Amphitheatre

An amphitheatre or amphitheater /ˈæmfɪˌθiːətər/[1][2] is an open-air venue used for entertainment, performances, and sports. The term derives from the ancient Greek ἀμφιθέατρον (amphitheatron),[3] from ἀμφί (amphi), meaning "on both sides" or "around"[4] and θέατρον (théātron), meaning "place for viewing".[5][6]

Ancient Roman amphitheatres were oval or circular in plan, with seating tiers that surrounded the central performance area, like a modern open-air stadium. In contrast both ancient Greek and ancient Roman theatres were built in a semicircle, with tiered seating rising on one side of the performance area. In modern usage, an "amphitheatre" may consist of theatre-style stages with spectator seating on only one side, theatres in the round, and stadia. Natural formations of similar shape are sometimes known as natural amphitheatres.

Arles-arenes
Arles Amphitheatre, France: a Roman arena still used[7] for bullfighting, plays and summer concerts.
Colosseum-interior.01
Interior of the Colosseum amphitheatre in Rome, built c. 70 – 80 CE, considered one of the greatest works of architecture and engineering.

Roman amphitheatres

Ancient Roman amphitheatres were major public venues, circular or oval in plan, with perimeter seating tiers. They were used for events such as gladiator combats, chariot races, venationes (animal hunts) and executions. About 230 Roman amphitheatres have been found across the area of the Roman Empire. Their typical shape, functions and name distinguish them from Roman theatres, which are more or less semicircular in shape; from the circuses (similar to hippodromes) whose much longer circuits were designed mainly for horse or chariot racing events; and from the smaller stadia, which were primarily designed for athletics and footraces.[8]

The earliest Roman amphitheatres date from the middle of the first century BCE, but most were built under Imperial rule, from the Augustan period (27 BCE–14 CE) onwards.[9] Imperial amphitheatres were built throughout the Roman empire; the largest could accommodate 40,000–60,000 spectators. The most elaborate featured multi-storeyed, arcaded façades and were elaborately decorated with marble, stucco and statuary.[10] After the end of gladiatorial games in the 5th century and of staged animal hunts in the 6th, most amphitheatres fell into disrepair. Their materials were mined or recycled. Some were razed, and others were converted into fortifications. A few continued as convenient open meeting places; in some of these, churches were sited.[11]

Natural amphitheatres

Bryce Amphitheater from Sunrise Point Highres 2013
Bryce Canyon Amphitheatre from Sunrise Point

A natural amphitheatre is a performance space located in a spot where a steep mountain or a particular rock formation naturally amplifies or echoes sound, making it ideal for musical and theatrical performances. An amphitheatre can be naturally occurring formations which would be ideal for this purpose, even if no theatre has been constructed there.

Notable natural amphitheatres include the Drakensberg amphitheatre in South Africa, Slane Castle in Ireland, the Supernatural Amphitheatre in Australia, and the Red Rocks and Gorge amphitheatres in the western United States.

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ New Oxford American Dictionary (Third ed.). Oxford University Press. 2010.
  2. ^ "Definition of Amphitheatre in Oxford dictionary. Meaning, pronunciation and origin of the word". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. 2014. Retrieved 23 February 2014.
  3. ^ ἀμφιθέατρον, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, '56'An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon, on Peseus
  4. ^ ἀμφί, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
  5. ^ θέατρον, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
  6. ^ Hoad, T.F. (1996). The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. Oxford University Press. pp. 14, 489. ISBN 0-19-283098-8.
  7. ^ Michel Tournier, Le coq de bruyère, W. D. Redfern, Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press, 1996, p. 69
  8. ^ Bomgardner, 37.
  9. ^ Bomgardner, 59.
  10. ^ Bomgardner, 62.
  11. ^ Bomgardner, 201–223.

