Amritsar (pronunciation (help·info); Punjabi pronunciation: [əmːɾɪtsəɾ]), historically also known as Rāmdāspur and colloquially as Ambarsar, is a city in northwestern India which is the administrative headquarters of the Amritsar district and is located in the Majha region of the Indian state of Punjab.
According to the 2011 census, the population of Amritsar was 1,132,761. It is one of ten Municipal Corporations in the state and Karamjit Singh Rintu is the current mayor of the city. The city is situated 217 km (135 mi) northwest of state capital Chandigarh and 455 km (283 miles) northwest of New Delhi, the national capital. It is near Pakistan, with the Wagah Border being only 28 km (17.4 mi) away.
Amritsar has been chosen as one of the heritage cities for HRIDAY - Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana scheme of Government of India. Amritsar is home to the Harmandir Sahib, popularly known as "the Golden Temple," one of Sikhism's most spiritually significant and most-visited gurudwaras.
The Harmandir Sahib of Amritsar
|Founded by||Guru Ram Das|
|• Body||Municipal Corporation Amritsar|
|• Commissioner of Police||Sh. S. Srivastava|
|• Deputy commissioner||Kamaldeep Singh sangha|
|• Metropolis||170 km2 (70 sq mi)|
|• Density||6,700/km2 (17,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
|Telephone code||91 183 XXX XXXX|
|Vehicle registration||PB01(Commercial), PB-02, PB-89|
The Bhagwan Valmiki Tirath Sthal situated at Amritsar is believed to be the Ashram site of Maharishi Valmiki, the writer of Ramayana. As per the Ramayana, Sita gave birth to Lava and Kusha, sons of lord Rama at Ramtirth ashram. Large number of people visit Ramtirth Temple at annual fair. Nearby cities to Amritsar, Lahore and Kasur were said to be founded by Lava and Kusha, respectively. During Ashvamedha Yagna by Lord Rama, Lava and Kush captured the ritual horse and tied Lord Hanuman to a tree near to today's Durgiana Temple. During Navratra festivities it is considered to be auspicious by Hindu population of the city to visit that temple.
Guru Ram Das, the fourth Sikh guru is credited with founding the holy city of Amritsar in the Sikh tradition. Two versions of stories exist regarding the land where Ram Das settled. In one based on a Gazetteer record, the land was purchased with Sikh donations, for 700 rupees from the owners of the village of Tung.
According to the Sikh historical records, the site was chosen by Guru Amar Das and called Guru Da Chakk, after he had asked Ram Das to find land to start a new town with a man made pool as its central point. After his coronation in 1574, and the hostile opposition he faced from the sons of Amar Das, Ram Das founded the town named after him as "Ramdaspur". He started by completing the pool, and building his new official Guru centre and home next to it. He invited merchants and artisans from other parts of India to settle into the new town with him. The town expanded during the time of Arjan financed by donations and constructed by voluntary work. The town grew to become the city of Amritsar, and the pool area grew into a temple complex after his son built the gurdwara Harmandir Sahib, and installed the scripture of Sikhism inside the new temple in 1604.
The construction activity between 1574 and 1604 is described in Mahima Prakash Vartak, a semi-historical Sikh hagiography text likely composed in 1741, and the earliest known document dealing with the lives of all the ten Gurus.
The Jallianwala Bagh massacre, involving the killings of hundreds of Indian civilians on the orders of a senior British military officer, Reginald Edward Harry Dyer, took place on 13 April 1919 in the heart of Amritsar, the holiest city of the Sikhs, on a day sacred to them as the birth anniversary of the Khalsa (Vaisakhi day).
