few rare examples from the Song dynasty exist (and it is even rarer for these coins to also feature a saddle) as well as some from the Mongol Yuan dynasty that feature horses wearing typical Mongolian horse armour. As horse coins from the Yuan dynasty are extremely rare there hasn't been much research undertaken in determining their usage and origins.

Kangxi Tongbao

Kangxi Tongbao (simplified Chinese: 康熙通宝; traditional Chinese: 康熙通寶; pinyin: kāng xī tōng bǎo) refers to an inscription used on Manchu Qing dynasty era cash coins produced under the reign of the Kangxi Emperor. Under the Kangxi Emperor the weights and standards of the brass cash coins changed several times and the bimetallic system of Qing dynasty coinage was established. Today Kangxi Tongbao cash coins are commonly used as charms and amulets where different forms of superstition have developed arounds its mint marks and calligraphy.

A notable characteristic is that the outer rim on Kangxi Tongbao cash coins on both sides of the coin tend to be quite wide, in contrast to that of the square center hole (方穿, fāng chuān). Apart from the two mints in the capital city of Beijing operated by the central government, there were mints in operation in most provinces of the Qing dynasty and in some even two, however these were only sometimes open and many were forced to close down at were later re-opened at various times during the Kangxi period.

Kilim motifs

Many motifs are used in traditional kilims, handmade flat-woven rugs, each with many variations. In Turkish Anatolia in particular, village women wove themes significant for their lives into their rugs, whether before marriage or during married life. Some motifs represent desires, such as for happiness and children; others, for protection against threats such as wolves (to the flocks) and scorpions, or against the evil eye. These motifs were often combined when woven into patterns on kilims. With the fading of tribal and village cultures in the 20th century, the meaning of kilim patterns has faded also.

In these tribal societies, women wove kilims at different stages of their lives, choosing themes appropriate to their own circumstances. Some of the motifs used are widespread across Anatolia and sometimes across other regions of West Asia, but patterns vary between tribes and villages, and rugs often expressed personal and social meaning.

Nazar (amulet)

A nazar (from Arabic ‏نظر‎ Arabic pronunciation: [naðˤar], word deriving from Arabic, meaning sight, surveillance, attention, and other related concepts) is an eye-shaped amulet believed to protect against the evil eye. Albanian, Urdu, Pashtun, Bengali, Kurdish, Persian, Punjabi, and other languages have borrowed the term as well. In Turkey, it is known by the name nazar boncuğu (the latter word being a derivative of boncuk, "bead", and the former borrowed from Arabic) and historically as mâvi boncuk or Old Turkic: gökçe munçuk‎, both meaning "blue bead". In Persian and Afghan folklore, it is called a cheshm nazar (Persian: چشم نظر‎) or nazar qurbāni (Persian: نظرقربانی‎). In Pakistan, the slogan Chashm-e-Baddoor is used to ward off the evil eye.In such cultures, it is believed that if a person is complimented a lot, the evil eye will cause them to be sick the next day unless a phrase such as "With the will of God" ("MashAllah" in Arabic) is said. In South Asia, when a mother observes that her child is being excessively complimented, it is common for them to attempt to neutralize the effects of the evil eye (nazar utarna) by "holding red chillies in one hand and circling the child's head a few times, then burning the chillies."

NetHack

NetHack is a single-player roguelike video game originally released in 1987 with ASCII graphics. It is a descendant of an earlier game called Hack (1982), which is a clone of Rogue (1980). Comparing it with Rogue, Engadget's Justin Olivetti wrote that it took its exploration aspect and "made it far richer with an encyclopedia of objects, a larger vocabulary, a wealth of pop culture mentions, and a puzzler's attitude." In 2000, Salon described it as "one of the finest gaming experiences the computing world has to offer."The player chooses a character race and class for the mission of retrieving the Amulet of Yendor in a randomly generated dungeon.

Numismatic charm

Numismatic charms are coin-like amulets and talismans from various cultures, which include:

Chinese numismatic charms

Japanese numismatic charms

Korean numismatic charms

Vietnamese numismatic charms

Indonesian numismatic charms

Palad khik

Palad Khik (Thai: ปลัดขิก, pronounced [pàˈlàt ˈkʰìk], RTGS: palatkhik) is a kind of Thai amulet that is shaped like a penis. The phrase "palad khik" means "honorable surrogate penis". These amulets range from a few inches to several feet long in length. The smaller versions are usually worn on the body while the larger versions are displayed in shops and other establishments.

Pendant

The word pendant derives from the Latin word pendere and Old French word pendr, both of which translate to "to hang down". It comes in the form of a loose-hanging piece of jewellery, generally attached by a small loop to a necklace, which may be known as a "pendant necklace". A pendant earring is an earring with a piece hanging down. In modern French, pendant is the gerund form of pendre (" to hang") and also means "during". The extent to which the design of a pendant can be incorporated into an overall necklace makes it not always accurate to treat them as separate items.In some cases, though, the separation between necklace and pendant is far clearer.

Takrut

Takrut (ตะกรุด) is a type of tubular amulet that originated from Thailand. It is also known as "Tangkai" in other cultures. The takrut is similar to a talisman (Arabic: طلسم‎ / transliterated: tilasim).

The word Takrut, is used for both Singular and Plural, although many people do add an 's' (Takruts). However, the proper way to refer to takrut when in plural, is 'Takrut'.

They are worn by Thai people as a protective amulet and have existed for thousands of years. They are by rule, a talisman that is an elongated shape, taking the shape of a scroll. The scroll can be made of any type of metal, paper, leaf, papyrus, animal skin, or a large number of other mediums, including bamboo and wood vines. They are mostly worn on a cord around the waist, but are also often seen accompanying amulet on neck chains. The Sacred Inscriptions made upon the Takrut are a form of Sacre Geometry based in Thai Buddhist and Ancient vedic and animist traditions, which has come to be a very well known Niche Topic around the world since the Hollywood movie star Angelina Jolie received a Sak Yant Tattoo, which is also a yantra like a Takrut, except tattooed in the skin. Also, since the existence of the now well known website on Sak Yant (sak-yant.com) and the more anthropological and academic website 'sakyant.org', both run by Ajarn Spencer Littlewood,(citation needed) it has caused a great increase in the amount of interest in both the tattooed aspect of sacred geometry and the beliefs in its magical powers, as well as in the Takrut Amulet, which is one of the most favored types of Thai amulet.

Yant (ยันต์, talisman) are incantations and sacred geometry designs with Pali gatha and Buddhist prayers (Invocations and Empowerment Spells), usually, but not aways inscribed using the Ancient Khom Pali (looks very similar to Khmer). In Northern Thailand, they use Lanna script and works just like Khom, except very similar to the actual Lanna script.

The takrut is used for all purposes from Maha Sanaeh (attraction), Metta Mahaniyom (Business Success and Popularity), Mercy Charm, Maha Pokasap/Lap (Riches attraction), and Kong Grapan (Invincibility).

Potential takeouts include gems, especially engraved gems, statues, coins, drawings, pendants, rings, plants and animals; even words in the form of a magical spell, incantation, to repel evil or bad luck.

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