References

  • Bomgardner, David Lee (October 2000). The Story of the Roman Amphitheatre. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-16593-8.
Amphitheatre Glacier

Amphitheatre Glacier (78°17′S 163°4′E) is a moraine-covered glacier that flows north from The Amphitheatre into Roaring Valley, in the Royal Society Range of Antarctica. It was named by a New Zealand Geographical Society field party in the area, 1977–78, in association with The Amphitheatre.

Amphitheatre of El Jem

Amphitheatre of El Jem is an oval amphitheatre in the modern-day city of El Djem, Tunisia, formerly Thysdrus in the Roman province of Africa. It is listed by UNESCO since 1979 as a World Heritage Site.

Bayfront Park

Bayfront Park is a 32-acre (13 ha) public, urban park in Downtown Miami, Florida on Biscayne Bay. The Chairman to the trust is Joe Carollo.

Budweiser Stage

The Budweiser Stage, previously known as the Molson Canadian Amphitheatre, is a concert venue in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. It is located on the grounds of Ontario Place and hosts many diverse acts, including genres like rock, pop and jazz. The first musician to perform here was Bryan Adams on May 18, 1995.

Cellairis Amphitheatre

The Cellairis Amphitheatre at Lakewood is a concert venue located in Atlanta, which opened in 1989. The amphitheatre seats 18,920 (7,000 seated; 12,000 on the lawn). It was designed to offer a state-of-the-art musical experience for both music fans and artists. The venue was built specifically for popular music.

Colosseum

The Colosseum or Coliseum ( kol-ə-SEE-əm), also known as the Flavian Amphitheatre (Latin: Amphitheatrum Flavium; Italian: Anfiteatro Flavio [aŋfiteˈaːtro ˈflaːvjo] or Colosseo [kolosˈsɛːo]), is an oval amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome, Italy. Built of travertine, tuff, and brick-faced concrete, it is the largest amphitheatre ever built. The Colosseum is situated just east of the Roman Forum. Construction began under the emperor Vespasian in AD 72, and was completed in AD 80 under his successor and heir Titus. Further modifications were made during the reign of Domitian (81–96). These three emperors are known as the Flavian dynasty, and the amphitheatre was named in Latin for its association with their family name (Flavius).

The Colosseum could hold, it is estimated, between 50,000 and 80,000 spectators, having an average audience of some 65,000; it was used for gladiatorial contests and public spectacles such as mock sea battles (for only a short time as the hypogeum was soon filled in with mechanisms to support the other activities), animal hunts, executions, re-enactments of famous battles, and dramas based on Classical mythology. The building ceased to be used for entertainment in the early medieval era. It was later reused for such purposes as housing, workshops, quarters for a religious order, a fortress, a quarry, and a Christian shrine.

Although partially ruined because of damage caused by earthquakes and stone-robbers, the Colosseum is still an iconic symbol of Imperial Rome and is listed as one of the New7Wonders of the World. It is one of Rome's most popular tourist attractions and also has links to the Roman Catholic Church, as each Good Friday the Pope leads a torchlit "Way of the Cross" procession that starts in the area around the Colosseum.The Colosseum is also depicted on the Italian version of the five-cent euro coin.

Coral Sky Amphitheatre

Coral Sky Amphitheatre is a 20,000-seat open-air (Approx. 8,000 seats under cover and approx. 12,000 lawn seats) music venue in West Palm Beach, Florida. The facility, owned by the South Florida Fairgrounds, is a modern amphitheatre used primarily for concerts and other performances. The loading dock and backstage area is sometimes used for concerts that are general admission standing room only (mostly heavy metal concerts), while the amphitheatre stage is used as the backstage area in these situations.

Googleplex

The Googleplex is the corporate headquarters complex of Google and its parent company Alphabet Inc. It is located at 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway in Mountain View, California, United States, near San Jose.