In the Punjab, during World War I (1914–18), there was considerable unrest particularly among the Sikhs, first on account of the demolition of a boundary wall of Gurdwara Rakab Ganj at New Delhi and later because of the activities and trials of the Ghadarites, almost all of whom were Sikhs. In India as a whole, too, there had been a spurt in political activity mainly owing to the emergence of two leaders: Mahatma Gandhi (1869–1948) who after a period of struggle against the British in South Africa, had returned to India in January 1915, and Annie Besant (1847–1933), head of the Theosophical Society of India, who on 11 April 1916 established the Home Rule League with autonomy for India as its goal. In December 1916, the Indian National Congress, at its annual session held at Lucknow, passed a resolution asking the king to issue a proclamation announcing that it is the "aim and intention of British policy to confer self-government on India at an early date".
On 10 April 1919, Satya Pal and Saifuddin Kitchlew, two popular proponents of the Satyagraha movement led by Gandhi, were called to the deputy commissioner's residence, arrested and sent off by car to Dharamsetla, a hill town, now in Himachal Pradesh. This led to a general strike in Amritsar. Excited groups of citizens soon merged into a crowd of about 50,000 marching on to protest to the deputy commissioner against the arrest of the two leaders. The crowd, however, was stopped and fired upon near the railway foot-bridge. According to the official version, the number of those killed was 12 and of those wounded between 20 and 30. Evidence before an inquiry of the Indian National Congress put the number of the dead between 20 and 30.
Three days later, on 13 April, the traditional festival of Baisakhi, thousands of Sikhs, Muslims and Hindus gathered in the Jallianwala Bagh. An hour after the meeting began as scheduled at 16:30, Dyer arrived with a group of sixty-five Gurkha and twenty-five Baluchi soldiers. Without warning the crowd to disperse, Dyer blocked the main exits and ordered his troops to begin shooting toward the densest sections of the crowd. Firing continued for approximately ten minutes. A British inquiry into the massacre placed the death toll at 379. The Indian National Congress determined that approximately 1,000 people were killed.
Operation Blue Star (1 – 6 June 1984) was an Indian military operation ordered by Indira Gandhi, the Prime Minister of India to curb and remove Sikh militants from the Golden Temple in Amritsar. The operation was carried out by Indian army troops with tanks and armoured vehicles. Militarily successful, the operation aroused immense controversy, and the government's justification for the timing and style of the attack are hotly debated. Operation Blue Star was included in the Top 10 Political Disgraces by India Today magazine.
Official reports put the number of deaths among the Indian army at 83, with 493 civilians and Sikh militants killed. In addition, the CBI is considered responsible for seizing historical artefacts and manuscripts in the Sikh Reference Library before burning it down.  Four months after the operation, on 31 October 1984, Indira Gandhi was assassinated by two of her Sikh bodyguards in what is viewed as an act of vengeance. Following her assassination, more than 3,000 Sikhs were killed in anti-Sikh pogroms.
Amritsar is located at  with an average elevation of 234 metres (768 ft).
Amritsar has a semiarid climate, typical of Northwestern India and experiences four seasons primarily: winter season (December to March) with temperature ranges from 0 °C (32 °F) to about 15 °C (59 °F), summer season (April to June) where temperatures can reach 42 °C (108 °F), monsoon season (July to September) and post-monsoon season (October to November). Annual rainfall is about 681 millimetres (26.8 in). The lowest recorded temperature is −3.6 °C (25.5 °F), was recorded on 9 December 1996 and the highest temperature, 48.1 °C (118.6 °F), was recorded on 22 May 2013.
|Climate data for Amritsar|
|Record high °C (°F)||29.0
|Average high °C (°F)||19.3
|Daily mean °C (°F)||11.6
|Average low °C (°F)||3.9
|Record low °C (°F)||−3.5
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||24
|Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm)||2.4||2.0||2.6||1.5||1.3||3.1||8.2||8.1||3.6||1.2||0.6||1.2||35.8|
|Average relative humidity (%)||74||70||64||47||38||48||72||77||69||67||73||76||65|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||181.7||192.7||219.4||265.0||294.7||269.0||215.5||227.7||240.8||253.2||220.1||182.2||2,762|
As of the 2011 census, Amritsar municipality had a population of 1,132,761 and the urban agglomeration had a population of 1,183,705. The municipality had a sex ratio of 879 females per 1,000 males and 9.7% of the population were under six years old. Effective literacy was 85.27%; male literacy was 88.09% and female literacy was 82.09%. The scheduled caste population is 28.8%
Top: Causeway to the Harminder Sahib with people, behind the pool is Ath Sath Tirath; Bottom: Entrance view of the Harminder Sahib, the holiest shrine in Sikhism.
