Amrit

Amrit (Arabic: عمريت‎), the classical Marathus (Greek: Μαραθος, Marathos), was a Phoenician port located near present-day Tartus in Syria. Founded in the third millennium BC, Marat (Phoenician: 𐤌𐤓𐤕, MRT)[1] was the northernmost important city of ancient Phoenicia and a rival of nearby Arwad. During the 2nd century BC, Amrit was defeated and its site largely abandoned, leaving its ruins well preserved and without extensive remodeling by later generations.[2]

Amrit
عمريت
Amrit01
The Temple of Amrit
Amrit is located in Syria
Amrit
Shown within Syria
Alternative nameAmrith, Marathus, Marathos
Location6 km (3.7 mi) from Tartus, Syria
RegionPhoenicia
Coordinates34°50′20″N 35°54′26″E / 34.8388°N 35.9071°E
TypeSettlement
History
FoundedThird millennium BC
Abandonedc. 148 BC
PeriodsPhoenician (Persian, Hellenistic)
Site notes
Excavation dates1954
ArchaeologistsMaurice Dunand
ConditionRuins
ManagementDirectorate-General of Antiquities and Museums
Public accessYes

History

The city lies on the Mediterranean coast around 6 km (3.7 mi) south of modern-day Tartus. Two rivers cross the city: Nahr Amrit, near the main temple, and Nahr al-Kuble near the secondary temple, a fact that might be linked to the importance of water in the religious traditions in Amrit.[2] The city was probably founded by the Arvadites,[3] and served as their continental base.[4] It grew to be one of the wealthiest towns in the dominion of Arwad. The city surrendered, along with Arwad, to Alexander the Great in 333 BC.[5] During Seleucid times the town, known as Marathus, was probably larger and more prosperous than Arwad.[6] In 219 BC Amrit gained independence from Arwad, and was later sacked by forces from the latter city in 148 BC.[3]

Excavation

Excavations of the site principally began in 1860 by Ernest Renan. Excavations were again carried out in 1954 by French archaeologist Maurice Dunand.[4] Ceramic ware finds at Amrit indicated the site had been inhabited as early as the third millennium BC.[2] Middle and Late Bronze Age "silo tombs" were also excavated, with contents ranging from weapons to original human remains. Excavations at the necropolis south of the town yielded several tomb structures. The funeral art found in some tombs with pyramidal-or cube-shaped towers, is considered some of "the most notable grave-monuments of the Phoenician world."[4] Excavations also uncovered the town's ancient harbor, and a U-shaped stadium that dates back to the 4th and 3rd centuries BC and measures around 230 m (750 ft) in length.[4]

Temples

One of the most important excavations at Amrit was the Phoenician temple, commonly referred to the "ma'abed," dedicated to the god Melqart of Tyre and Eshmun. The colonnaded temple, excavated between 1955 and 1957, consists of a large court cut out of rock measuring 47 × 49 m (154 × 161 ft) and over 3 m (9.8 ft) deep, surrounded by a covered portico. In the center of the court a well-preserved cube-shaped cella stands.[4] The open-air courtyard was filled with the waters of a local, traditionally sacred spring, a unique feature of this site. The temple—which was dated to the late 4th century BC, a period following the Persian expansion into Syria—shows major Achaemenid influence in its layout and decoration. According to Dutch archaeologist, Peter Akkermans, the temple is the "best-preserved monumental structure from the Phoenician homeland."[7]

A second temple, described by visitors to the site in 1743 and 1860 and thought to have disappeared,[4] was later discovered by the Syrian archaeological mission near the Nahr al-Kuble spring.[2]

