Ampati is a district headquarters of South West Garo Hills of Meghalaya state in north-eastern India. South West Garo Hills is curved of present West Garo Hills on 7 August 2012. It is located at the latitude of 25º27.505 and longitude of 089º56.456 and is 52 km away from the district headquarters Tura of West Garo Hills district, Meghalaya. The hill region is mostly inhabited by the Garos, while in the foothills there are Hajongs and Kochs. The second largest ethnicity after Garos is Hajong. The district is surrounded by Dhubri district of Assam and Kurigram District of Bangladesh. South West Garo Hills has approximately 35 kilometres of international boundary with Bangladesh on the south and western side. Nearly one third of the total number of villages of the district is declared as border villages by the Border Area Development Department.
Location in Meghalaya, India
|District||South West Garo Hills District.|
|• Official||English · Garo|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
|Vehicle registration||ML 14|
The total population of South West Garo Hills is 1,72,495 as per Census 2011, with 87,135 male and 85,360 female population. The literacy rate of the district is 56.7%. The district comprises two Community and Rural Development Block, viz. Betasing Community and Rural Development Block and Zikzak Community and Rural Development.
Total No. of household - 18,242
Total population - Male:47,796, Female:47,222, Total - 95,018
Literacy rate : Male : 61.8%, Female : 53.5%, Total : 57.6%
Total No. of household - 15,621
Total population - Male : 39,339, Female : 38,138, Total : 77,477
Literacy rate : Male : 60%, Female : 50.9%, Total : 55.9%
In 1899, five families of Boldakgre converted to Christianity and baptized by Rev. E.G. Phillips, American Baptist Missionary.
After conversion finding difficulties to live among the non-Christian and facing hardships in jhum cultivation the five families of converts decided to leave Boldakgre once and for all. On learning that some uncultivated and uninhabited lands are lying under the A·king land of Dalbotpara and Chelipara they left their native place and came to settle under the Dalbotpara A·king land. The five families of converts were:
These five families were first settlers of present Ampati. They first settled near Daban Bheel beside the plate rock which is called "Ampatchi" meaning mat for drying paddy and from the word "Ampatchi" the place's name became "Ampati".
There is a legend that the plate rock was used by some legendary inhabitants for drying paddy. It is said that once one Elephant ate the paddy from that rock and the elephant was chased away by one "Matgrik" and it was killed with only single blow at a place and now the elephant has turned into a stone and that place was called "Hatisil" means "Hati" elephant "sil" means stone. Both the plate rock and the rock which look like an elephant can still be seen at Chigitchakgre and Hatisil respectively.
The five new settlers of Ampati excavated paddy fields near present Ampati (but living on the other side of the Daru river it is difficult for them to cross every now and then for tilling their lands. So they have started collecting materials and sites for construction of houses at present Ampati. At first Dinggan Gaakpa Nokma and Maharis of Chillipara refused to let them settle at their proposed place, and the materials like bamboo, log etc. collected for construction of houses were destroyed by them. But by careful manipulation of Babang A. Marak, and repeated requests by others they were allowed to settle at present Ampati. Since then their descendants are settling at present Ampati.
After settling permanently, those settlers felt that a school was necessary for their children and their grandchildren and with the aid of "Baptist Mission" a school was established in 1903 with Jatong Ch. Marak as Pondit.
With the increased in conversion to Christianity the Christian members increased, and Ampati was converted to the status of church, on 5 February 1927. The church was inaugurated on 26–27 February 1927 with the blessing of Rev. R.H.E. Wing, Rev. Rujeng Arengh, Rev. Tokan Sangma, Asian D. Shira, Pastor.
The spread of and missionary zeal people of the area awarded the value of education, and by that time one Garo youth by the name of Gracesh G. Sangma, son of Choetsing D. Sangma, the first among the Garos’ of the area to study in Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) in Serampore College, inspired for opening M.E. School. Unfortunately Gracesh G. Sangma, who was serving in Royal Air Force died prematurely in 1946 after a brief illness while he was on leave. Inspired by Gracesh Sangma, Noho B. Sangma of Darugre convened a meeting of elders and resolved for opening M.E. School at Ampati. Consequently, in 1947 an Upper Primary School was established with Noho B.Sangma, as headmaster. The School was stopped for some time in the beginning of 1948 due to some controversial matters between the headmaster Judson Sangma and students. After convening a meeting the village elders decided to appoint a new Headmaster, and from among the contenders Shri Nolidi S. Daring was persuaded to serve as Headmaster. Since 1947 to 2007 the school is functioning for 60 years.