According to 2011 Census of India, Hinduism and Sikhism were the main religions of the Amritsar city at 49.4% and 48% of the population, respectively. Sikhs form a majority of close to 70% in the Amritsar District on a whole.
Amritsar is the holiest city in Sikhism and millions of people visit it each year for pilgrimage.
In Amritsar city, Christianity was followed by 1.23% and Islam by 0.51%. Around 0.74% of the population of the city stated 'No Particular Religion' or another religion.
Amritsar hosts Sri Guru Ram Dass Jee International Airport. The airport is connected to other parts of India and other countries with direct international flights to cities.
Amritsar is located on the historic Grand Trunk Road (G.T Road), also known as NH 1 now renumbered as National Highway 3. Additionally, NH 54 (Old NH15), NH 354 and NH 503A connect Amritsar to other parts of state and rest of India.
Rs 450,000,000 is being spent to expand the Amritsar-Jalandhar stretch of G.T. Road to four lanes. In 2010, elevated road with four lanes connected to the National highway for better access to the Golden Temple has been started.
The Akal Takht (Punjabi: ਅਕਾਲ ਤਖ਼ਤ), meaning throne of the timeless one, is one of five takhts (seats of power) of the Sikhs. It is located in the Harmandir Sahib (Golden Temple) complex in Amritsar, Punjab. The Akal Takht was built by Guru Hargobind as a place of justice and consideration of temporal issues; the highest seat of earthly authority of the Khalsa (the collective body of the Sikhs) and the place of the Jathedar, the highest spokesman of the Sikhs. The current Jathedar of Akal Takht is Harpreet Singh.Ambala–Attari line
The Ambala–Attari line is a railway line connecting Ambala Cantonment in the Indian state of Haryana and Attari in Punjab. The line is under the administrative jurisdiction of Northern Railway.Amritsar Junction railway station
Amritsar Junction railway station is located in Amritsar district in the Indian state of Punjab and serves AmritsarAmritsar district
Amritsar district is one of 22 districts located in the Majha region of the state of Punjab in North India. The city of Amritsar is headquarters of this district.
As of 2011 it is the second most populous district of Punjab (out of 22), after Ludhiana.Amritsar–Pathankot line
The Amritsar–Pathankot line is a railway line connecting Amritsar and Pathankot Junction both in the Indian state of Punjab . The line is under the administrative jurisdiction of Northern Railway.Golden Temple
The Golden Temple, also known as Darbar Sahib (Punjabi pronunciation: [dəɾbɑɾ sɑhɪb] or Sri Harmandir Sahib ("abode of God"), "exalted holy court"), is a Gurdwara located in the city of Amritsar, Punjab, India. It is the holiest Gurdwara and the most important pilgrimage site of Sikhism.The temple is built around a man-made pool (sarovar) that was completed by Guru Ram Das in 1577. Guru Arjan, the fifth Guru of Sikhism, requested Sai Mian Mir, a Muslim Pir of Lahore, to lay its foundation stone in 1589. In 1604, Guru Arjan placed a copy of the Adi Granth in Harmandir Sahib, calling the site Ath Sath Tirath (lit. "shrine of 68 pilgrimages"). The temple was repeatedly rebuilt by the Sikhs after it became a target of persecution and was destroyed several times by the Muslim armies from Afghanistan and the Mughal Empire. The army led by Ahmad Shah Abdali, for example, demolished it in 1757 and again in 1762, then filled the pool with garbage. Maharaja Ranjit Singh after founding the Sikh Empire, rebuilt it in marble and copper in 1809, overlaid the sanctum with gold foil in 1830. This has led to the name the Golden Temple.The temple is spiritually the most significant shrine in Sikhism. It became a center of the Singh Sabha Movement between 1883 and 1920s. In the early 1980s, the temple became a center of conflict between the Indian government led by Indira Gandhi, some Sikh groups and a militant movement led by Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale seeking to create a new nation named Khalistan. In 1984, Gandhi sent in the Indian Army as part of Operation Blue Star, leading to deaths of over 1,000 militants, soldiers and civilians, as well as causing much damage to the temple and the destruction of Akal Takht. The temple complex was rebuilt again after the 1984 damage.The