The original complex, with 2,000,000 square feet (190,000 m2) of office space, is the company's second largest square footage assemblage of Google buildings, after Google's 111 Eighth Avenue building in New York City, which the company bought in 2010. Once the 1,100,000-square-foot (100,000 m2) Bay View addition was completed in 2015, the Googleplex became the largest collection of Google buildings with 3,100,000 square feet (290,000 m2) of space."Googleplex" is a portmanteau of Google and complex (meaning a complex of buildings) and a reference to googolplex, the name given to the large number 10(10100), or 10googol.

Hollywood Casino Amphitheatre (Maryland Heights, Missouri)

The Hollywood Casino Amphitheatre (originally Riverport Amphitheatre and formerly UMB Bank Pavilion and Verizon Wireless Amphitheater St. Louis) is a 7,000-seat outdoor concert venue, with lawn seating for another 13,000, making it a 20,000 person capacity venue. It is located at 14141 Riverport Drive in Maryland Heights, Missouri, near St. Louis, one mile west of the I-270/I-70 interchange, at I-70 and Earth City Expressway South (exit 231A).

Venue owner Live Nation announced Dec 17, 2014 that they had signed a multiyear agreement with Hollywood Casino in Maryland Heights, which is owned and operated by Penn National Gaming, to be the amphitheater's title sponsor. The length of the agreement was not disclosed.The venue was built for approximately $12 million, and opened on June 14, 1991, with a performance by Steve Winwood.Shortly after opening, the amphitheater became the site of the infamous Riverport Riot, July 2, 1991, during a Guns N' Roses concert, during their Use Your Illusion Tour.In 1998, local promoter Contemporary Group, who built the amphitheater, was acquired by SFX. SFX corporate successor Live Nation Entertainment continues to own and operate the venue.

On June 9, 2000, the bands REO Speedwagon and Styx

performed at the venue together and released Arch Allies Live at Riverport and releasing 2 single-disc versions for Styx and one for REO.

In 2002, UMB Bank acquired the naming rights to the venue for five years. Verizon Wireless then purchased the naming rights in November 2006.Sting performed during his Symphonicities Tour on June 23, 2010, along with the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra.

On July 23, 2010, Kings of Leon abruptly ended their set, after only three songs, allegedly being pelted with feces by pigeons while onstage. The band gave fans their money back and later announced a makeup show. The new date was scheduled to be on September 25, 2010. Tickets were free for those who attended their last show and were $10.00 for other fans planning on attending.The amphitheatre has played host to many music festivals, including 60's Summer Spectacular, All That! Music and More Festival, Anger Management Tour, Crüe Fest, Crüe Fest 2, Family Values Tour, Farm Aid, H.O.R.D.E. Festival, Honda Civic Tour, Lilith Fair, Lollapalooza, Mayhem Festival, Ozzfest, Pointfest, Projekt Revolution, Uproar Festival and Vans Warped Tour.

Hollywood Casino Amphitheatre (Tinley Park, Illinois)

Hollywood Casino Amphitheatre (originally World Music Theatre and formerly New World Music Theatre, Tweeter Center and First Midwest Bank Amphitheatre) is an outdoor music venue located in Tinley Park, Illinois that opened in 1990. It is one of the largest music venues in the Chicago area, with a capacity of up to 28,000 spectators; 11,000 reserved seats, 17,000 lawn seats.It is a venue pulling fans from the city of Chicago, as well as surrounding suburbs and neighboring states. It is one of only a few large outdoor amphitheatres in the Chicago area.

Nederlander Concerts and Jam Productions co-managed the venue from 1994 to 1999.

Hollywood Casino acquired the naming rights, beginning in 2015. The venue is owned by Live Nation.

Irvine Meadows Amphitheatre

Irvine Meadows Amphitheatre (formerly known as Verizon Wireless Amphitheatre) was an amphitheatre located in Irvine, California. The establishment was built in 1980 by Irvine Meadows Partnership (with 4 local investors) and it opened in 1981. It was the largest amphitheatre in Orange County, with 10,418 reserved seats and 5,667 on the lawn. The architect was Gin Wong Associates of Los Angeles. The unique design of this venue is that it's built on a hillside so the seats have a steep slope toward the stage.