After eleven years of establishment of M.E. School at Ampati opening of H.E. School was materialized with Mr. Nolidi S. Daring as President and Noho B. Sangma, Secretary of the Managing Committee of School, in 1960. The H.E. School was first functioned in Ampati Baptist Church Building. The H.E. School was provincialized in 1-9-1988.
The general meeting for establishment of College at Ampati was convened in 1980 but due to lack of fund the proposal could not materialized, and in 1995 Shri Nolidi S. Daring, as convener and Dr. Mukul Sangma, MLA as Chairman held a public meeting for opening a 10+2 section at Ampati High School. And after a gap of 5 years higher secondary section was started from 1 July 2001. The general meeting for opening a college was called again the third time, and this time more enthusiastic young members joined in the meeting and the college could at last opened with Mr. Asis S. Daring as Principal. The college is functioning for the time being under the Sub-Division Headquarters.
After declaration of statehood to Meghalaya, the first Chief Minister Capt. W.A. Sangma, in his August visit to the General Conference of Garo National Council in 1947 promised to create a Civil Sub-Division for administrative convenience and public of the area in general, to the memorandum submitted by the primary center of GNC. The demand was immediately fulfilled by creating and administrative unit was formally declared open by Shri Sanford Marak Hon'ble Minister of Health on 14 August 1976 and functioned at the Betasing Block headquarters. Finally it was created as a full-fledged Civil Sub-Division on 15 October 1982 in the banner/name of Ampati Civil Sub-Division and continued to function at the Betasing Block headquarters. On 18 August 1988 it shifted its Office complex to its own Sub-Divisional Office Complex at Ampati, West Garo Hills. Ampati Civil Sub-Division was finally upgraded into a full fledged district as South West Garo Hills, on 7 August 2012 with its headquarters at Ampati.
The Meghalaya Legislative Assembly election was held on 27 February 2018 to elect 59 of 60 members to the Meghalaya Legislative Assembly, with the results to be declared on 3 March. The scheduled election in Williamnagar constituency was delayed to an undetermined date following the death of Nationalist Congress Party candidate Jonathone Sangma in an IED blast in East Garo Hills district on February 18, 2018. The incumbent Indian National Congress government, led by Chief Minister Mukul Sangma attempted to win a re-election for the third time in a row.2018 elections in India
Elections in the Republic of India in 2018 included by-elections to the Lok Sabha, elections to the Rajya Sabha, elections to legislative assemblies of eight states and numerous other by-elections to state legislative assemblies, councils and local bodies.
The elections were widely considered crucial to the ruling National Democratic Alliance and the opposition United Progressive Alliance in lieu of the upcoming general elections in 2019. In seven of the eight states that went to polls this year, the Bharatiya Janata Party was in direct contest with the Indian National Congress. Further, the election results in the states of Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Telangana, Chhattisgarh, Mizoram and Rajasthan are considered a barometer of the pulse of the public before the general elections. Elections to the upper house where the ruling National Democratic Alliance does not command a majority are by kicking on the part of all the political leaders expected to strengthen its position.Banai (sub-tribe)
The Banai is a sub-tribe of the Koches, a tribe of India. The Banai finds mention in the census report of 1891, which states about the sub-communities of the Koches as follows (of the Koch Garo Hills). Six sections are recorded namely Harigaya, Satparia, Dasgaya or Banai, Chapra, Wanang, Tintekiya which rank in order in which named. The first five are said to be named after the places where they formerly resided, and the last, or Tintekiya, from the dress of the women, who wear one cloth round the waist, another over the body and the third on the head.The term "Dasgaya" actually refers to the areas on the southern tract of Garo Hills of Meghalaya and includes the villages Batabari, Kapasipara, Gasuapara, Jatrakona, Makkabaripara (etc.), which had been inhabited by the Banai since ancient times. These areas are still referred to as Daskaniya or Dasgaya by the oldest living people of the area.The linguist G.A. Grierson noted the six sections of the Koches of Garo Hills as being: Harigaya, Satparia, Dasgaya or Banai, Chapra, Wanang and Tintekiya. He believed them to be only pure Koches in existence.B.C. Allen recorded three divisions of the Koches of Garo Hills, being Dasgaya, Harigaya and Anang.The Anthropological Survey of India survey of the state of Meghalaya included the "Banai" as a sub-tribe of Koches of Meghalaya.S.N. Koch, who championed the cause of the Koches for their inclusion in the Scheduled Tribe list of Meghalaya states about the divisions of the Koches as follows. The groups or divisions of the Koches of Garo Hills as found now are Wanang, Harigaya or Sanga, Satparia, Chapra or Dasgaya or Margan, Tintikiya, Banai and Sankar Koch.Betasing
Betasing is the Community & Rural Development Block headquarters situated 7 km from the district headquarters of South West Garo Hills, Ampati.Haplogroup T-M184
Haplogroup T-M184, also known as Haplogroup T is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. The UEP that defines this clade is the SNP known as M184. Other SNPs – M272, PAGES129, L810, L455, L452, and L445 – are considered to be phylogenetically equivalent to M184. As a primary branch of haplogroup LT (a.k.a. K1), the basal, undivergent haplogroup T* currently has the alternate phylogenetic name of K1b and is a sibling of haplogroup L* (a.k.a. K1a). (Before 2008, haplogroup T and its subclades were known as haplogroup K2. The name K2 has since been reassigned to a primary subclade of haplogroup K.) It has two primary branches: T1 (T-L206) and T2 (T-PH110).