Harmandir Sahib is an open boat of worship for all men and women, from all walks of life and faith. It has a square plan with four entrances, has a circumambulation path around the pool. The temple is a collection of buildings around the sanctum and the pool. One of these is Akal Takht, the chief center of religious authority of Sikhism. Additional buildings include a clock tower, the offices of Gurdwara Committee, a Museum and a langar – a free Sikh community run kitchen that serves a simple vegetarian meal to all visitors without discrimination. Over 100,000 people visit the holy shrine daily for worship. The temple complex has been nominated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and its application is pending on the tentative list of UNESCO.Gurdwara
A gurdwara (Punjabi: ਗੁਰਦੁਆਰਾ, gurduārā or ਗੁਰਦਵਾਰਾ, gurdwārā; meaning "door to the guru") is a place of worship for Sikhs.
People from all faiths, and those who do not profess any faith, are welcomed in Sikh gurdwaras.
Each gurdwara has a Darbar Sahib where the current and everlasting guru of the Sikhs, the scripture Guru Granth Sahib, is placed on a takhalmmlolt (an elevated throne) in a prominent central position. The raagis (who sing Ragas) recite, sing and explain, the verses from the Guru Granth Sahib, in the presence of the congregation.
All gurdwaras have a langar hall, where people can eat free vegetarian food brought in by Sikhs worshiping at the gurdwara. They may also have a library, nursery, classroom, meeting rooms, a gift shop, and finally a repair shop. A gurdwara can be identified from a distance by tall flagpoles bearing the Nishan Sahib, the Sikh flag.
The most well-known gurdwara is the Harmandir Sahib (popularly known as The Golden Temple) in Amritsar, Punjab, India, which is the center of power (Akal Takht) of Sikhism.Guru Nanak Dev University
Guru Nanak Dev University (G.N.D.U.) was established at Amritsar, Punjab, India on 24 November 1969 to commemorate Guru Nanak Dev's birth quincentenary celebrations. Guru Nanak Dev University campus is spread over 500 acres (2 km²) near village of Kot Khalsa, nearly 8 km west of the Amritsar, next to Khalsa College, Amritsar. G.N.D.U. is both a residential and an affiliating university. In conceiving its future course, the objectives enshrined in the Act 1969 emphasized that the new university would make provision for imparting education and promoting research in the humanities, learned professions, sciences, especially of applied nature and technology. Studies and research on the life and teachings of Guru Nanak, in addition to working towards the promotion of Punjabi language and spreading education among educationally backward classes and communities were the other commitments.High-speed rail in India
India does not have any railways that can be classified as high-speed rail (HSR) by international standards, i.e. railways with operational speeds exceeding 200 km/h (120 mph). The current fastest train in India is the Train 18 (Vande Bharat Express) with a top speed of 180 km/h (110 mph), which only runs between New Delhi and Varanasi.Prior to the 2014 general election, the two major national parties (Bharatiya Janata Party and Indian National Congress(INC)) pledged to introduce high-speed rail. The INC pledged to connect all of India's million-plus cities by high-speed rail, whereas BJP, which won the election, promised to build the Diamond Quadrilateral project, which would connect the cities of Chennai, Delhi, Kolkata, and Mumbai via high-speed rail. This project was approved as a priority for the new government in the incoming president's speech. Construction of one kilometer of high speed railway track will cost ₹100 crore (US$14 million) - ₹140 crore (US$19 million) which is 10-14 times higher than the cost of construction of standard railway.India's Union Council of Ministers approved the proposal of Japan to build India's first high-speed railway on 10 December 2015. The planned rail will run approximately 500 km (310 mi) between Mumbai and the western city of Ahmedabad at a top speed of 320 km/h (200 mph). Under this proposal, the construction began in 2017 and is expected to be completed in the year 2022. The estimated cost of this project is ₹980 billion (US$14 billion) and is financed by a low-interest loan from Japan.