Stadium

Stadio Amrit 1-2
The Pre-Olympic Phoenician Stadium north of Amrit

About 200 m (660 ft) northeast of the main temples of ancient Marathos and 180 m (590 ft) north of the Amrit Tell are the remains of a rock-carved Phoenician stadium. It is separated from the other two archaeological sites by the Nahr al-Amrit and a site called by the locals al-Meqla '(the quarry').[8] The Stadium of Amrit was first described in 1745 by Richard Pococke in Part 2 of his book, A Description of the East, and Some Other Countries, as the site where an ancient Circus was held.[9][10] Ernest Renan examined it in 1860 and discussed it in his book Mission de Phénicie, making the conclusion that the complex was not Roman in its entirety and that the stadium was undoubtedly Phoenician.[11] The stadium is about 225 to 230 meters long and 30 to 40 meters wide,[12] it has similar dimensions to the stadium of Olympia in Greece (213 × 31/32 meters). Seven rows of seats have been partially preserved.[13] The stadium was open to the west and had two entrances on the east side between seats. In addition, there was a tunnel to the interior. The stadium is located approximately at a right angle to the main temple of Amrit, the Maabed. The temples to the north and west have open sides or which the stadium forms a common intersection. It is believed that the Amrit stadium was the location for sacred competitions where anointing and funeral games took place.[13] Labib Boutros, former director of athletics at the American University of Beirut has conducted recent studies of the stadium and suggested that its construction may date back as far as 1500 BC, saying that the Amrit stadium was "devoted to sports in Phoenicia several centuries before the Olympic Games".[14]

Necropolis

Meghazil 2
Burial towers at Amrit called "al Maghazil" or The Spindles

The Necropolis in the south of Amrit consists of underground burial chambers and two distinguishing burial towers called by the locals "al Maghazil" or The Spindles that stand up to 7.5 m (25 ft) high. The larger tower is composed of a square stone base with a slightly upward tapering cylindrical block with a base diameter of 3.7 m (12 ft), rising to a pyramid as a top termination, which is badly damaged. The second is approximately 12 meters southeast and is not quite 7 m (23 ft) tall. At its base are three cylindrical parts whose diameters decrease and terminate in a dome. At the lower cylinder, to the corners of the square base plates, four lions decorate the building, which may not have been completed.[15] Excavations of the burial chambers east of the towers has uncovered finds dated back as far as the 5th century BC.[16] Plain limestone and clay sarcophagus were found arranged in cassette-like formation within the chambers.[17] Other tombs are located south of the Nahr al-Qubli, the "al-Burǧ Bazzāq" or Worm tower, a phenomenal structure that was originally 19.50 meters high and the Hypogeum "Ḥaǧar al-Ḥublā" with three burial chambers, which were still used in Roman times.[18]

Conservation

Amrit was included on the 2004 and 2006 World Monuments Fund watch lists of endangered archaeological sites. The Fund called attention to the site's rapid deterioration due to vandalism and encroaching development. In 2006 a three-day workshop was organized with participation from the UNESCO, Directorate-General of Antiquities and Museums of Syria and local administrators responsible for the sites of Amrit, Tartus and Arwad.[19]