T-M184 is unusual in that it is both geographically widespread and relatively rare (considering that it originated around 40,000 years ago).A living male from Armenia is reportedly the only known case of basal T* (T-M184*). (That is, an example of T-M184* that does not including mutations identifying T-L206 or T-PH110.)
As a whole, T-M184, is found at its highest frequencies among some populations in parts of the Horn of Africa, East India, Madagascar, Kazakhstan and Sicily. Some sources suggest that the arrival of the lineage in these regions is due to relatively recent migrations. T-M184 occurs at frequencies of greater than 30% (in large samples) from populations as diverse as Dir clan ethnic Somalis of Djibouti, Antemoro of Madagascar, Bauri, and Yerukula of East India, Argyns from Kazakhstan and rural Sciaccensis from Sicily.
T2 (T-PH110) is very rare and has been found in three distinct geographical regions: the North European Plain, the Kura-Araks Basin of the Caucasus, and Bhutan. None of these regions, however, now appears to feature populations with high frequencies of haplogroup T-M184.T1 (T-L206) – the numerically dominant primary branch of T-M184 – appears to have originated in Western Asia, possibly somewhere between northeastern Anatolia and the Zagros Mountains, and spread from there into the Arabian Peninsula, East Africa, South Asia, Southern Europe and adjoining regions. T1* may have expanded with the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B culture (PPNB). Most males who now belong to haplogroup T-L206 carry the subclade T-M70 (T1a), a primary branch of T-M206. Now most commonly found in North Africa and the Middle East, T-M70 nevertheless appears to have long been present in Europe, having possibly arrived there in the Neolithic epoch with the first farmers. This is supported by the discovery of several members of T1a1 (CTS880) at a 7,000 year old settlement in Karsdorf, Germany and two members in 5800-5400Bc neolithic site in Malak Preslavets, Bulgaria. Autosomal analysis of these remains suggest that some were closely related to modern Southwest Asian populations.List of Chief Ministers of Meghalaya
The Chief Minister of Meghalaya is the chief executive of the northeast Indian state of Meghalaya. As per the Constitution of India, the governor is a state's de jure head, but de facto executive authority rests with the chief minister. Following elections to the Meghalaya Legislative Assembly, the state's governor usually invites the party (or coalition) with a majority of seats to form the government. The governor appoints the chief minister, whose council of ministers are collectively responsible to the assembly. Given that he has the confidence of the assembly, the chief minister's term is for five years and is subject to no term limits.Since 1970, twelve people have served as Chief Minister of Meghalaya. Six of these belonged to the Indian National Congress, including the inaugural officeholder Williamson A. Sangma. The current incumbent is Conrad Sangma of the National People's Party since 6 March 2018.List of colleges affiliated to NEHU
The jurisdiction of the University extended originally to the states of Meghalaya and Nagaland and the erstwhile Union Territories of Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram. With the establishment of the Nagaland University on 6 September 1994, the jurisdiction of NEHU ceased over Nagaland. Likewise with the establishment of the Mizoram University the jurisdiction of NEHU over Mizoram also ceased from June, 2001. Arunachal Pradesh has its own university.
At present there are fifty-three undergraduate colleges affiliated to the University including eight professional colleges.List of districts in India
A district (zilā) is an administrative division of an Indian state or territory. In some cases districts are further subdivided into sub-divisions, and in others directly into tehsils or talukas. As of 2019 there are a total of 723 districts, up from the 640 in the 2011 Census of India and the 593 recorded in the 2001 Census of India.District officials include:
Deputy Commissioner or District Magistrate or District Collector, an officer of the Indian Administrative Service, in charge of administration and revenue collection
Superintendent of Police or Senior Superintendent of Police or Deputy Commissioner of Police, an officer belonging to the Indian Police Service, responsible for maintaining law and order
Deputy Conservator of Forests, an officer belonging to the Indian Forest Service, entrusted with the management of the forests, environment and wildlife of the districtEach of these officials is aided by officers from the appropriate branch of the state government.