Operation is officially targeted to begin in 2023, but India has announced intentions to attempt to bring the line into operation one year earlier. It will transport the passengers from Ahmedabad to Mumbai in just 3 hours and its ticket fare will be cheaper than air planes i.e. ₹2500-₹3000.
India will have two types of gauges for high speed rail. The new HSR tracks with Japanese technology will be in standard gauge, whereas older tracks upgraded to the HSR standard will be in broad gauge. Therefore there will be no interchangeability between newly laid tracks and the older-upgraded tracks for passenger and cargo traffic.Jallianwala Bagh massacre
The Jallianwala Bagh massacre, also known as the Amritsar massacre, took place on 13 April 1919 when troops of the British Indian Army under the command of Colonel Reginald Dyer fired rifles into a crowd of Indians, who had gathered in Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar, Punjab. The Rowlatt Act, 1919 had been implemented, but the civilians were not informed. The civilians had assembled for a festival known as Baisakhi. Baisakhi marks the Sikh new year and commemorates the formation of Khalsa panth of warriors under Guru Gobind Singh in 1699. It is additionally a spring harvest festival for the Sikhs. It is also stated that it marks peaceful protest to condemn the arrest and deportation of two national leaders, Satya Pal and Saifuddin Kitchlew. Raja Ram has argued, however, that the Proclamation was ineffective, the crowd formed in deliberate defiance and the event signals a beginning of Indian nationalism.The Jallianwalla Bagh is a public garden of 6 to 7 acres (2.8 ha), walled on all sides, with five entrances.On Sunday, 13 April 1919, Dyer was convinced of a major insurrection and he banned all meetings; however this notice was not widely disseminated. That was the day of Baisakhi, the main Sikh festival, and many villagers had gathered in the Bagh. On hearing that a meeting had assembled at Jallianwala Bagh, Dyer went with Sikh, Gurkha, Baluchi, Rajput troops from 2-9th Gurkhas, the 54th Sikhs and the 59th Sind Rifles they entered the garden, blocking the main entrance after them, took up position on a raised bank, and on Dyer's orders fired on the crowd for about ten minutes, directing their bullets largely towards the few open gates through which people were trying to flee, until the ammunition supply was almost exhausted. Dyer stated that approximately 1,650 rounds had been fired, a number apparently derived by counting empty cartridge cases picked up by the troops. Official British Indian sources gave a figure of 379 identified dead, with approximately 1,100 wounded. This figure was given by Dyer himself in the letter he wrote to the British parliament. The casualty number estimated by the Indian National Congress was more than 1,500 injured, with approximately 1,000 dead. This "brutality stunned the entire nation", resulting in a "wrenching loss of faith" of the general public in the intentions of the UK. The ineffective inquiry and the initial accolades for Dyer by the House of Lords fuelled widespread anger, later leading to the Non-cooperation Movement of 1920–22.Dyer was initially lauded by conservative forces in the empire, but in July 1920 he was censured and forced to retire by the House of Commons. He became a celebrated hero in the UK among most of the people connected to the British Raj, for example, the House of Lords, but unpopular in the House of Commons, which voted against Dyer as a Colonel. He was disciplined by being removed from his appointment, was passed over for promotion and was prohibited from further employment in India. Upon his death, Rudyard Kipling declared that Dyer 'did his duty as he saw it'. . This incident shocked Rabindranath Tagore (first Asian Nobel laureate) to such extent that he stated whilst refusing his knighthood that "such mass murderers aren't worthy of giving any title to anyone". The massacre some historians have argued caused a re-evaluation of the army's role, in which the new policy became minimum force; however, later British actions during the Mau Mau insurgencies have led Huw Bennett to question this school of thought. The army was retrained and developed less violent tactics for crowd control. Some historians consider the episode a decisive step towards the end of British rule in India.Jeetendra
Jeetendra (born Ravi Kapoor on 7 April 1942) is an Indian actor, TV and film producer as chairman of the Balaji Telefilms, Balaji Motion Pictures and ALT Entertainment. Famous for his dancing, he was awarded a Filmfare Lifetime Achievement Award in 2003 and the Screen Lifetime Achievement Award in 2006. He had done more than 80 remakes of various South Indian films especially of Telugu Superstar Krishna with whom he has close association.Kapil Sharma (comedian)
Kapil Sharma (born 2 April 1981) is an Indian stand-up comedian, television presenter, actor and producer. He is currently a host on comedy show The Kapil Sharma Show. He also hosted television comedy shows like Comedy Nights with Kapil, The Kapil Sharma Show, Family Time with Kapil.