Gallery

Amrit Sepolcro - GAR - 1-01

Meghazil tomb, Amrit in 2006

Amrit Santuario Fenicio - GAR - 2-01

Phoenician Temple (Ma'abed), cella at the center of the court, Amrit in 2006

Amrit Stadio Ellenistico - GAR - 2-01

Phoenician Stadium, Amrit in 2006

References

Citations

  1. ^ Head & al. (1911), p. 792.
  2. ^ a b c d Al Maqdissi, Michel; Benech, Christophe (2009). "The spatial organization of the Phoenician city of Amrith (Syria)". ArchéoSciences. 33 (suppl.): 209–211.
  3. ^ a b Baedeker, Karl (1876). Palestine and Syria, handbook for travellers. p. 536.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Bryce, Trevor (2009). The Routledge Handbook of the People and Places of Ancient Western Asia: The Near East from the Early Bronze Age to the Fall of the Persians Empire. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-15908-6.
  5. ^ Kuhrt, Amelie (2007). The Persian Empire: A Corpus of Sources from the Achaemenid Period. Routledge. p. 439. ISBN 978-1-134-07634-5.
  6. ^ Fattah, Hala Mundhir; Caso, Frank (2009). A brief history of Iraq. Infobase Publishing. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-8160-5767-2.
  7. ^ Akkermans, Peter; Schwartz, Glenn (2003). The archaeology of Syria: from complex hunter-gatherers to early urban societies (c. 16,000-300 BC). Cambridge University Press. p. 391. ISBN 978-0-521-79666-8.
  8. ^ Ernst Honigmann: Marathos (2). In: Wilhelm Kroll (Publisher): Paulys Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft. 14.2, Metzler, Stuttgart, S. 1434, p. 65, 1930.
  9. ^ "Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), MARATHUS".
  10. ^ Pinkerton, John (1 January 1811). A General Collection of the Best and Most Interesting Voyages and Travels in All Parts of the World: Many of which are Now First Translated Into English ; Digested on a New Plan. Longman, Hurst, Rees, and Orme ... and Cadell and Davies – via Google Books.
  11. ^ "Mission de Phénicie. TEXTE / dirigée par M. Ernest Renan,..." – via gallica.bnf.fr.
  12. ^ Jacobson, David M.; Kokkinos, Nikos (1 January 2009). Herod and Augustus: Papers Presented at the IJS Conference, 21st-23rd June 2005. BRILL. ISBN 9004165460 – via Google Books.
  13. ^ a b Frank Rainer Scheck; Johannes Odenthal (1998). Syrien: Hochkulturen zwischen Mittelmeer und Arabischer Wüste. DuMont Reiseverlag. pp. 226–. ISBN 978-3-7701-3978-1. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  14. ^ Dr. Boutros Labib., "The Phoenician stadium of Amrit", The Olympic Review, No. 112, February 1977
  15. ^ Frank Rainer Scheck; Johannes Odenthal (1998). Syrien: Hochkulturen zwischen Mittelmeer und Arabischer Wüste. DuMont Reiseverlag. pp. 228–. ISBN 978-3-7701-3978-1. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  16. ^ Michael Sommer: Die Phönizier. Geschichte und Kultur (= Beck’sche Reihe. Nr. 2444). C. H. Beck, München 2008, ISBN 978-3-406-56244-0, II. Die Levante, p. 23.
  17. ^ Fernando Prados Martínez (2008). Arquitectura Púnica: Los Monumentos Funerarios. CSIC-Dpto. de Publicaciones. pp. 105–. ISBN 978-84-00-08619-0. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  18. ^ Astrid Nunn: Der figürliche Motivschatz Phöniziens, Syriens und Transjordanienes vom 6. bis zum 4. Jahrhundert v. Chr (= Orbis biblicus et orientalis: Series archaeologica; 18). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, ISBN 3-525-53899-5, Amrit und Umgebung – B4 (Gräber), p. 204, Göttingen, 2000.
  19. ^ "AMRIT ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE". World Monuments Fund. Retrieved 20 January 2012.

Bibliography

External links and references

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Amrit Sanchar

Amrit Sanchar (also called Khande di Pahul) is the Sikh ceremony of initiation or baptism. The Amrit Sanchar is the initiation rite introduced by Guru Gobind Singh when he founded the Khalsa in 1699.A Sikh who has been initiated into the Khalsa is titled as "Amritdhari" or "Khalsa" after Singh (man) or Kaur (woman). Those who undergo initiation are expected to dedicate themselves to Waheguru and work toward the establishment of the Khalsa Raj.