Most districts have a distinct headquarters; Mumbai City district (MC) in Maharashtra (MH) is an example which, despite forming a district, does not have a clear headquarters, though it does have a District Collector.Mahe of Puducherry is the smallest (9 km2) district of India by area while Kutch of Gujarat is the largest (45,652 km2) district of India by area.List of districts of Meghalaya
The Indian state of Meghalaya is divided into 11 districts.Meghalaya
Meghalaya (UK: , US: ) is a state in northeastern India. The name means "the abode of clouds" in Sanskrit. The population of Meghalaya as of 2016 is estimated to be 3,211,474. Meghalaya covers an area of approximately 22,430 square kilometers, with a length to breadth ratio of about 3:1.The state is bounded to the south by the Bangladeshi divisions of Mymensingh and Sylhet, to the west by the Bangladeshi division of Rangpur, and to the north and east by India's State of Assam. The capital of Meghalaya is Shillong. During the British rule of India, the British imperial authorities nicknamed it the "Scotland of the East". Meghalaya was previously part of Assam, but on 21 January 1972, the districts of Khasi, Garo and Jaintia hills became the new state of Meghalaya. English is the official language of Meghalaya. The other principal languages spoken include Khasi, Garo, Pnar, Biate Hajong, Assamese and Bengali. Unlike many Indian states, Meghalaya has historically followed a matrilineal system where the lineage and inheritance are traced through women; the youngest daughter inherits all wealth and she also takes care of her parents.The state is the wettest region of India, recording an average of 12,000 mm (470 in) of rain a year. About 70% of the state is forested. The Meghalaya subtropical forests ecoregion encompasses the state; its mountain forests are distinct from the lowland tropical forests to the north and south. The forests are notable for their biodiversity of mammals, birds, and plants.
Meghalaya has predominantly an agrarian economy with a significant commercial forestry industry. The important crops are potatoes, rice, maize, pineapples, bananas, papayas, spices, etc. The service sector is made up of real estate and insurance companies. Meghalaya's gross state domestic product for 2012 was estimated at ₹16,173 crore (US$2.3 billion) in current prices. The state is geologically rich in minerals, but it has no significant industries. The state has about 1,170 km (730 mi) of national highways. It is also a major logistical center for trade with Bangladesh.In July 2018, the International Commission on Stratigraphy divided the Holocene epoch into three, with the late Holocene being called the Meghalayan stage/age, since a speleothem in Mawmluh cave indicating a dramatic worldwide climate event around 2250 BC had been chosen as the boundary stratotype.Miani D Shira
Miani D Shira is an Indian politician from Meghalaya and a member of the Indian National Congress. She was elected as a member of the Legislative Assembly of Meghalaya from Ampati in 2018 bye election. Miani D Shira is the daughter of former Chief Minister of Meghalaya Mukul Sangma.After completing her schooling from Shillong, she went to Sri Ram College of Commerce in New Delhi. In 2018, she contested the bye-election in the Meghalaya Legislative Assembly for Amptai and defeated National People's Party's C. G. Momin. She is one of the youngest legislators in the Meghalaya Legislative Assembly. Her husband, Daryll William Cheran Momin is also a politician who has contested elections and is the grandson of Williamson A. Sangma.South West Garo Hills district
South West Garo Hills is an administrative district in the State of Meghalaya, India. The Ampati Civil Sub-Division is upgraded to a full fledged district as South West Garo Hills, on 7 August 2012 with its headquarters at Ampati. It was inaugurated by Dr. Mukul Sangma, Hon'ble Chief Minister of Meghalaya, India.Territories of Catholic dioceses in India
This page gives a list of the territories of the dioceses of the Catholic Church in India.
Each diocese is administered by a bishop. Dioceses are further grouped into Ecclesiastical provinces. The most important diocese of the province is the archdiocese and the bishop of this diocese is an archbishop. While they each usually consist of a few Indian civil districts, dioceses can range in size from just a portion of a district to spanning entire states. The civil district should not be confused with ecclesiastical district or deanery, which is another type of subdivision of a diocese.
All Catholics in India are under the authority of the respective Syro-Malankara, Syro-Malabar or Latin bishop. Only in the Syro-Malabar dioceses of Adilabad, Bijnor, Chanda, Gorakhpur, Jagdalpur, Rajkot, Sagar, Satna and Ujjain, the authority of the Syro-Malabar bishop is over both, Syro-Malabar and Latin rite Catholics.
In the following, the names listed after the name of the state or union territory are the names of civil districts, unless otherwise mentioned.Tura (Lok Sabha constituency)
Tura Lok Sabha constituency is one of the two Lok Sabha (parliamentary) constituencies in Meghalaya state in northeastern India.