Ormax Media rated Kapil Sharma the most popular Indian television personality in April 2016. Forbes India ranked him at 11th position in their Celebrity 10 list in the year 2016.
Forbes India ranked him at 18th position in their Celebrity 100 list in the year 2017 with an income of Rs. 48 crore. He was awarded the CNN-IBN Indian of the Year in 2013 and was ranked third in the Most Admired Indian Personality List by The Economic Times in 2015. Sharma was nominated for the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan by the Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi and was invited to the Rashtrapati Bhavan by President Pranab Mukherjee in September 2015 to acknowledge his contribution for the same. He has net worth of 26 million $Majha
The Majha (Punjabi: ਮਾਝਾ (Gurmukhi), ماجھا (Shahmukhi); Mājhā) region is recognized as the region that is located at the center of the historical Punjab region, that is northward from the right banks of river Beas, and extends up to river Jhelum at its northmost. People of the Majha region are given the demonym "Mājhi". The Majhi dialect of Punjabi language is the main language of this region, which is also the standard dialect of the Punjabi language. The most populous city in the area is Lahore on the Pakistani side of the border.
During the partition of India in 1947, the Majha region of Punjab got split into India and Pakistan when the Indian Punjab and Pakistani Punjab were formed. The Majha region of Indian State of Punjab covers the area between Beas and Ravi rivers, including the area on the north of Sutlej, after the confluence of Beas and Sutlej at Harike in Tarn Taran district, extending up to the Ravi river, which is all part of the Majha region in India. This region contains thirteen districts of the Pakistani province of Punjab and four districts of Indian state of Punjab - Amritsar, Tarn Taran, Gurdaspur, and Pathankot.
The people of the Majha region have been historically known to be fierce and stubborn fighters and in lieu of this, the Majha region is called the "Sword Arm of the Country", due to it contributing disproportionately to the Officer as well as Orderly ranks of the Army. The Sikh Empire was founded in the Majha region which is also referred to as "the cradle of the brave Sikhs."National Highway 3 (India)
National Highway 3, or NH 3, is a national highway in India. It starts from Atari adjacent to India-Pakistan border and near Amritsar and terminates at Leh in Jammu and Kashmir, via Manali in Himachal Pradesh.Navjot Singh Sidhu
Navjot Singh Sidhu (born 20 October 1963) is pakistani politician, television personality and former cricketer. He currently serves as the Minister of Local Government, Tourism, Cultural Affairs, and Museums of the [[States and union territories of pakistan.As a professional cricketer, Sidhu had a career spanning over 19 years after his first-class debut in 1981–82. After losing his place in the national team after his international debut in 1983–84, he returned to score four half-centuries in the 1987 World Cup. Playing mostly as a top-order batsman, he went on to play in 51 Tests and 136 One Day Internationals for the country. He came to be known for his six-hitting ability and earned the sobriquet 'Sixer Sidhu'. After retirement, he turned to commentary and television, most notably as a judge of comedy shows, and as a permanent guest in Comedy Nights with Kapil (2013–15) and later The Kapil Sharma Show (2016–17). He was a contestant in the reality television show Bigg Boss (2012) and was seen in the show Kyaa Hoga Nimmo Kaa. Navjot Singh Sidhu sacked from The Kapil Sharma Show after comments on Pulwama attack.