Lilith Fair

Lilith Fair was a concert tour and travelling music festival, founded by Canadian musician Sarah McLachlan, Nettwerk Music Group's Dan Fraser and Terry McBride, and New York talent agent Marty Diamond. It took place during the summers of 1997 to 1999, and was revived in the summer of 2010. It consisted solely of female solo artists and female-led bands. In its initial three years, Lilith Fair raised over $10M for charity.

MidFlorida Credit Union Amphitheatre

The MidFlorida Credit Union Amphitheatre is the largest concert-only facility in the Tampa Bay Area. Originally Ford Amphitheatre and formerly Amphitheatre and Live Nation Amphitheatre) it is an outdoor amphitheatre in Tampa, Florida. The venue is located on the Florida State Fairgrounds, adjacent to Interstate 4, in the eastern side of town.

MidFlorida Credit Union Amphitheatre has a capacity of approximately 20,000 (9,900 reserved seats and 10,000 on the lawn).

North Island Credit Union Amphitheatre

The North Island Credit Union Amphitheatre (formerly known as the Mattress Firm Amphitheatre, Sleep Train Amphitheatre, Coors Amphitheatre and the Cricket Wireless Amphitheatre) is a 20,500-seat amphitheatre located in Chula Vista, California adjacent to Aquatica San Diego. It is one of the larger concert venues in the San Diego area. The venue is currently owned and operated by Live Nation.

Red Rocks Amphitheatre

Red Rocks Amphitheatre is a rock structure near Morrison, Colorado, 10 miles (16 km) west of Denver, where concerts are given in the open-air amphitheatre. There is a large, tilted, disc-shaped rock behind the stage, a huge vertical rock angled outwards from stage right, several large outcrops angled outwards from stage left and a seating area for up to 9,525 people in between. At its height, the amphitheatre sits at 6,450 feet (1,970 m) above sea level, and the surrounding Red Rocks Park covers 868 acres (37,800,000 sq ft; 3,510,000 m2). The amphitheater is owned and operated by the City and County of Denver, Colorado and is located in Red Rocks Park, part of the Denver Mountain Parks.

Shoreline Amphitheatre

Shoreline Amphitheatre is an outdoor amphitheater located in Mountain View, California, in the San Francisco Bay Area. The venue has a capacity of 22,500, with 6,500 reserved seats and 16,000 general admission on the lawn. When the parking lot is utilized for festival stages, the total capacity of the venue can reach 30,000.

The Gorge Amphitheatre

The Gorge Amphitheatre, originally known as Champs de Brionne Music Theatre, is a 27,500-seat outdoor concert venue near the Columbia River in George, Washington managed by Live Nation. According to The Wall Street Journal, the Gorge is considered one of the most scenic concert locations in the world. It is a nine-time winner of Pollstar Magazine's award for 'Best Outdoor Music Venue' and was voted as one of the 'Best Outdoor Concert Venues in America' by ConcertBoom.

Universal Amphitheatre

Universal Amphitheatre (later known as Gibson Amphitheatre) was an indoor amphitheatre located in Los Angeles, California within Universal City. It was originally built as an outdoor venue, opening in the summer of 1972 with a production of Jesus Christ Superstar. It was remodeled and converted into an indoor theatre in 1982 to improve acoustics. The amphitheater closed on September 6, 2013 and demolished for The Wizarding World of Harry Potter attraction at Universal Studios Hollywood.

Xfinity Center (Mansfield, Massachusetts)

The Xfinity Center (originally the Great Woods Center for the Performing Arts and commonly Great Woods) is an outdoor amphitheatre located in Mansfield, Massachusetts. The venue opened during the summer of 1986 with a capacity of 12,000. It was expanded after 2000 to 19,900; 7,000 reserved seats, 7,000 lawn seats and 5,900 general admission seats. The season for the venue is typically from mid May until late September. In 2010, it was named Top Grossing Amphitheater by Billboard.

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