Amrit Velā

Amrit Velā (Punjabi: ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤ ਵੇਲਾ, lit: Time of Amrit) begins at the start of a new day, therefore, begins at 12:00 am and ends at 6:00 am, [1] or before the dawning of the morning sun[2] which is used for daily meditation and recitation of Gurbani hymns. Typically, Sikhs start Amrit Vela at 2:00 am or earlier. Guru Nanak in the Japji Sahib (4th Pauri) says, "During the hours of Amrit velā, meditate on the grandeur of the one true Name."[1] The importance of Amrit Vela is found throughout the Guru Granth Sahib. The Guru Granth Sahib states that "those who consider themselves a Sikh must wake up daily at Amrit Vela and be in tune with the Naam (the Lord's Name)"[3]

In the Sikh Rehat Maryada, it is written to arise Amrit Velā, bath, and meditate on the divine Naam (through Simran and Naam Japna). Sikhs recite their morning Nitnem during Amrit Vela. Traditionally after Nitnem Sikhs meet with the Sangat (congregation) to recite Asa di Var.[4]

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Amrita (Sanskrit: अमृत, IAST: amṛta), Amrit or Amata (also called Sudha, Amiy, Ami) is a word that literally means "immortality" and is often referred to in ancient Indian texts as nectar. "Amṛta" is etymologically related to the Greek ambrosia and carries the same meaning. Its first occurrence is in the Rigveda, where it is considered one of several synonyms for soma, the drink of the devas.

Amrit has varying significance in different Indian religions. The word Amrit is also a common first name for Sikhs and Hindus, while its feminine form is Amritā. The traditional masculine name is Amrith with the feminine name being Amritha.

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Five Banis

The initiated Sikh is asked by the Panj Piare during the Amrit Sanchar ceremony to recite the following five banis every morning as a commitment to the Sikh Gurus and Waheguru.

The Five Banis are: Japji Sahib, Jaap Sahib, Tav-Prasad Savaiye, Chaupai and Anand Sahib —these banis are usually recited daily by all devoted Sikhs in the early morning as a part of their Nitnem (daily mediations).

Rehras and Kirtan Sohila are recited in the evening.

Jaap Sahib

Jaap Sahib (or Japu Sahib) is the morning prayer of the Sikhs. The prayer was composed by the tenth Sikh Master, Guru Gobind Singh and is found at the start of the Sikh scripture Dasam Granth.

This Bani is an important Sikh prayer, and is recited by the Panj Pyare while preparing Amrit on the occasion of Amrit Sanchar (initiation), a ceremony held to admit initiates into the Khalsa and it is a part of a Sikh's Nitnem (daily mediations). The Jaap Sahib is reminiscent of Japji Sahib composed by Guru Nanak, and both praise God.

Nitnem

Nitnem (Punjabi: ਨਿਤਨੇਮ) (literally Daily Routine) is a collection of Sikh hymns (Gurbani) to be read minimally 3 different times of the day. These are mandatory and to be read by every Amritdhari Sikh as expressed in the Sikh Rehat Maryada. Optionally additional prayers may be added to a Sikh's nitnem. There are five hymns (Five Banis) to be done during Amrit Vela (early morning), the Rehras Sahib hymn for the evening and Kirtan Sohila for the night, The morning and evening prayers should be followed by an Ardaas.

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Tav-Prasad Savaiye

Tav-Prasad Savaiye (Punjabi: :ਤ੍ਵਪ੍ਰਸਾਦਿ ਸ੍ਵਯੇ) is a short composition of 10 stanzas which is part of daily liturgy among Sikhs (Nitnem). It was penned down by Guru Gobind Singh and is part of his composition Akal Ustat (The praise of God). This is an important composition which is read during Amrit Sanchar. This Bani appears in the Dasam Granth on pages 13 to 15, starting from Stanza 21 of Akal Ustat.

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The Five Ks are not just symbols, but articles of faith that collectively form the external identity and the Khalsa devotee's commitment to the Sikh rehni "Sikh way of life". A Sikh who has taken Amrit and keeps all five Ks are known as Khalsa ("pure") or Amritdhari Sikh ("Amrit Sanskar participant"), while a Sikh who has not taken Amrit but follows the teachings of the Sri Guru Granth Sahib is called a Sahajdhari Sikh. The Sikhs were commanded by Guru Gobind Singh at the Baisakhi Amrit Sanchar in 1699 to wear an iron bracelet called a Kara at all times.

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