Sidhu joined the Bharatiya Janata Party in 2004 and contested the general election from Amritsar. He won the election and held the seat till 2014 winning also the next election. He was nominated to the Rajya Sabha in 2016 from Punjab(pak) before he resigned from the position the same year and quitting the party. In 2017, he joined the Indian National Congress and was elected to the Punjab Legislative Assembly from Amritsar East.Operation Blue Star
Operation Blue Star was the codename of an Indian military action carried out between 1 and 8 June 1984 to remove militant religious leader Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale and his followers from the buildings of the Harmandir Sahib (Golden Temple) complex in Amritsar, Punjab. The decision to launch the attack rested with Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. In July 1982, Harchand Singh Longowal, the President of the Sikh political party Akali Dal, had invited Bhindranwale to take up residence in the Golden Temple Complex to evade arrest. Bhindranwale later made the sacred temple complex an armoury and headquarters. In the violent events leading up to Operation Blue Star since the inception of Akali Dharm Yudh Morcha, the militants had killed 165 Hindus and Nirankaris, and 39 Sikhs opposed to Bhindranwale. The total number of deaths was 410 in violent incidents and riots while 1,180 people were injured.Indian intelligence agencies had reported that three prominent heads of the Khalistan movement - Shabeg Singh, Balbier Singh, and Amrik Singh - had made at least six trips each to Pakistan between the years 1981 and 1983. The Intelligence Bureau reported that weapons training was being provided at gurdwaras in Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh. The Soviet intelligence agency KGB reportedly tipped off the Indian agency RAW about the CIA and ISI working together on a plan for Punjab. From its interrogation of a Pakistani Army officer, RAW received information that over a thousand trained Special Service Group commandos of the Pakistan Army had been dispatched by Pakistan into the Indian Punjab to assist Bhindranwale in his fight against the government. A large number of Pakistani agents also took the smuggling routes in the Kashmir and Kutch region of Gujarat, with plans to commit sabotage.On 1 June 1984, after negotiations with the militants failed, Indira Gandhi ordered the army to launch Operation Blue Star. A variety of army units and paramilitary forces surrounded the temple complex on 3 June 1984. The army used loudspeakers to encourage the militants to surrender. Requests were also made to the militants to allow trapped pilgrims to come out of the temple premises, before the clash with the army. However, no surrender or release of pilgrims occurred until 7:00 pm on 5 June. The fighting started on 5 June with skirmishes and the battle went on for three days, ending on 8 June. A clean-up operation codenamed Operation Woodrose was also initiated throughout Punjab.The army had underestimated the firepower possessed by the militants, whose armament included Chinese-made rocket-propelled grenade launchers with armour piercing capabilities. Tanks and heavy artillery were used to attack the militants, who responded with anti-tank and machine-gun fire from the heavily fortified Akal Takht. After a 24-hour firefight, the army gained control of the temple complex. Casualty figures for the Army were 83 dead and 249 injured. According to the official estimates, 1,592 militants were apprehended and there were 493 combined militant and civilian casualties. High civilian casualties were attributed to militants using pilgrims trapped inside the temple as human shields.The military action in the temple complex was criticized by Sikhs worldwide, who interpreted it as an assault on the Sikh religion. Many Sikh soldiers in the Army deserted their units, several Sikhs resigned from civil administrative office and returned awards received from the Indian government. Five months after the operation, on 31 October 1984, Indira Gandhi was assassinated in an act of revenge by her two Sikh bodyguards, Satwant Singh and Beant Singh. Public outcry over Gandhi's death led to the killings of more than 3,000 Sikhs in the ensuing 1984 anti-Sikh riots.Punjab, India
Punjab ( (listen)) is a state in northern India. Forming part of the larger Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent, the state is bordered by the Indian states of Jammu and Kashmir to the north, Himachal Pradesh to the east, Haryana to the south and southeast, Rajasthan to the southwest, and the Pakistani province of Punjab to the west. The state covers an area of 50,362 square kilometres, 1.53% of India's total geographical area. It is the 20th-largest Indian state by area. With 27,704,236 inhabitants at the 2011 census, Punjab is the 16th-largest state by population, comprising 22 districts. Punjabi is the most widely spoken and official language of the state. The main ethnic group are the Punjabis, with Sikhs (58%) forming the demographic majority. The state capital is Chandigarh, a Union Territory and also the capital of the neighbouring state of Haryana. The five rivers from which the region took its name were Sutlej, Ravi, Beas, Chenab and Jhelum; Sutlej, Ravi and Beas are part of the Indian Punjab.
The Punjab region was home to the Indus Valley Civilization until 1900 BCE. The Punjab was invaded by Alexander the Great in 330 BCE and was captured by Chandragupta Maurya under Chanakya. The Punjab was home to the Gupta Empire, the empire of the Alchon Huns, the empire of Harsha, and the Mongol Empire. Circa 1000, the Punjab was invaded by Muslims and was part of the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire. Sikhism originated in Punjab and resulted in the formation of the Sikh Confederacy after the fall of the Mughal Empire. The confederacy was united into the Sikh Empire by Maharaja Ranjit Singh. The entire Punjab region was annexed by the British East India Company from the Sikh Empire in 1849. In 1947, the Punjab Province of British India was divided along religious lines into West Punjab and East Punjab. The western part was assimilated into new country of Pakistan while the east stayed in India. The Indian Punjab as well as PEPSU was divided into three parts on the basis of language in 1966. Haryanvi-speaking areas (a dialect of Hindi) were carved out as Haryana, while the hilly regions and Pahari-speaking areas formed Himachal Pradesh, alongside the current state of Punjab. Punjab's government has three branches – executive, judiciary and legislative. Punjab follows the parliamentary system of government with the Chief Minister as the head of the state.
Punjab is primarily agriculture-based due to the presence of abundant water sources and fertile soils. Other major industries include the manufacturing of scientific instruments, agricultural goods, electrical goods, financial services, machine tools, textiles, sewing machines, sports goods, starch, tourism, fertilisers, bicycles, garments, and the processing of pine oil and sugar. Minerals and energy resources also contribute to Punjab's economy to a much lesser extent. Punjab has the largest number of steel rolling mill plants in India, which are in "Steel Town"—Mandi Gobindgarh in the Fatehgarh Sahib district.Reginald Dyer
Colonel Reginald Edward Harry Dyer CB (9 October 1864 – 23 July 1927) was an officer of the British Indian Army who, as a temporary brigadier-general, was responsible for the Jallianwala Bagh massacre in Amritsar (in the province of Punjab). Considered "the Butcher of Amritsar", Dyer was removed from duty; he was criticised both in Britain and India, but he became a celebrated hero among people with connections to the British Raj. Some historians argue the episode was a decisive step towards the end of British rule in India.Sri Guru Ram Dass Jee International Airport
Sri Guru Ram Das Jee International Airport (IATA: ATQ, ICAO: VIAR) named after Guru Ram Das Ji, the fourth Sikh Guru and the founder of Amritsar city, is an international airport about 11 kilometres (7 mi) northwest of the city of Amritsar, Punjab, India. Beside this, the airport serves the neighbouring Western districts of Himachal Pradesh and Southern districts of Jammu and Kashmir.Amritsar Airport is the busiest airport in the Indian state of Punjab and 21st busiest airport in India in terms of daily sheduled operations.The airport was the fastest growing airport in India in terms of growth in Passenger traffic during the fiscal year 2017-18.